The Capacity Development Results Framework. A strategic and results-oriented approach to learning for capacity development

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1 The Capacity Develpment Results Framewrk A strategic and results-riented apprach t learning fr capacity develpment

2 The Capacity Develpment Results Framewrk A strategic and results-riented apprach t learning fr capacity develpment Samuel Ot, Natalia Agapitva and Jy Behrens June 2009

3 Abstract The Capacity Develpment Results Framewrk (CDRF r the Framewrk) is a pwerful new apprach t the design, implementatin, mnitring, management, and evaluatin f develpment prgrams. Originally cnceived t address well-dcumented prblems in the narrw field f capacity develpment, the Framewrk can be prfitably applied t assess the feasibility and cherence f prpsed develpment prjects, t mnitr prjects during implementatin (with a view t taking crrective actin), r t assess the results, r even the design, f cmpleted prjects. The Framewrk can als be used as a step-by-step guide t the planning, implementatin, and evaluatin f prjects and prgrams designed t build capacity fr develpment at a natinal r subnatinal level. That is hw it is illustrated here. We chse this apprach because such a guide was srely needed, and because it allwed us t illustrate the full set f tls and prcesses prvided by the Framewrk. The CDRF ties tgether varius strands f change thery, capacity ecnmics, pedaggical science, prject management, and mnitring and evaluatin practice t prvide a rigrus yet practical instrument. A key feature f the Framewrk is its fcus n capacity factrs that impede the achievement f develpment gals, and n hw learning interventins can be designed t imprve the develpmentfriendliness f capacity factrs by supprting lcally driven change. As nted, the CDRF addresses several lng-standing criticisms f capacity develpment wrk, including the lack f clear definitins, cherent cnceptual framewrks, and effective mnitring f results. It als prmtes a cmmn, systematic apprach t capacity develpment. Such an apprach can greatly enhance the scpe fr learning abut what happens in different cntexts by imprving cmparability acrss prgrams and easing the administrative burden n develping-cuntry partners by harmnizing dnrs prject specificatins and the way they measure results. The CDRF can help t clarify bjectives, assess prevailing capacity factrs, identify apprpriate agents f change and change prcesses, and guide the design f effective learning activities. The Framewrk encurages articulatin f a cmplete results chain that bridges the gap ften fund between brad verall bjectives and specific learning activities. The CDRF requires stakehlders and practitiners t think thrugh and trace ut the relatinship f a defined set f variables t any develpment gal in a given cntext, and t mdel explicitly the change prcess that is expected t be facilitated by learning. This explicit mdeling des nt necessarily imply detailed blueprints and plans. The Framewrk is cmpatible with a brad range f situatins and appraches t change management. But in all cases key actrs in the change prcess must be identified and ffered the knwledge and tls that they need t prduce change in the directin f the desired gals. Critical pints in the change path must be identified. At each such pint, new infrmatin and experience must be assessed t guide subsequent decisins. Building capacity, driving change, and achieving develpment gals will typically be iterative prcesses.

4 Cntents Part 1 - Why d we need the Capacity Develpment Results Framewrk? 1 Tw essential definitins 3 The Framewrk s key features 3 Multiple uses f the Framewrk 5 Reading and applying this guide 7 Part 2 - Basic principles f the Capacity Develpment Results Framewrk 9 T begin a specific gal n which all can agree 10 Three factrs determine capacity t achieve develpment gals 11 Standard indicatrs fr each capacity factr, adaptable t cntexts 11 Assessing capacity factrs with reference t a hypthetical case 14 The change prcess: imprving capacity factrs by empwering agents f change with knwledge and infrmatin 15 Learning utcmes and the results chain 16 Frm learning utcmes t learning activities via learning bjectives 17 Pulling it all tgether: a lgic mdel fr a capacity develpment prgram under the CDRF 19 Part 3 - An applicatin f the Capacity Develpment Results Framewrk capacity develpment prgram cycle 22 Stage 1: Identificatin and needs assessment 25 Step 1: Validate the develpment gal 25 Step 2: Assess capacity factrs relevant t the develpment gal 26 Step 3: Decide which changes in capacity factrs can be facilitated by learning 27 Stage 2: Prgram design 29 Step 4: Specify bjective(s) f capacity develpment prgram in the frm f capacity indicatrs targeted fr change 29 Step 5: Identify agents f change and envisin change prcess 32 Step 6: Set intended learning utcmes and their indicatrs 33 Step 7: Design activities 34 Stage 3: Implementatin and mnitring 38 Step 8: Mnitr learning utcmes; adjust prgram as necessary 38 Step 9: Mnitr targeted capacity indicatrs and the prgress tward the develpment gal, and adjust prgram as necessary 39 Stage 4: Cmpletin and assessment 40 Step 10: Assess achievement f learning utcmes and targeted changes in capacity indicatrs, and specify fllw-up actins 40 References 43 Annex 1. Cmparisn f CDRF with a Generic Prgram Lgic Mdel 46 Annex 2. Steps fr Design, Mnitring, and Evaluatin f Capacity Develpment Prgrams 49 Summary f the steps 49 Detailed descriptin 49 Step 1. Validate the develpment gal that underpins the capacity develpment effrt 49 Step 2. Assess capacity factrs relevant t the develpment gal 49 Step 3. Decide which changes in capacity factrs can be facilitated by learning 50 Step 4. Specify bjective(s) f the learning prgram in terms f capacity indicatrs targeted fr change 50 Step 5. Identify agents f change and envisin the change prcess 51 Step 6. Set intended learning utcmes and their indicatrs 51 Step 7. Design activities 52 Step 8. Mnitr learning utcmes; adjust prgram as necessary 52 Step 9. Mnitr targeted capacity factrs and prgress tward the develpment gal; adjust prgram as necessary 53 Step 10. At cmpletin, assess achievement f learning utcmes and targeted changes in capacity indicatrs, and specify fllw-up actins 53

