SUPPLEMENTAL ON-LINE MATERIALS For Land-Use Practices Have Negative, Global Scale Effects on Ecosystem Services and Human Welfare by Foley et al.

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "SUPPLEMENTAL ON-LINE MATERIALS For Land-Use Practices Have Negative, Global Scale Effects on Ecosystem Services and Human Welfare by Foley et al."

Transcription

1 19 SUPPLEMENTAL ON-LINE MATERIALS For Land-Use Practices Have Negative, Global Scale Effects on Ecosystem Services and Human Welfare by Foley et al. Box S1. Land Use Practices and the Loss of Biodiversity. The current rate of species extinction on Earth is orders of magnitude faster than expected background (i.e., without human influence) rates (S4). It is estimated that ~800 plant and animal species are now extinct in the wild (S5), and approximately half of the global flora is now threatened (S6). The local extirpation of species, which affect local ecosystem dynamics and services, may be twice as prevalent as global extinctions (S6-S8). Land use practices have caused large losses of biodiversity, defined here as the number and relative abundance of species that occur naturally in that biome (S9). Land use changes ecosystems via habitat loss, modification and fragmentation, soil and water degradation, reduction of water supply, exploitation of native species and introduction of non-native species (S10-11). These changes often favor generalists and fast-growing species, at the expense of native and rare organisms. Freshwater species are also particularly vulnerable to land-use impacts (S7). Tropical moist forest conversion to agriculture has caused the most extensive and direct reductions of biodiversity, by deliberately removing the species-rich native forests and replacing them with simpler, less diverse ecosystems. Future land use will likely cause increasing rates of global species extinctions and local biodiversity loss during the next century, mostly because agricultural land use is expected to become both more extensive and more intensive (S12-13). One possible outcome is that tropical forest biodiversity hotspots may lose 18-40% of their eukaryotic species over the next few centuries, depending on how well the hotspots are protected between now and 2100 (S14). Using scenarios of future land use and climate, Sala et al. (S9) found that land

2 20 use will cause the biggest share of biodiversity loss by 2100, especially in tropical, Mediterranean and grassland regions. Box S2. What are Ecosystem Goods and Services? Ecosystem goods and services refer to the essential products (e.g., food, fiber, freshwater), vital environmental processes (e.g., pollination, flood control, water purification, climate regulation), cultural and aesthetic benefits (e.g., recreation and tourism, heritage, serenity and inspiration), and preservation of options (e.g., genetic and species diversity for future use) provided by the biosphere. The term has received considerable attention in recent years (S1-S3) and is the focus of the recent international Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (S2). Figure S1A-G. Global Patterns of Agriculture. Today, nearly million km 2 (roughly the size of South America) are in some form of cultivation, while another million km 2 (roughly the size of Africa) are used for pastures and rangeland (S15-16). Here we illustrate the global patterns of croplands (adapted from S15) across each region of the planet. Figure S2A. Diminishing Returns in U.S. Agriculture? The average annual maize productivity in the United States has risen from 1.6 T ha -1 in the 1930s to 8.6 T ha -1 in 2001, primarily as a result of large increases in nitrogen fertilizer use. However, the average rate of annual productivity gains for the Corn Belt region has declined from 3.4% yr-1 (124.5 kg ha -1 yr -1 ) in the 1960s to 0.78% yr -1 (49.2 kg ha -1 yr -1 ) in the 1990s (ref. S17). It has been suggested that as corn yields approach their upper limit defined by yield potential, it becomes increasingly difficult for farmers to overcome the complex interactions of soil nutrients, weather, and disease that inhibit productivity (S18-19). Figure S2B. Effects of Changing Fertilizer Application on Maize Yield and Nitrate Leaching in the Upper Mississippi Basin. A process-based agricultural ecosystem model

3 21 (S20) has estimated changes in maize yield and nitrate leaching for farms in the Upper Mississippi drainage basin, in response to variations in fertilizer application rates (S21). These results show how increasing fertilizer applications can result in low to moderate increases in crop yield but potentially generate moderate to large increases in nitrate leaching. Balancing the benefits (increased crop yield) and environmental costs (increased nitrate leaching, among others) of farming practices may depend on recognizing such nonlinear relationships. Figure S3A. Global Water Withdrawals for Agricultural, Domestic and Industrial Demands. Geographic patterns of global water withdrawals estimated for the year 2000 (S22) show high levels of water use in large urban areas (including cities in the Eastern U.S., Western Europe and China) and from irrigation across many major food-producing regions, such as the Indogangenic Plain, eastern China, central Europe, the Nile River, and throughout the western United States. (Adapted from ref. S22) Figure S3B. Global Water Withdrawals Compared to Long-Term Average Renewable Water Supply. Global water withdrawals for the year 2000 are compared to estimates of the long-term average renewable water supply (S22), as estimated by a water balance model and global climate data from 1901 to The ratio of total water withdrawals to longterm average renewable water supply (an indicator of relative water stress) is presented for each major river basin of the globe. Values that approach one suggest that basins could experience persistent water shortages, as a result of annual withdrawal amounts exceeding the average rate of renewable water supply. (Adapted from ref. S22) Figure S2C. Global Water Withdrawals Compared to Renewable Water Supply of ~10% Driest Years. Here global water withdrawals (for 2000) are compared to the renewable water supply estimated for the driest 10 years between 1901 and 1995 (S22). In this comparison, several regions exhibit increased vulnerability to water shortages, including: the southwest U.S., portions of Western Europe, northern Africa, the Rio Colorado Basin in Argentina, northeast Brazil, southern Africa, and much of Australia.

4 22 Even though this comparison represents an extreme case, it does illustrate the susceptibility of many of the regions over the globe to possible water scarcity from drought. (Adapted from ref. S22)

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16 23 Table Legends Table S1. Global Cropland Areas, By Continent. Adapted from ref. S15. Table S2A. Estimated Changes in Temperature and Precipitation That Could Result from Large-Scale Land Cover Change. A set of global climate model simulations (S23) have demonstrated how large-scale land cover change removing an entire biome from the surface of the planet, one at a time could affect the global climate system. Each biome s potential influence on the annual average temperature ( C) and precipitation (mm day -1 ) are presented as differences (vegetation removal control simulations). The results are summarized over the areas where vegetation was removed ( devegetated ), over all land areas ( all land ) and the entire globe ( global ). Only gridcells with a statistically significant change in temperature or precipitation (using a two-sided Student s t-test, at 95% confidence) are used in this analysis. (Adapted from ref. S23) Table S2B. Summary of How Large-Scale Land Cover Change Could Affect Climate. Global climate model simulations (S23) are analyzed to determine the primary mechanisms by which large-scale land cover change could affect climate. Each simulation, wherein an entire biome is removed from the planet, is ranked by how changed in albedo or evapotranspiration (ET) affect the climate. The qualitative ranking is from strong to moderate to weak and is based on the results from the whole suite of land cover change simulations. A brief description highlights the important biophysical mechanisms and climatic effects associated with each land-cover change simulation. (Adapted from ref. S23) Supplemental References

17 24 S1. Daily, G.C. Nature's Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems (Island Press, Washington, D.C., 1997). S2. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Ecosystems and Human Well- being: A Framework for Assessment (Island Press, Washington, D.C., 2003). S3. Palmer et al., Science 304, (2004). S4. Hanski, I., J. Clobert and W. Reid. in Global Biodiversity Assessment, Section 4, R. Barbault and S. Sastrapradja, Eds., Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge (1995). S5. IUCN Red List. (2003). S6. Pitman, N.C.A. and P.M. Jørgensen, Science 298, 989 (2002). S7. Brook, B.W., N.S. Sodhi and P.K.L. Ng, Nature (2003). S8. Myers, N., et al., Nature 403, (2000). S9. Sala, O.E. et al., Science 287, (2000). S10. Sala, O.E. in Global Biodiversity Assessment, Section 5, H.A. Mooney, J. Lubchenco, R. Dirzo and O.E. Sala, Eds., Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge (1995) S11. IPCC, Climate Change 1995: Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analysis, edited by R.T. Watson, M.C. Zinyowera, R.H. Moss, and D.J. Dokken, pp. 878, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1995). S12. Tilman, D., et al., Science 292, (2001). S13. IPCC. IPCC Technical Paper V, H. Gitay, A. Suárez, R.T. Watson and D.J. Dokken, Eds., Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge (2002). S14. Pimm, S.L. and P. Raven., Nature 403, (2000). S15. Ramankutty, N. & J.A. Foley, Global Biogeochem. Cy. 13, (1999).

18 25 S16. Asner, G.P., A.J. Elmore, L.P. Olander, R.E. Martin, & A.T. Harris, Ann. Rev. Environ. Resources, 29 (2004). S17. Kucharik, C.J. & Ramankutty, N. Earth Interactions, in press. S18. Mann, C.C., Science 283, (1999). S19. Cassman, K.G., Dobermann, A., Walters, D.T. & Yang, H., Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 28, (2003). S20. Donner, S.D., Kucharik, C.J. & Foley, J.A. Global Biogeochem. Cy. 18, GB1028, doi: /2003gb (2004). S21. Donner, S.D. and C.J. Kucharik. Global Biogeochem. Cy 17: doi: /2001gb (2003). S22. Helkowski, J. M.S. Thesis. (Environmental Monitoring Program, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI, 2004). S23. Snyder, P.K, C. Delire, J.A. Foley, Clim. Dynam. 23, (2004).

19 Region cropland area total land area cropland percentage North America 2.90 x 10 6 km x 10 6 km % South America 2.01 x 10 6 km x 10 6 km % Africa 2.35 x 10 6 km x 10 6 km 2 7.9% Eurasia x 10 6 km x 10 6 km % Australia-Pacific 0.74 x 10 6 km x 10 6 km 2 6.9% Global x 10 6 km x 10 6 km 2 * (* not including ice covered regions) 13.8% * (* not including ice covered regions) Table S1. Global Cropland Areas, By Continent. Adapted from ref. S4.

20 Biome Removed T devegetated region Tall land T global P devegetated region Pall land P global tropical forest 1.18 C 0.71 C 0.24 C mm day mm day mm day -1 boreal forest C C C mm day mm day mm day -1 temperate forest C C C mm day mm day mm day -1 savanna 0.87 C 0.37 C 0.12 C mm day mm day mm day -1 grassland / steppe 0.75 C 0.20 C 0.05 C mm day mm day mm day -1 shrubland / tundra 0.32 C 0.04 C C mm day mm day mm day -1 Table S2A. Estimated Changes in Temperature and Precipitation That Could Result from Large-Scale Land Cover Change. A set of global climate model simulations (S23) have demonstrated how large-scale land cover change removing an entire biome from the surface of the planet, one at a time could affect the global climate system. Each biome s potential influence on the annual average temperature ( C) and precipitation (mm day 1 ) are presented as differences (vegetation removal control simulations). The results are summarized over the areas where vegetation was removed ( devegetated ), over all land areas ( all land ) and the entire globe ( global ). Only gridcells with a statistically significant change in temperature or precipitation (using a two-sided Student s t-test, at 95% confidence) are used in this analysis. (Adapted from ref. S23)