5 Annex 3. Template fr a Prgram Lgic Dcument 54 Annex 4. Indicatrs f Capacity fr Develpment 74 Indicatrs and measures f cnduciveness f sciplitical envirnment 74 Indicatrs and measures f efficiency f plicy instruments 77 Indicatrs and measures f effectiveness f rganizatinal arrangements 80 Annex 5. Learning Outcmes: Mdels, Methds, and Tls 83 Bxes Bx 1.1 Bx 3.1 Bx 3.2 Bx 3.3 Bx 3.4 Seven uses fr the Capacity Develpment Results Framewrk Determining which changes in capacity factrs can be facilitated by learning Specificatin f the bjectives f a capacity develpment prgram in terms f capacity indicatrs targeted fr change Sample specificatin f the bjectives f a capacity develpment prgram in terms f capacity indicatrs targeted fr change Input and utput indicatrs fr mnitring learning activity Figures Figure 1.1 Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 2.4 Figure 2.5 Figure 2.6 Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2 Capacity develpment as a part f the develpment prcess Principal elements f the Capacity Develpment Results Framewrk Framing cntext-specific questins t prbe the capacity factrs relevant t a particular develpment gal Six learning utcmes essential t all capacity develpment effrts The main elements f the CDRF and their relatinships Lgic mdel fr a capacity develpment prgram designed t achieve a hypthetical develpment gal The CDRF prgram cycle: a step-by-step view Learning utcmes drive activity design Tables Table 2.1 Table 2.2 Table 2.3 Table 2.4 Table 2.5 Table 3.1 Table 3.2 Table 3.3 Table 3.4 Table 3.5 Standard indicatrs fr the three capacity factrs Frm gal t data: generic and specific indicatrs and measures f three capacity factrs with reference t a hypthetical develpment gal Example f learning utcmes tailred t agents f change in a hypthetical case The six learning utcmes and assciated generic learning bjectives Matching learning activities t learning bjectives: an example Sample specificatin f prgram develpment bjectives fr a technical assistance prject fr regulatry refrm Examples f indicatrs and measures fr six learning utcmes A sample frmat fr a mnitring reprt n the interim status f targeted learning utcmes Sample frmat fr a mnitring reprt n the interim status f capacity indicatrs targeted fr a capacity develpment prject n regulatry refrm Sample frmat fr a cmpletin reprt fr a hypthetical capacity develpment prgram n regulatry refrm using infrmatin cllected n the targeted capacity indicatrs during the prgram cycle

6 Part 1 - Why d we need the Capacity Develpment Results Framewrk? Each year, aid dnrs spend mre than $20 billin n prducts and activities designed t enhance the capacity f develping cuntries t make and carry ut develpment plans. That level f cmmitment reflects dnrs belief that their aid missin will nt succeed unless recipients imprve their ability t use the assistance that dnrs prvide, as well as the ther resurces at their dispsal. Limited capacity t set develpment gals, t priritize amng them, and t revise plans and prgrams in respnse t results achieved is a majr cnstraint n the develpment prcess in many cuntries. The Paris Declaratin n Aid Effectiveness, signed by mre than 100 multilateral and bilateral dnrs and develping cuntries, states that the capacity t plan, manage, implement, and accunt fr results... is critical fr achieving develpment bjectives. The declaratin urges develping cuntries t make capacity develpment a key gal f their natinal develpment strategies. Dnrs understand that capacity cannt be imprted as a turnkey peratin. Instead, it must be develped frm within, with dnrs and their experts acting as catalysts, facilitatrs, and brkers f knwledge and technique. Despite widespread agreement n these general principles, the results f effrts t develp capacity have persistently fallen shrt f expectatins (OECD 2005; OECD 2006a; Wrld Bank 2007). Why? The prblem begins with a lack f cnsensus abut the peratinal definitin f capacity develpment and the results that can be expected frm capacity develpment effrts. Mst fficial definitins f capacity and capacity develpment are very brad. 1 This lack f clarity makes it extremely difficult t evaluate the utcme f such wrk and t understand its impact (see, fr example, Wrld Bank 2005a). Mst critical reviews f capacity develpment practice als find that many prgrams are prly grunded in thery and lack cnsistent cnceptual framewrks (see, fr example, Taylr and Clarke 2008). The appraches t capacity develpment are many, and mst are characterized by vague and incnsistent cncepts and lack f a cmmn terminlgy. The prcesses by which change ccurs are nt well understd, the imprtance f strategy is ften verlked, and the links between utcmes f capacity develpment effrts and develpment gals are prly articulated (Wrld Bank 2006). The Wrld Bank Institute (2006) has summed up the prblem in practical terms: Mst effrts at capacity develpment remain fragmented, making it difficult t capture crss-sectral influences and t draw general cnclusins. Many capacity develpment activities are nt funded n rigrus needs assessments and d nt include apprpriate sequencing f measures aimed at institutinal r rganizatinal change and individual skill building. What is needed is a mre cmprehensive and sustained apprach, ne that builds a permanent capacity t manage sectrs and deliver services. Finally, better tls are needed t track, mnitr, and evaluate capacity develpment effrts. 1 Fr instance, Capacity is understd as the ability f peple, rganizatins and sciety as a whle t manage their affairs successfully. Capacity develpment is understd as the prcess whereby peple, rganizatins and sciety as a whle unleash, strengthen, create, adapt and maintain capacity ver time. (OECD, 2006b) 1