21 Biome Removed albedo effects ET effects description tropical forest moderate strong boreal forest strong weak temperate forest moderate moderate savanna moderate strong grassland / steppe moderate moderate Moderate surface albedo increase causes a decrease in surface net radiation. Severe reduction in ET along with reduction in surface energy limits latent cooling and surface warms considerably. Near-surface specific humidity and precipitation reduced. Cloud cover decreases. Large surface albedo increase causes a large decrease in net radiation and the surface cools. Reduction in ET limits nearsurface moisture and precipitation only during summer growing season. Surface cooling leads to a reduction in planetary boundary layer height and a large increase in cloud cover. Increase in albedo decreases net radiation during all seasons. Winter and spring increase causes a cooling, while summer and fall increase causes a warming when combined with moderate reduction in ET. Decrease in ET reduces near-surface moisture and precipitation (mostly in summer). Moderate surface albedo increase causes a decrease in surface net radiation. Large reduction in ET limits latent cooling and surface warms. Near-surface humidity and precipitation severely reduced. Cloud cover decreases. Moderate surface albedo increase causes a reduction in net radiation. In winter and spring, this cools the surface while in summer it warms the surface when combined with a moderate reduction in ET. Grassland region of central US most affected by ET reduction (warming). Steppe regions of Asia mostly affected by albedo increase (cooling). shrubland / tundra moderate moderate / weak Moderate surface albedo increase causes a reduction in net radiation over all regions. Albedo increase in tundra regions causes cooling; albedo increase in shrubland regions of Australia, combined with reduced ET, causes warming during austral summer and cooling in austral winter. Weak reduction in ET over tundra regions. Table S2B. Summary of How Large-Scale Land Cover Change Could Affect Climate. Global climate model simulations (S23) are analyzed to determine the primary mechanisms by which large-scale land cover change could affect climate. Each simulation, wherein an entire biome is removed from the planet, is ranked by how changed in albedo or evapotranspiration (ET) affect the climate. The qualitative ranking is from strong to moderate to weak and is based on the results from the whole suite of land cover change simulations.a brief description highlights the important biophysical mechanisms and climatic effects associated with each land-cover change simulation. (Adapted from ref. S23)

How do abiotic factors affect the distribution of organisms?

How do abiotic factors affect the distribution of organisms? How do abiotic factors affect the distribution of organisms? Why aren t Kangaroos in N. America? Factors affecting the distribution of organisms can be divided in to biotic and abiotic categories. Biotic

More information

Ecosystems and Nutrient Cycles Chapter 6

Ecosystems and Nutrient Cycles Chapter 6 Ecosystems and Nutrient Cycles Chapter 6 Ecology The study of living organisms in the natural environment How they interact with one another How they interact with their non-living environment Organization

More information

Ecosystems: Biomes. Ecosystems and biomes. EVPP 111 Dr. Largen

Ecosystems: Biomes. Ecosystems and biomes. EVPP 111 Dr. Largen 1 : Ecosystems: Biomes EVPP 111 Dr. Largen 2 Ecosystems & Biomes Ecosystem similar physical environments lead to evolution of organisms similar in form and function similar ecosystems known as rule of

More information

THE ECOSYSTEM - Biomes

THE ECOSYSTEM - Biomes Biomes The Ecosystem - Biomes Side 2 THE ECOSYSTEM - Biomes By the end of this topic you should be able to:- SYLLABUS STATEMENT ASSESSMENT STATEMENT CHECK NOTES 2.4 BIOMES 2.4.1 Define the term biome.

More information

Module 4.4.2: Biomes and Biodiversity of Africa and Albertine Rift

Module 4.4.2: Biomes and Biodiversity of Africa and Albertine Rift Module 4.4.2: Biomes and Biodiversity of Africa and Albertine Rift Key Definitions -Biome: This is a large area with similar flora, fauna and microorganisms e.g. Tropical Rainforest, Tundra in the Arctic.

More information

Chapter 3 Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems

Chapter 3 Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Section 1: Community Ecology Section 2: Terrestrial Biomes Section 3: Aquatic Ecosystems Click on a lesson name to select. 3.1 Community Ecology Communities A biological

More information

Biome. Before You Read. What is a biome? What are Earth s biomes like?

Biome. Before You Read. What is a biome? What are Earth s biomes like? Biomes Textbook pages 8 33 Section 1.1 Summary Before You Read A biome includes large regions that have similar living and non-living components. Tundra and desert are two examples of biomes. What other

More information

Climate Change on the Prairie:

Climate Change on the Prairie: Climate Change on the Prairie: A Basic Guide to Climate Change in the High Plains Region - UPDATE Global Climate Change Why does the climate change? The Earth s climate has changed throughout history and

More information

Quick Video:

Quick Video: Earth s Major Biomes Primary biomes: 1. tropical rain forest 2. Tropical dry forest 3. savanna 4. desert 5. temperate rain forest 6. temperate forest 7. temperate grassland 8. chaparral 9. Tundra 10.Coniferous

More information

Name period date assigned date due date returned

Name period date assigned date due date returned Name period date assigned date due date returned Vocabulary Match the vocabulary word to the correct definition. 1. biotic 2. abiotic 3. biodiversity 4. biome 5. sustainability 6. habitat 7. species 8.

More information

g IPCC Fourth Assessment Report Climate Change: impacts and adaptation

g IPCC Fourth Assessment Report Climate Change: impacts and adaptation g IPCC Fourth Assessment Report Climate Change: impacts and adaptation Lučka Kajfež Bogataj University of Ljubljana IPCC WG2 vicechair through AR4 Following addressed: Impacts observed so far Future scenarios

More information

Impacts of Climate Change on Guyana and the World at large

Impacts of Climate Change on Guyana and the World at large Impacts of Climate Change on Guyana and the World at large In last week s article, we introduced the concept and scientific basis of climate change, along with some basic terminology. This week we will

More information

Grasslands. Environmental Science Chapters 8

Grasslands. Environmental Science Chapters 8 Grasslands Environmental Science Chapters 8 Grassland Biome A grassland ecosystem is an area that receives more rainfall than a desert, but not enough to support the trees of a forest. These usually exist

More information

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY YEAR 1, PART 1 www.vicensvives.es Contents 01 Our planet Earth 02 The representation of the Earth: maps 03 The Earth s relief 04 Rivers and seas 05 Weather and climate 06 Climates

More information

Soil. Temperature. Elevation. Moisture

Soil. Temperature. Elevation. Moisture Vegetation Basics Basically, vegetation is a name for the plant life of a region. it can also refer to the ground cover provided by plants. When there is a large area of similar plant life, people call

More information

What is a biome? A BIOME is the largest geographic biotic unit, a major community of. similar life forms and environmental conditions.

What is a biome? A BIOME is the largest geographic biotic unit, a major community of. similar life forms and environmental conditions. Biomes of the World What is a biome? A BIOME is the largest geographic biotic unit, a major community of plants and animals with similar life forms and environmental conditions. How are biomes formed?

More information

The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens

The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens Zoo and Botanical Gardens Biome Contract Overview Students will investigate biotic and abiotic factors of different biomes by preparing a

More information

Impacts of Europe's changing climate

Impacts of Europe's changing climate 2008 Impacts of Europe's changing climate ISSN 1830-2246 Introduction Global climate change is a reality. In Europe the most vulnerable regions are the Arctic, mountain areas, coastal zones and the Mediterranean.

More information

Use the terms in the vocabulary box to fill in the blanks. Use each term only once.

Use the terms in the vocabulary box to fill in the blanks. Use each term only once. Use with textbook pages 8 28. Biomes and ecosystems Vocabulary abiotic adaptations behavioural biome biotic climatograph elevation latitude ocean currents physiological precipitation structural temperature

More information

Environmental Plant Physiology Introduction. K. Raja Reddy

Environmental Plant Physiology Introduction. K. Raja Reddy Environmental Plant Physiology Introduction K. Raja Reddy Krreddy@pss.msstate.edu Personal - Family Personal - Education Education: Ph.D. in Botany with Applied Plant Physiology as a major Research areas:

More information

The Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture in North America

The Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture in North America The Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture in North America Linda Mearns Institute for the Study of Science and Environment Boulder, Colorado I will restrict my comments to issues affecting North America

More information

Speaker Summary Note

Speaker Summary Note 2020 CONFERENCE MAY 2014 Session: Speaker: Speaker Summary Note Building Resilience by Innovating and Investing in Agricultural Systems Mark Rosegrant Director, Environment and Production Technology Division

More information

Climate and Cropping Systems. Thomas G Chastain CROP 200 Crop Ecology and Morphology

Climate and Cropping Systems. Thomas G Chastain CROP 200 Crop Ecology and Morphology Climate and Cropping Systems Thomas G Chastain CROP 200 Crop Ecology and Morphology Climate and Cropping Systems Successful cropping systems are adapted to the local climate and soil conditions. The distribution

More information

Global water resources under increasing pressure from rapidly growing demands and climate change, according to new UN World Water Development Report

Global water resources under increasing pressure from rapidly growing demands and climate change, according to new UN World Water Development Report WWDR4 Background Information Brief Global water resources under increasing pressure from rapidly growing demands and climate change, according to new UN World Water Development Report As demand for water

More information

Tropical Dry Forest. Tropical Rain Forest. What I Discovered at the Zoo Name of animal that lives in this biome:

Tropical Dry Forest. Tropical Rain Forest. What I Discovered at the Zoo Name of animal that lives in this biome: Tropical Rain Forest Tropical rain forests are home to more species than all other land biomes combined. The leafy tops of tall trees extending up to 70 meters above the forest floor form a dense covering

More information

Biomes. Biomes. Animals and plants have narrow ranges of tolerance to abiotic factors

Biomes. Biomes. Animals and plants have narrow ranges of tolerance to abiotic factors Biomes What defines a biome? Where are the lines drawn? What are the major controlling factors? What about aquatic biomes Biomes Animals and plants have narrow ranges of tolerance to abiotic factors This

More information

Climate Change: A Local Focus on a Global Issue Newfoundland and Labrador Curriculum Links 2010-2011

Climate Change: A Local Focus on a Global Issue Newfoundland and Labrador Curriculum Links 2010-2011 Climate Change: A Local Focus on a Global Issue Newfoundland and Labrador Curriculum Links 2010-2011 HEALTH Kindergarten: Grade 1: Grade 2: Know that litter can spoil the environment. Grade 3: Grade 4:

More information

S7L4-6. A. Southeast. B. Midwest. C. Northwest. D. Southwest.

S7L4-6. A. Southeast. B. Midwest. C. Northwest. D. Southwest. S7L4-6 1. Grasslands and savannas are biomes that are very valuable as areas for farming and grazing livestock. In the United States, these biomes are mostly found in the A. Southeast. B. Midwest. C. Northwest.