7 Inattentin t measuring the results f capacity develpment wrk, and the cmmn failure t build mnitring f capacity develpment utcmes and impact int prject mnitring and evaluatin systems, means that it has been challenging t cmpare results acrss prgrams and t identify gd practices fr replicatin. Insufficient evidence f what actually takes place in different cntexts and little accuntability abut results f capacity develpment mean that unprven assumptins and ptentially inapprpriate interventins persist (DFID 2006; Taylr and Clarke 2008; Wrld Bank 2005a; Wrld Bank 2006; Wrld Bank 2007). Strategically imprtant questins are als ften verlked, which results in a failure t explicitly link capacity develpment effrts t lcal pririties, and cnduct jint evaluatin with partners. The Capacity Develpment Results Framewrk, develped ver the past 3 years by the Wrld Bank Institute, addresses the abve issues and prmtes a cmmn and systematic apprach t the identificatin, design, and mnitring and evaluatin f learning fr capacity develpment. The Framewrk and assciated standardized indicatrs presented here hld ut the prmise f raising the effectiveness f resurces devted t capacity develpment by revealing clearly what wrks and what des nt wrk. It is hped that this guide will be used nt just by the Wrld Bank and ther multilateral and bilateral prviders f develpment assistance, but als by natinal and sub-natinal teams respnsible fr setting and implementing develpment gals. Our bjective is t prmte experimentatin and learning that wuld prmte harmnizatin in managing capacity develpment results, a stated gal f the Paris Declaratin n Aid Effectiveness. 2 The Capacity Develpment Results Framewrk was develped by a team led by Samuel Ot and cmprising Natalia Agapitva, Jy Behrens, Chirine Alameddine, Vilaine Le Ruzic, and Zhengfang Shi. Cmments and ther cntributins were prvided by Andrew Fllmer, Han Fraeters, Jenny Gld, Nidhi Khattri, Brun Laprte, Brian Levy, Nadim Matta, Maurya West Meiers Sanjay Pradhan, and Gail Richardsn. Editrial assistance was prvided by Steven Kennedy, Diane Ullius, Sharn Fisher, and Pamela Cubberly. The Framewrk was the subject f tw videcnference cnsultatins, in which senir practitiners frm capacity develpment prgrams in Ethipia, Ghana and Uganda as well as internatinal, natinal, and reginal learning-fcused capacity develpment rganizatins prvided feedback. In additin, the Framewrk was presented fr cmments during the internatinal frum, Imprving the Results f Learning fr Capacity Building, which tk place in Washingtn, DC in June The frum discussants were Adebye Adeyemu, Jennifer Clville, and Gisu Mhadjer.rld Bank). The Framewrk remains a wrk in prgress. The authrs invite inquiries and feedback n the Framewrk itself and n the tls ffered in the annexes, which are designed fr use in implementing the Framewrk. 2 The dnr signatries t the Paris Declaratin agreed t align their analytical and financial supprt with the capacity bjectives and strategies articulated by aid recipients. They als agreed t harmnize their apprach t capacity develpment arund a study f gd practices prepared by the Develpment Assistance Cmmittee f the Organisatin fr Ecnmic C-peratin and Develpment (OECD). See OECD 2006b. 2

8 Tw essential definitins As a first step in addressing the deficiencies nted abve we will prpse tw peratinal definitins first f capacity fr develpment and then f capacity develpment (r capacity building). Capacity fr develpment is the availability f resurces and the efficiency and effectiveness with which scieties deply thse resurces t identify and pursue their develpment gals n a sustainable basis. This definitin relies n three subsidiary definitins: The availability f resurces (human, financial, technical) is a necessary but nt sufficient cnditin fr achieving the develpment gals f a sciety r an administrative entity. The effectiveness and efficiency with which resurces are acquired and used depend n specific cnfiguratins f sciplitical, plicy-related (institutinal), and rganizatinal factrs that cnditin the behavir f plitical and ecnmic actrs. Scial and ecnmic develpment is sustainable when results and perfrmance are lcally wned and can be replicated and scaled up by lcal actrs. The availability f resurces is an nging challenge fr develpment. Natinal resurce endwments are a cmplex mix f renewable and nnrenewable gds that respnd variably t changes in the less tangible cmpnents f capacity fr develpment. But resurces endwments, and particularly endwments f natural resurces, are nt ur fcus here, fr it is typically deficiencies in intangible sciplitical, plicy-related, and rganizatinal factrs hereafter referred t as capacity factrs that cnstrain perfrmance and results. Thse intangibles affect the extent t which develpment gals are lcally embraced r wned and thus hw vigrusly they are pursued. They als determine the efficiency and effectiveness with which available resurces are used t achieve gals (Wrld Bank 2002). Increasing the capacity fr develpment, by extensin, is a prcess f sciplitical, plicy-related, and rganizatinal change. The Capacity Develpment Results Framewrk psits that this prcess is driven primarily by changes in hw knwledge and infrmatin are applied at varius levels f a sciety that is, by learning. This brings us t ur secnd definitin. Capacity develpment is a lcally driven prcess f learning by leaders, calitins and ther agents f change that brings abut changes in sciplitical, plicy-related, and rganizatinal factrs t enhance lcal wnership fr and the effectiveness and efficiency f effrts t achieve a develpment gal. This change hypthesis, rted in the institutinal ecnmic literature, and the related definitin f learning as a strategic instrument f ecnmic and scial change, are the fundatinal cncepts f the Framewrk. The Framewrk s key features In peratin, the Framewrk is applied t the design and implementatin f transfrmatinal learning interventins t bring abut lcally wned changes in sciplitical, plicy-related, and rganizatinal factrs t advance particular develpment gals. Individuals and grups f individuals are seen as agents f change wh act n thse sciplitical, plicy-related, and rganizatinal factrs. 3