More information

Defining Ecosystem Services

Defining Ecosystem Services Defining Ecosystem Services Beto Borges Director, Community and Markets Program Forest Trends 6 April 2011 Defining Ecosystem Services What are ecosystems? Ecosystems in Uganda What are ecosystem services?

More information

A. A biome is a particular physical environment that contains a characteristic group of plants and animals. B. Climate and Microclimate 1.

A. A biome is a particular physical environment that contains a characteristic group of plants and animals. B. Climate and Microclimate 1. Land Biomes A. A biome is a particular physical environment that contains a characteristic group of plants and animals. B. Climate and Microclimate 1. Climate is described by a climatograph. Two of the

More information

World Environment facts

World Environment facts World Environment facts On the following pages you can find the answers to all the questions from the World environments activity. When you ve checked your scores, carry on reading to find out more about

More information

Your web browser (Safari 7) is out of date. For more security, comfort and the best experience on this site: Update your browser Ignore

Your web browser (Safari 7) is out of date. For more security, comfort and the best experience on this site: Update your browser Ignore Your web browser (Safari 7) is out of date. For more security, comfort and the best experience on this site: Update your browser Ignore Encyclopedic Entry steppe For the complete encyclopedic entry with

More information

Thursday, April 3. Bell Work: What are 3 differences between primary and secondary succession?

Thursday, April 3. Bell Work: What are 3 differences between primary and secondary succession? Thursday, April 3 Bell Work: What are 3 differences between primary and secondary succession? 1 Individual plant and animal species have adaptations that let them thrive only in certain biomes. A biome

More information

defined largely by regional variations in climate

defined largely by regional variations in climate 1 Physical Environment: Climate and Biomes EVPP 110 Lecture Instructor: Dr. Largen Fall 2003 2 Climate and Biomes Ecosystem concept physical and biological components of environment are considered as single,

More information

Chapter 7 Part III: Biomes

Chapter 7 Part III: Biomes Chapter 7 Part III: Biomes Biomes Biome: the major types of terrestrial ecosystems determined primarily by climate 2 main factors: Depends on ; proximity to ocean; and air and ocean circulation patterns

More information

Sustaining Ecosystems: Deforestation, Biodiversity, & Forest Management

Sustaining Ecosystems: Deforestation, Biodiversity, & Forest Management Sustaining Ecosystems: Deforestation, Biodiversity, & Forest Management tutorial by Paul Rich 1. Forests Types & Importance Outline 2. Temperate Deforestation old growth forest, U.S. & Canada 3. Tropical

More information

Biodiversity Concepts

Biodiversity Concepts Biodiversity Concepts WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY? Biodiversity is the variety of life on Earth. For any kind of animal or plant each individual is not exactly the same as any other; nor are species or ecosystems.

More information

Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change

Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change Section A: Climate 1. (a) Explain what each of the following means: (4 marks) (i) climate (ii) maritime (iii) temperate (iv) tropical (b) Match the description with

More information

BIODIVERSITY AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

BIODIVERSITY AND ECONOMIC GROWTH World Environment Day June 2010 111 BIODIVERSITY AND ECONOMIC GROWTH By: Shahid Saleem Biodiversity loss and other environmental problems that the world is facing today are the products of hundreds of

More information

Maps, Regions, Resources, and Climate Teacher s Guide

Maps, Regions, Resources, and Climate Teacher s Guide American Geography Close-ups Maps, Regions, Resources, and Climate Grade Level: 4 6 Curriculum Focus: Geography Lesson Duration: Three class periods Program Description Maps, Regions, Resources, and Climate

More information

General Overview of Climate Change Science

General Overview of Climate Change Science General Overview of Climate Change Science Art DeGaetano Associate Professor Department of Earth and Atmospheric Science Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (atd2@cornell.edu) Earth s climate system The

More information

Climate Change Projection for South Eastern Europe

Climate Change Projection for South Eastern Europe First Session of South-Eastern Europe Climate Outlook Forum (SEECOF-1) Climate Change Projection for South Eastern Europe Eglantina Bruci Institute for Energy, Water and Environment, University of Polytechnics

More information

Erie Tamale Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity

Erie Tamale Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity Status and Trends of Global Biodiversity: Third Edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook Erie Tamale Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity Scope of the Presentation Status and trends

More information

UNIT 4: SUSTAINABILITY OF ECOSYSTEMS Worksheet #11: BIOMES

UNIT 4: SUSTAINABILITY OF ECOSYSTEMS Worksheet #11: BIOMES SCIENCE 1206 UNIT 4: SUSTAINABILITY OF ECOSYSTEMS Worksheet #11: BIOMES There are two major types of ecosystems: Aquatic Terrestrial Each can be subdivided further based upon the predominant vegetation,

More information

Tropical Rainforest. Abiotic Factors Amount of Water, Sunlight, Soil, Precipitation

Tropical Rainforest. Abiotic Factors Amount of Water, Sunlight, Soil, Precipitation World Biomes A biome is an area of land that shares similar temperatures and precipitation. The observation of the temperature and precipitation over a period time make up a biome s climate. Each biome

More information

Weather, Climate, and Adaptations How do we survive?

Weather, Climate, and Adaptations How do we survive? Weather, Climate, and Adaptations How do we survive? Name: 1 Before you start What do you already know about weather, climate, and adaptations? 1. What is the difference between weather and climate? 2.

More information

How can an Ecological Footprint Contribute to Green Economy in Africa?