9 Many different instruments can be marshaled t supprt the identified change prcesses. Examples include plicy-based lans, investment prjects, analytical studies, impact and ther evaluatins, technical assistance, and external training. All have a ptentially transfrmatinal rle. The key is t design and implement the embedded learning interventins strategically t engage with and help drive lcal change prcesses. T d this, capacity develpment practitiners must understand the ptential f targeted individuals r grups t bring abut favrable change. Capacity develpment effrts whether stand-alne prgrams (with cmplementary resurce inputs made available separately if needed) r cntained in lending prjects are just a part f the larger prcess f develpment, as shwn in figure 1.1. Figure 1.1 Capacity develpment as a part f the develpment prcess Develpment gal Capacity Resurces Financial capital Infrastructure Technlgy Other endwments Lans, grants Analysis, studies, evaluatins Dnr aid crdinatin Lcal wnership, effectiveness and efficiency f resurce use Sciplitical envirnment Plicy instruments Organizatinal arrangements Change Learning Learning activities The main technical features f the CDRF include a standard set f indicatrs f capacity factrs that can be enhanced thrugh learning t favr the achievement f develpment gals. These capacity indicatrs may be custmized t particular situatins but shuld always remain measurable. The indicatrs express: The cnduciveness f the sciplitical envirnment t achievement f the gals The efficiency f the plicy instruments and ther frmal means by which the sciety guides actin t achieve the gals The effectiveness f the rganizatinal arrangements that stakehlders in gvernment and utside gvernment adpt t achieve the gals. 4

10 The capacity indicatrs specified by the Framewrk can be used as the basic units f analysis fr assessments f capacity needs in a brad range f strategy and peratinal cntexts, and t guide the definitin and measurement f the impact f capacity develpment prgrams acrss cuntries r in varius ecnmic sectrs and thematic areas. The Framewrk als prvides a typlgy f learning utcmes (utlined in part 2) that can be used t guide the design f capacity develpment prgrams and t capture the mre immediate results f prgram activities. Like the capacity indicatrs, the learning utcmes may be custmized t fit specific prgrams but shuld always remain measurable. T sum up, the key features f the CDRF include the fllwing: Emphasis n changes in the use f knwledge and infrmatin that empwer lcal agents Fcus n change effrts targeting institutinal and plicy-related cnstraints and pprtunities Use f standardized indicatrs fr needs assessment and results measurement Integratin f M&E at all stages f capacity develpment prgrams t prmte adaptive management Multiple uses f the Framewrk The CDRF can imprve capacity develpment strategies and prgrams at varius stages and in varius ways (bx 1.1). Fr example, it can be used t plan and design prgrams at varius levels (bth stand-alne prgrams and cmpnents f larger develpment strategies), t manage prgrams that are under way, and t evaluate cmpleted prgrams. It can als prvide a lgical structure fr cllabrative use f diverse learning and change management tls and techniques. Strategic planning and cmmunicatin. The CDRF can be applied t clarify develpment bjectives, assess prevailing capacity factrs, identify apprpriate agents f change and change prcesses, and design effective capacity develpment strategies and prgrams. By fcusing attentin n change in sciplitical, plicyrelated, and rganizatinal factrs, the CDRF requires stakehlders and practitiners t think thrugh and trace ut the relatinships between a defined set f variables and a given develpment gal in cntext and t map ut the change prcesses that are t be facilitated by learning. The Framewrk emphasizes cuntry wnership by anchring the capacity develpment effrt in a specific develpment gal and encuraging analysis and pen discussin amng stakehlders abut sciplitical frces and 5 Bx 1.1 Seven uses fr the Capacity Develpment Results Framewrk T guide capacity needs assessments and identify capacity cnstraints T engage stakehlders in the entire prgram cycle and ensure lcal wnership T define capacity develpment strategies t apply at cmmunity, reginal, r cuntry levels T build indicatrs int prgram design t track prgress and, when necessary, adjust prgram fr imprved adaptive management T assess prgram results achieved, as well as results-rientatin f prgram design and actual implementatin T cmmunicate meaningful results t diverse stakehlders, ther practitiners, and dnrs T cmpare prgrams and determine what des and des nt wrk t advance practice