How can an Ecological Footprint Contribute to Green Economy in Africa? RIO+20 AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK How can an Ecological Footprint Contribute to Green Economy in Africa? Introduction Fundamentally we all depend on nature, the ecological infrastructure of the planet that

More information

15.3 Biomes Bell Ringer

15.3 Biomes Bell Ringer Bell Ringer Study for Vocabulary Quiz, Pass bell ringers to the front! KEY CONCEPT Biomes are land-based, global communities of organisms. Earth has six major biomes. Can be divided into specific zones

More information

TROPICAL CLIMATE. It is found near the Tropics. Always dense and green with many different species of animals and

TROPICAL CLIMATE. It is found near the Tropics. Always dense and green with many different species of animals and SM-UNIT2lesson4.Activity3 CLIMATE WORLDWIDE TROPICAL CLIMATE It is found near the Tropics - Temperatures are always hot, between 24ºC-27ºC - Rainfall is abundant all year. - Two seasons; the dry and the

More information

HUMAN/ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS: CLIMATE

HUMAN/ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS: CLIMATE HUMAN/ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS: CLIMATE BY: Margaret Harshfield, S. Ellen Jones Elementary School New Albany IN, Summer 1989 Purpose The purpose of this lesson is to allow the students to learn about the

More information

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. By Brett Lucas

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. By Brett Lucas PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY By Brett Lucas TERRESTRIAL FLORA AND FAUNA Terrestrial Flora and Fauna Ecosystems and Biomes Terrestrial Flora & Fauna Zoogeographic Regions The Major Biomes Human Modification of Natural

More information

IPCC Fourth Assessment Report Synthesis Report

IPCC Fourth Assessment Report Synthesis Report 1 IPCC Fourth Assessment Report Synthesis Report Dr. R K Pachauri Chairman Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Press Presentation Saturday, 17 November 2007 Valencia, Spain Vision of UN Secretary-General

More information

GCS Earth Science Unit G Test Ecology

GCS Earth Science Unit G Test Ecology 1. How does the latitude of the tundra generally compare with that of the taiga? A. The tundra is in polar regions while the taiga is near the equator B. The taiga is in polar regions while the tundra

More information

How are ecosystems different?

How are ecosystems different? Lesson 1 Cycles in Ecosystems Lesson 2 Changes in Ecosystems Lesson 3 Biomes Lesson 4 Water Ecosystems How are ecosystems different? water cycle evaporation condensation precipitation watershed runoff

More information

Local Communities: Planning for Climate Change

Local Communities: Planning for Climate Change Local Communities: Planning for Climate Change Minister s foreword Climate change is a reality. It s up to all New Zealanders to help reduce the effects of climate change and keep our communities safe.

More information

Climate Change Impacts in the Asia/Pacific Region

Climate Change Impacts in the Asia/Pacific Region Climate Change Impacts in the Asia/Pacific Region Global CC threat CC in the A/P region The Stern Review and IPCC 4 th Assessment Report both state that climate change will have adverse impact on people

More information

Holt Ch. 6 Biomes. Section 6.1 pg # 1-6

Holt Ch. 6 Biomes. Section 6.1 pg # 1-6 Holt Ch. 6 Biomes Section 6.1 pg 153-155 # 1-6 1. Describe how plants determine the name of a biome. Scientists name biomes after their vegetation because the plants that grow in an area determine what

More information

PRACTICAL STRATEGIES FOR IMMEDIATE PROGRESS ON CLIMATE CHANGE BUILDING BLOCKS FOR A GLOBAL AGREEMENT

PRACTICAL STRATEGIES FOR IMMEDIATE PROGRESS ON CLIMATE CHANGE BUILDING BLOCKS FOR A GLOBAL AGREEMENT PRACTICAL STRATEGIES FOR IMMEDIATE PROGRESS ON CLIMATE CHANGE BUILDING BLOCKS FOR A GLOBAL AGREEMENT Forging an effective response to climate change is one of the international community s highest priorities.

More information

State of global wetlands and implications for the Sustainable Development Goals

State of global wetlands and implications for the Sustainable Development Goals research for a sustainable future State of global wetlands and implications for the Sustainable Development Goals Max Finlayson Institute for Land, Water & Society, Charles Sturt University, Australia

More information

It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2015 Montessori Model United Nations Conference. Montessori Model United Nations. All rights reserved.

It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2015 Montessori Model United Nations Conference. Montessori Model United Nations. All rights reserved. Dear Delegates, It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2015 Montessori Model United Nations Conference. The following pages intend to guide you in the research of the topics that will be debated at MMUN

More information

GEO 101: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Chapter 10: Global Climate Systems

GEO 101: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Chapter 10: Global Climate Systems GEO 101: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Chapter 10: Global Climate Systems Why does the climate differ from one place to another? What controls the global climate? What typical climate patterns do we have across the

More information

Submission from the Climate Emergency Institute by Dr. Peter Carter August 2013

Submission from the Climate Emergency Institute by Dr. Peter Carter August 2013 1 st Africa Food Security and Adaptation Conference 20-21 August 2013 Submission from the Climate Emergency Institute by Dr. Peter Carter August 2013 The organizers and promoters are to be congratulated

More information

tundra desert coniferous forest deciduous forest rainforest grassland aquatic biome habitat environment ecosystem species

tundra desert coniferous forest deciduous forest rainforest grassland aquatic biome habitat environment ecosystem species Science Unit 6: Vocabulary List One tundra desert coniferous forest deciduous forest rainforest grassland aquatic biome habitat environment ecosystem species The coldest of the biomes, located at the top

More information

Interactions Between the Atmosphere & Hydrosphere. Weather & Climate

Interactions Between the Atmosphere & Hydrosphere. Weather & Climate Interactions Between the Atmosphere & Hydrosphere Weather & Climate ~occur every 3-7 years ~can last weeks or years! ~cooler/wetter conditions in SE US ~dry weather in southern Africa, Southeast Asia,

More information

Short summary of the IPCC report from Working Group 2. time to act!