11 incentives. It als prvides a cmmn vcabulary fr cmmunicating infrmatin abut the gals, bjectives, and achievements f a capacity develpment prgram in varius cntexts and situatins. The benefits f this imprved clarity cannt be veremphasized. Withut cmmunicatin, cnsensus is likely t remain elusive. Withut cnsensus, sustainable change is unlikely t ccur. Prgram design and adaptive management. The CDRF articulates a cmplete results chain that bridges the gap ften fund between brad verall bjectives and the design f specific capacity develpment activities. It des this by fcusing attentin n characteristics f the capacity cntext that can be altered by agents f change empwered by learning, and by setting targets and prviding indicatrs fr measuring prgress at any time during the prgram. The Framewrk encurages inclusive engagement f lcal stakehlders thrughut the prgram cycle, helping t prmte cnsensus and ensure cuntry wnership f the capacity develpment prgram. It als prvides a lgic within which capacity factrs can be assessed in light f measurable evidence, with particular attentin t hw learning can be designed t make the capacity factrs mre favrable t specific develpment gals. An imprtant cntributin f the Framewrk is that the benchmarks r measures develped fr such assessments can and shuld! be mined regularly during implementatin fr infrmatin n hw the prgram is perfrming. Practitiners can use infrmatin gleaned frm such assessments t manage adaptively and make mid-curse changes. Mnitring and evaluatin. The standardized sets f measurable capacity indicatrs and learning utcmes ffered by the CDRF can imprve capacity develpment practice by facilitating: The identificatin f indicatrs f prgram utcmes at varius levels and the benchmarking f thse indicatrs The harmnizatin f practices used t mnitr and evaluate capacity develpment prgrams, thus reducing the cst f mnitring and evaluatin and permitting cmparisns acrss prgrams and sectrs Imprved understanding f the effectiveness f varius capacity develpment strategies and instruments. The CDRF can help address a persistent prblem in the assessment f the results f capacity develpment prgrams that impacts and utcmes are difficult t measure. Using the CDRF, prgram teams can cnvert qualitative descriptins int quantitative infrmatin. Attentin t indicatrs is built int prgram design under the CDRF, and evaluatin techniques that enable the cnversin f qualitative t quantitative data are incrprated mre easily at the design stage than at later stages. Examples f techniques that can be used include surveys, beneficiary assessments, rapid appraisals, and fcus grup interviews with structured questins. The infrmatin gained thrugh these techniques may be used t calculate nminal measures, rank rderings f categries, and frequency distributins As illustrated in this guide, where the CDRF is applied t the full cycle f a capacity develpment prgram, the Framewrk emphasizes a multi-step iterative prcess f mnitring and evaluatin fcusing n learning utcmes and changes in indicatrs f capacity. This prcess is designed t ensure cntinuus and careful attentin t results, alng with flexibility t accmmdate new infrmatin r circumstances during design r implementatin. At cmpletin, fr the majrity f prgrams the CDRF relies n a self- 6

12 assessment mdel fr evaluatin f the cmplete chain f results using externally verifiable evidence f achievement f learning utcmes and changes in capacity indicatrs. Self-assessment shuld be cmplemented by independent evaluatin, including impact evaluatin, in the case f high-value prgrams. Fr high value prgrams, the evaluatin design and data cllectin arrangements fr subsequent impact evaluatin need t be put in place at the beginning f the prgram. Applicatin f the Framewrk als encurages strengthening f the mnitring and evaluatin capabilities f partners and a culture f managing fr results. Reading and applying this guide The Framewrk can be used in varius circumstances and at different levels: frm designing a natinal strategy fr capacity develpment, t ex-pst evaluatin f prgrams r prgram cmpnents. This guide demnstrates ne f the applicatins f the CDRF; the cmplete cycle f a capacity develpment prgram frm needs assessment stage t design, mnitring and evaluatin, and reprting f final results. Nt all applicatins f the Framewrk will invlve all f the cycle stages r steps presented here, r in the same sequence. If the Framewrk were used t design a natinal strategy fr capacity develpment, fr example, r t evaluate a cmpleted prgram, nly sme f the steps wuld be relevant. Part 2 f this guide reviews the cnceptual fundatins f the CDRF, applied t a hypthetical capacity develpment prgram. Part 3 then describes the step-by-step applicatin f the CDRF ver the entire cycle f anther hypthetical capacity develpment prgram frm identificatin and design f the prgram, thrugh implementatin and mnitring, t cmpletin and fllw-up. The tw hypthetical cases are just tw f the many pssible prjects t which the Framewrk might be applied. The annexes ffer stand-alne tls and resurce materials that have been develped t facilitate the applicatin f CDRF t the varius stages f capacity develpment prgrams. Annex 1: Cmparisn f a CDRF Prgram Cycle with a Prgram Lgic Mdel utlines the crrespndence between the CDRF and the standard lgical framewrk (lg-frame) used in prject management. Annex 2: Steps fr Design, Mnitring, and Evaluatin f Capacity Develpment Prgrams is an expanded versin f the steps described in part 3 f the main text. Annex 3: Template fr a Prgram Lgic Dcument prvides a set f step-by-step guidelines fr the applicatin f the CDRF and suggests questins that the prgram team and stakehlders shuld address at varius stages f the prgram cycle.. Annex 4: Indicatrs f Capacity fr Develpment presents the definitins f the capacity factrs and their indicatrs, as well as examples f indicatrs, measures, and tls fr data cllectin. Annex 5: Learning Outcmes, Mdels, Methds, and Tls describes the six learning utcmes and suggested generic indicatrs, mdels, methds, and tls fr evaluating these utcmes. These materials will be refined based n feedback frm nging applicatin effrts and frm planned cnsultatins with ther stakehlders, including sectr-specific experts, abut their tls and practices. 7