Short summary of the IPCC report from Working Group 2. time to act! Short summary of the IPCC report from Working Group 2 CLIMATE CHANGE HAS DEVASTATING IMPACTS time to act! Introduction The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change s (IPCC) reports are the most comprehensive

More information

Outline. Ecology: Major Biomes. Biomes cover wide geographic areas. Biomes: terrestrial ecosystems within specific climatic regions

Outline. Ecology: Major Biomes. Biomes cover wide geographic areas. Biomes: terrestrial ecosystems within specific climatic regions Ecology: Major Biomes Biomes: terrestrial ecosystems within specific climatic regions Outline 1. Key concepts 2. The sun and its effects on climate 3. Atmospheric circulation and its effects on climate

More information

Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change Answers

Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change Answers Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change Answers Section A: Climate 1. (a) Explain what each of the following means: (4 x 1 mark) (i) climate the average weather of an area over a 25 30 year period (ii) maritime

More information

Unit 8: Global Problems. Deforestation, Biodiversity, & Forest Management

Unit 8: Global Problems. Deforestation, Biodiversity, & Forest Management Unit 8: Global Problems Deforestation, Biodiversity, & Forest Management 1. Forests Types & Importance 2. Temperate Deforestation old growth forest, U.S. & Canada 3. Tropical Deforestation clearing & degrading

More information

Climate Change Mini-Simulation: Background Guide

Climate Change Mini-Simulation: Background Guide Climate Change Mini-Simulation: Background Guide United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an international organization founded in 1945 after the Second World War by 51 countries committed to creating

More information

Global Perspective to Food and Climate. The Food and the Environment Kaisa Karttunen , Viikki

Global Perspective to Food and Climate. The Food and the Environment Kaisa Karttunen , Viikki Global Perspective to Food and Climate The Food and the Environment Kaisa Karttunen 28.10.2011, Viikki Contents: 1. What is food security? 2. The present global food security situation 3. The impact of

More information

Introduction to Ecology

Introduction to Ecology Introduction to Ecology What is Ecology? Ecology is the study of the interactions between organisms and their environments (biotic and abiotic). Ecologists seek to understand: the patterns of abundance

More information

Biodiversity && China

Biodiversity && China Biodiversity && China China Why study biodiversity in China? Biodiversity Climate Change Hazards Population Habitat Change Pollution Ecology Resources Definitions of Biodiversity Source: Biodiversity (2004)

More information

Introduction to ecosystems

Introduction to ecosystems Core units: Exemplar Year 9 Illustration 1: Biomes and ecosystems Introduction to ecosystems The natural environment Earth's natural environment can be seen as four interacting spheres. The solid part

More information

Discussion Paper. Tropical Forest Deforestation

Discussion Paper. Tropical Forest Deforestation Discussion Paper Tropical Forest Deforestation December 2014 Author: Eimear Dempsey (email: eimear@naturalforeststandard.com) Published: 2 December 2014 Introduction Tropical Forests can vary widely in

More information

The IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation

The IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation The IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation A changing climate leads to changes in extreme weather and climate events 2 How do changes

More information

Ecosystems and Communities practice test

Ecosystems and Communities practice test Name: answers Score: 0 / 37 (0%) [14 subjective questions not graded] Ecosystems and Communities practice test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers

More information

Modeling Impact of Climate Change on Hydrology of the Brahmani River Basin, India

Modeling Impact of Climate Change on Hydrology of the Brahmani River Basin, India Modeling Impact of Climate Change on Hydrology of the Brahmani River Basin, India Alok Kumar Sikka National Rainfed Area Authority, Planning Commission, Government of India, New Delhi, India Adlul Islam

More information

3 Temperate and Polar Zones

3 Temperate and Polar Zones Name CHAPTER 17 Class Date Climate SECTION 3 Temperate and Polar Zones BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What biomes are found in the temperate

More information

A Biotic and Abiotic Factors

A Biotic and Abiotic Factors Ecology Project Earth s Biomes Biomes 1. Savanna 2. Temperate Grasslands 3. Desert 4. Tropical Rain Forest 5. Taiga /Boreal Forest 6. Tundra 7. Temperate Forest 8. Temperate Shrubland/Scrublands 9. Nothwestern

More information

Biomes An Overview of Ecology Biomes Freshwater Biomes

Biomes An Overview of Ecology Biomes Freshwater Biomes Biomes An Overview of Ecology Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their environments. Ecology can be divided into four increasingly comprehensive levels: Organismal

More information

Facts on biodiversity

Facts on biodiversity Facts on biodiversity What is biodiversity? Biological diversity (biodiversity) comprises diversity of species and habitats as well as the genetic diversity within the individual species of fauna and flora.

More information

What Land Works Best?