13 Early applicatins f the CDRF als pint t the need t identify additinal resurces, including indicatrs and crss-cutting knw-hw abut managing change prcesses. The CDRF has recently been adpted by the Wrld Bank Institute as the verarching cnstruct fr defining and assessing the results f its capacity develpment prgrams. The Framewrk has already led, within the Wrld Bank, t the redesign f appraches t prgramming, planning, and reprting n external training and technical assistance. The redesigned appraches include new planning tls and internal reprting frmats fr external training and technical assistance within the Wrld Bank Institute and new draft Bankwide guidelines fr external training. Effrts are nging t test additinal uses f the CDRF cncept in Wrld Bank peratins, ntably in the knwledge services. Outside the Wrld Bank, there is als cnsiderable interest in the CDRF amng institutins devted t develpment learning. This is a critical partner grup fr cnsultatin abut the Framewrk as the Wrld Bank Institute seeks t prmte a cmmn and systematic apprach t the specificatin, design, and mnitring and evaluatin f capacity develpment prgrams. The CDRF is being applied in a number f prgrams, including investment prjects, technical assistance, and multiyear training prgrams. Amng the thematic areas cvered are public financial management, trade and custms, crprate financial reprting, health systems, rad transprt, municipal management, regulatry refrm,. The varius applicatins emphasize different uses f the CDRF fr strategic planning and prgram design; fr mnitring f prgram implementatin; and fr evaluatin f results. The lessns frm these applicatins are critical, and will be dcumented in the cming year. 8

14 Part 2 - Basic principles f the Capacity Develpment Results Framewrk As suggested in part 1, a capacity develpment prgram is any cherent set f learning activities that is intended t facilitate lcally wned sciplitical, plicy-related, and rganizatinal change in pursuit f a specific develpment gal. The Capacity Develpment Results Framewrk (CDRF r the Framewrk) ffers a structure within which t cnnect such prgrams t bservable results. The main elements f the framewrk, illustrated in figure 2.1, are: A clearly specified develpment gal r set f gals that mtivates the capacity develpment effrt Three capacity factrs that determine the extent f lcal wnership f the effrt t achieve the stated develpment gal(s), as well as the efficiency and effectiveness f that effrt. The three capacity factrs are: Cnduciveness f the sciplitical envirnment Efficiency f plicy instruments Effectiveness f the rganizatinal arrangements A change prcess that leads t imprvements in the targeted capacity factrs at the hands f agents f change empwered thrugh learning Activities and instruments designed t achieve the necessary learning utcmes fr the agents f change. The Framewrk takes as its pint f departure this assumptin: The likelihd that a develpment gal will be achieved, given a specific set f capacity factrs, can be assessed in terms f particular indicatrs f thse factrs. These capacity indicatrs are therefre the primary peratinal targets f any capacity develpment prgram. The capacity indicatrs are measurable, s as t permit analysis and benchmarking. The capacity indicatrs (which are described mre fully belw) have been defined in terms that allw their applicatin in a brad range f situatins. Specific measures f the indicatrs need t be custmized t the particular cntext. Thrugh these measurable capacity factrs and capacity indicatrs, the CDRF prvides a cmmn framewrk fr: Analyzing capacity cnstraints and pprtunities with respect t any develpment gal in a cuntry r lcal cntext Understanding the need fr capacity develpment Cmmunicating abut the results f capacity develpment effrts. 9

15 The CDRF als ffers a typlgy f six learning utcmes t capture the immediate results f capacity develpment effrts as reflected in the behavir f agents f change. By linking prgram activities t develpment gals thrugh capacity indicatrs and learning utcmes, the CDRF prvides a structured change-prcess lgic. This apprach prvides cncrete evidence f the results f capacity develpment effrts. It als makes it pssible t design and manage capacity develpment prgrams adaptively and t mnitr, evaluate, and learn frm results. Learning utcmes measure change at the level f the agent (whether individual r grup f individuals). Capacity indicatrs measure whether the actins taken by the agent f change after learning have a favrable impact n the larger system that cnditins the achievement f the develpment gal. Figure 2.1 Principal elements f the Capacity Develpment Results Framewrk Capacity fr achieving a develpment gal Lcal wnership, effectiveness, and efficiency f resurce use Cnduciveness f sciplitical envirnment Efficiency f plicy instruments Effectiveness f rganizatinal arrangements Change prcess driven by change agents Learning utcmes Activities T begin a specific gal n which all can agree Capacity develpment effrts shuld be aimed at a specific gal marked by strng cnsensus amng stakehlders and wned by natinal leaders (r the leaders f whatever administrative entity is respnsible fr the prject). A lcal champin shuld set the gal and assume respnsibility fr its 10