What Land Works Best? What Land Works Best? Hitting Pay Dirt Purpose Students will identify crops grown in all Utah counties and explain how climate, water, and soil type help to determine where crops are grown. Students will

More information

Potential Climate Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Renewable Energy Technologies. Chien Wang (MIT)

Potential Climate Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Renewable Energy Technologies. Chien Wang (MIT) Potential Climate Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Renewable Energy Technologies Chien Wang (MIT) 1. A large-scale installation of windmills Desired Energy Output: supply 10% of the estimated world

More information

Fact sheet: Climate change science - the status of climate change science today

Fact sheet: Climate change science - the status of climate change science today Fact sheet: Climate change science - the status of climate change science today The World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) describes the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere during the 20th

More information

HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE Vol. I - Anthropogenic Effects on the Hydrological Cycle - I.A. Shiklomanov ANTHROPOGENIC EFFECTS ON THE HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE

HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE Vol. I - Anthropogenic Effects on the Hydrological Cycle - I.A. Shiklomanov ANTHROPOGENIC EFFECTS ON THE HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE ANTHROPOGENIC EFFECTS ON THE HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE I.A. Shiklomanov Director, State Hydrological Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia Keywords: hydrological cycle, anthropogenic factors, afforestation, land

More information

Natural Resource Scarcity:

Natural Resource Scarcity: Food Security in a World of Natural Resource Scarcity: The Role of Agricultural Technologies Daniel Mason-D Croz IFPRI - Environment and Production Technology Division Presentation Overview 1- Rationale

More information

Biodiversity and Climate change: Policy Framework for Response and Vulnerability Assessment Report

Biodiversity and Climate change: Policy Framework for Response and Vulnerability Assessment Report Biodiversity and Climate change: Policy Framework for Response and Vulnerability Assessment Report Vhalinavho Khavhagali Biodiversity Risk Management 2012 Biodiversity Planning Forum Skukuza, Kruger National

More information

Chapter 11: Environmental Outlook for Limpopo Province: Planning for the Future

Chapter 11: Environmental Outlook for Limpopo Province: Planning for the Future Limpopo Environmental Outlook Report 2016 1 st DRAFT Chapter 11: Environmental Outlook for Limpopo Province: Planning for the Future This document is an ongoing outcome of a consultative process that underpins

More information

Climates Climate Zones

Climates Climate Zones Climates Climate Zones Climates Climate Zones The Earth s surface is made up of many different climates. To help them organize it all, climatologists (scientists who study climates) have grouped climates

More information

Status of the World s Soil Resources

Status of the World s Soil Resources 5 December 2015 Status of the World s Soil Resources The Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils (ITPS), the main scientific advisory body to the Global Soil Partnership (GSP) hosted by the Food and

More information

Shallow, wide roots since soil is so thin and poor in nutrients

Shallow, wide roots since soil is so thin and poor in nutrients 1 2 3 4 World Biomes Tropical Rainforest Abiotic factors high biodiversity and biomass both hot and moist; ideal for bacteria and other microorganisms; they quickly decompose matter on the forest floor

More information

Egyptian Development & Climate Change. Prepared by. Hesham Eissa Egyptian Focal Point to UNFCCC

Egyptian Development & Climate Change. Prepared by. Hesham Eissa Egyptian Focal Point to UNFCCC Egyptian Development & Climate Change Prepared by Hesham Eissa Egyptian Focal Point to UNFCCC Email:hesham27963@windowslive.com Contents Key Data Development ambitions in Egypt Impacts of climate change

More information

Tropical Wet (Rainforest)

Tropical Wet (Rainforest) Tropical Wet (Rainforest) 1 Tropical Wet Temperature ( ºF) 75 81 85 90 90 85 90 92 90 85 80 75 Precipitation (inches) 1.0 1.5 1.5 4.0 8.0 6.0 6.0 7.0 12.0 9.0 2.0 1.0 The climate on eastern sides of continents

More information

Ecology & Biome Vocabulary

Ecology & Biome Vocabulary Ecology & Biome Vocabulary Create a table in your lab notebook with these headings. You will use the front and back of a page. There are vocabulary words underlined, the definition column should be the

More information

How has the Earth Environment Changed over Time? Human Environment

How has the Earth Environment Changed over Time? Human Environment Human Environment Chapter 13 How has the Earth Environment Changed over Time? Earth Environment Pangaea the supercontinent that broke apart into fragments we know as continents. Plate Tectonics the earth

More information

The Biosphere Study Guide

The Biosphere Study Guide ANSWER KEY Name The Biosphere Study Guide Period Directions: Read pg. 572-588 in Science Explorer. Answer the following questions. Land Biomes 1. What is a biome? a group of ecosystems with similar organisms

More information

The weather effects everyday life. On a daily basis it can affect choices we make about whether to walk or take the car, what clothes we wear and

The weather effects everyday life. On a daily basis it can affect choices we make about whether to walk or take the car, what clothes we wear and Weather can have a big impact on our day-to-day lives. On longer timescales, climate influences where and how people live and the lifecycles of plants and animals. Evidence shows us that our climate is

More information

Temperate Climates. The Temperate Subclimates

Temperate Climates. The Temperate Subclimates Temperate Climates Introduction Most of the world s population lives in temperate climates because: 1. Most of the land of the world is located in the mid-latitudes. The mid-latitudes are where the temperate

More information

Facts on Biodiversity A Summary of the Millenium Ecosystem Assessment Biodiversity Synthesis

Facts on Biodiversity A Summary of the Millenium Ecosystem Assessment Biodiversity Synthesis Facts on Biodiversity A Summary of the Millenium Ecosystem Assessment Biodiversity Synthesis EUROPEAN COMMISSION DIRECTORATE GENERAL ENVIRONMENT BIODIVERSITY contributes to many aspects of human well-being,

More information

Environmental capacity for cage fish farming in large hydroelectric reservoirs: a need for sustainable growth of aquaculture in Southeastearn Brazil

Environmental capacity for cage fish farming in large hydroelectric reservoirs: a need for sustainable growth of aquaculture in Southeastearn Brazil Environmental capacity for cage fish farming in large hydroelectric reservoirs: a need for sustainable growth of aquaculture in Southeastearn Brazil Gianmarco S. David São Paulo State Agribusiness Technology

More information