16 attainment. This underlying gal shuld be well defined, and its ecnmic and scial value clearly articulated, because it determines the purpse and directin f capacity develpment effrts. In cnjunctin with stakehlders, the capacity develpment prgram team shuld review and validate (r embrace) the develpment gal, agreeing n a specific definitin and target. The team shuld identify the primary stakehlders interested in the gal and understand hw the gal is bserved and measured by thse stakehlders. The gal shuld derive frm a brader lng-term develpment strategy (sectr, cuntry, r reginal) that establishes the pririty and cmpatibility f the gal with ther develpment pririties. Examples include natinal develpment strategies, five-year plans, and visins fr the future. Other examples f such strategies include the cuntry assistance strategies and pverty reductin strategies wrked ut between the Wrld Bank and its member brrwers. Three factrs determine capacity t achieve develpment gals Human and financial capital, natural resurces, and ther endwments can influence whether a develpment gal can be achieved in a given timeframe, but depending n the three capacity factrs mentined abve, and elabrated belw, achievement may be delayed r blcked altgether. The three capacity factrs that affect the achievement f develpment gals are: Cnduciveness f the sciplitical envirnment, made up f the plitical and scial frces that determine the pririty given t the develpment gal by the gvernment, the private sectr, and civil sciety. Efficiency f plicy instruments, r the frmal mechanisms t be used t guide stakehlder actins tward achievement f the develpment gal. Thse frmal mechanisms include administrative rules, laws, regulatins, and standards. Effectiveness f rganizatinal arrangements, r the systems, rules f actin, prcesses, persnnel, and ther resurces that gvernment and nn-gvernment stakehlders bring tgether t achieve develpment gals. The three capacity factrs are, f curse, interdependent, but separating them as prpsed in the Framewrk allws practitiners t identify and act n pprtunities and cnstraints t the achievement f a given develpment gal mre precisely. In particular, it allws fr clearer identificatin f issues related t plitical and scial pririties and decisins, as distinct frm mre technical issues such as decisins abut plicy instruments t guide behavir tward achievement f the gal. Any assessment f the capacity factrs, hwever, wuld be highly subjective and difficult t translate int peratinal slutins withut standardized indicatrs that break the factrs dwn int bservable and measurable units. Standard indicatrs fr each capacity factr, adaptable t cntexts The CDRF draws n varius strands f ecnmic literature t define a standard set f generic indicatrs f the cnduciveness f the sciplitical envirnment, the efficiency f plicy instruments, and the effectiveness f the rganizatinal arrangements implicated in the achievement f develpment 11

17 gals (table 2.1). 3 The indicatrs are bradly defined under the CDRF t prvide a cmprehensive list fr review during capacity needs assessment and t facilitate the measurement f prgress and final evaluatin f results. In every case, specific capacity develpment indicatrs will be devised, based n the generic indicatrs but cntaining case-specific infrmatin abut the develpment gal, invlved stakehlders, and ther particularities f the cntext f the capacity develpment effrt. Just as the cnfiguratin f sciplitical, plicy-related, and rganizatinal factrs relevant t the achievement f a given develpment gal is cntext-specific, s the indicatrs f thse factrs must be custmized t their setting. Thus the CDRF des nt assume that ne technlgy r a single set f predetermined functins is required t achieve all develpment gals r a given develpment gal acrss all cuntries. An imprtant part f the setup f a prgram under CDRF is t define which f the capacity indicatrs wuld be relevant fr a particular develpment gal, hw these indicatrs wuld be made peratinal fr the particular envirnment in which a prgram perates, and what kind f externally verifiable infrmatin wuld be cllected abut each f the relevant indicatrs. In practice, ne r mre f these capacity indicatrs, which are presented in mre detail in table 2.1, will be selected t measure psitive change in each capacity factr. The selectin will be based n the particular develpment gal and the cuntry r lcal cntext, as explred in the next sectin. The indicatrs are defined s that the greater the amunt r extent f the indicatr, the mre favrable the capacity factr will be t achieving the develpment gal. Annex 4 prvides a detailed example f hw capacity factrs and their indicatrs can be measured in specific cntexts. Table 2.1 Standard indicatrs fr the three capacity factrs Indicatrs Descriptin f indicatrs 2.1a Standard indicatrs f the cnduciveness f the sciplitical envirnment Cmmitment f leaders t the develpment gal (DG) Cmpatibility f the DG with scial nrms and values Stakehlder participatin in decisins abut the DG Stakehlder vice in decisins abut the DG Accuntability f public service prviders fr achieving the DG Transparency f infrmatin t stakehlders abut the DG: Scial and plitical leaders cnsistently and frequently make statements r take leadership actins and decisins supprting the DG. Scial nrms and beliefs that underpin the behavir f stakehlders are cmpatible with the develpment gal. Decisin-making prcesses abut the DG cnsider all stakehlder pinins, and gvernment and ther rgans f the state are respnsive t the views f civil sciety and the private sectr. Stakehlders knw their rights related t the DG, claim thse rights, and cmmunicate their grievances and prpsals fr change t the gvernment and legislature. Gvernment and ther public service entities take accunt f and respnsibility fr the apprpriateness f their plicies and actins in relatin t the DG. If public fficials and ther public service prviders fail t meet expectatins abut achievement f the DG, stakehlders hld them accuntable fr their cnduct and perfrmance. Gvernment and ther public service entities prvide accurate, relevant, verifiable, and timely infrmatin abut the DG and explain actins cncerning the DG in terms that stakehlders and ther stakehlders can use t make decisins 3 Examples f that literature include Acemglu, Jhnsn, Rbinsn, and Thaicharen (2002), Finsterbusch (2006), Harrisn (2005), Hff (2003), Nrth (1990 and 2005), and Wrld Bank (2002 and 2004a). 12

18 Indicatrs Descriptin f indicatrs 2.1b Standard indicatrs f the efficiency f plicy instruments Clarity f the plicy instrument in defining DG and the related rights and respnsibilities f stakehlders Cnsistency f the plicy instrument that defines the DG with plicy instruments fr ther DGs Legitimacy f the plicy instrument Incentives fr cmpliance prvided by the plicy instrument Administrative ease f implementing the plicy instrument Freedm f plicy instrument frm unintended negative cnsequences Flexibility f the plicy instrument in addressing varying DG situatins Resistance f plicy instrument t crruptin, rent seeking, and regulatry capture The rights and respnsibilities f stakehlders related t the DG are clearly defined and specified. Stakehlders have a cmmn understanding f the plicy gal and the targets f any specified regulatins. The authrities and prcesses cncerning the plicy instrument are clear. Plicy instruments related t the DG are cnsistent with each ther. Plicy instruments related t the DG are cnsistent with plicy instruments fr ther DGs. Stakehlders have a cmmn understanding f the plicy gal and the targets f any specified regulatins. Prcesses fr decisins abut plicy instrument are infrmed, transparent, participatry, and deliberate. Plicy instrument is perceived as desirable and apprpriate within the lcal system f nrms, values, beliefs, and definitins. The actins and sanctins prescribed by the plicy are perceived as fair by stakehlders. Rights t appeal are assured. The plicy instrument impses lw transactin csts fr cmpliance and facilitates desired ecnmic and scial exchange activities related t the DG by reducing uncertainty and ther csts t the participants in these transactins. Duty bearers specified by the plicy instrument are able t execute their respnsibilities readily and effectively, and withut undue csts in terms f time and resurces. The plicy instrument minimizes unintended negative impacts in DG-related transactins. Plicy instruments are predictably flexible in addressing varying situatins. Plicy instruments allw fr timely revisin when the underlying scial and plitical circumstances have changed. Plicy instruments minimize pprtunities fr crruptin, include mechanisms t mnitr and reprt crruptin, and prvide credible and enfrceable penalties fr crrupt behavir. Plicy instruments d nt reflect the effrts f vested interests t manipulate the ecnmic and/r legal envirnment t secure undue privileges r cmpensatin at the expense f the greater public gd 2.1c Standard indicatrs f the effectiveness f rganizatinal arrangements Clarity f missin with respect t the DG Achievement f utcmes that lead directly t attainment f the DG Operatinal efficiency in prducing DG-related utputs Financial viability and prbity Supprtiveness f stakehlders Adaptability in anticipating and respnding t change: The visin and missin f the rganizatin are strngly aligned with the DG and clearly articulated, and prvide its members with clear pints f reference fr making decisins and gaining cmmitment frm management, staff, and ther stakehlders t wrk tward the DG. The mandate f the rganizatin is recgnized by relevant stakehlders. The rganizatin cnsistently achieves utcmes that lead directly t the DG expressed in its missin statement. a a. Althugh gal attainment is cncerned with utcmes, the next indicatr, peratinal efficiency, fcuses n utput. The strategies, inputs, prcesses, and technlgy f the rganizatin are managed t ptimize the quantity and quality f utput relative t the cst f accmplishing its DG-related gals. The rganizatin sustainably secures the funds needed t cver its perating csts. Sund financial management, including reprting f externally verified accunts, helps t ensure that the resurces f the rganizatin are allcated effectively t achieve its gals. The rganizatin seeks the supprt f stakehlders fr its DG-related wrk. Organizatinal decisinmaking and peratinal prcesses invlve cnsultatins with apprpriate stakehlders. The rganizatin regularly mnitrs its internal and external envirnment fr infrmatin relevant t the DG and is practive in adapting its strategy accrdingly. The rganizatin encurages innvatin, manages knwledge, and creates and/r adapts t new technlgies. 13

19 Assessing capacity factrs with reference t a hypthetical case T better illustrate the fllwing pints, a hypthetical case f a develping cuntry is presented belw, where agricultural incme has been decreasing year by year due t deterirating prductin levels, aggravating pverty in rural areas. Increasing agricultural prductivity becmes ne f the pririty areas fr the Gvernment. After due cnsultatins and deliberatins, the gvernment sets a stretch gal f increasing farmer s access t wrking capital thrugh private finance by 75 percent in five years. T help farmers btain lans, the gvernment intends t establish a land-titling system that will facilitate landwners pledging their farms as cllateral. The gvernment als cnducts an integrated assessment f capacity factrs related t the situatin in rder t devise a strategy fr realizing this gal. The assessment raises issues affecting all three capacity factrs (figure 2.2), suggesting sme f the indicatrs presented in table 2.2. Sciplitical envirnment. It may be necessary t address the reluctance f rural cmmunities t use land as cllateral fr credit because f their belief that ding s is equivalent t selling the land utright. (Indicatr: cmpatibility f the develpment gal with scial nrms.) Plicy instruments. Cntradictry and cmplex administrative regulatins will have t be simplified and prcesses streamlined t lwer the cst t farmers f btaining land titles. Inheritance laws and legislatin gverning prperty rights may need clarificatin. (Indicatrs: incentives fr cmpliance, lw administrative burden, and lw negative externalities.) Organizatinal arrangements. The ability f the land administratin agency t prcess and issue land titles must be strengthened, fr example thrugh training in mdern techniques and use f technlgy. (Indicatr: peratinal efficiency in prducing utputs related t the develpment gal.) Figure 2.2 Framing cntext-specific questins t prbe the capacity factrs relevant t a particular develpment gal Capacity t imprve farmers access t wrking capital Sciplitical envirnment Questin t address at the need assessment stage Is the sciplitical envirnment cnducive t achieving the develpment gal? Example: Are the prevailing attitudes in rural cmmunities favrable t the use f land as cllateral fr credit? Plicy instruments Questin t address at the need assessment stage: Are the available plicy instruments efficient fr achieving the develpment gal? Example: D the inheritance laws and legislatin gverning prperty rights need clarificatin? Organizatinal arrangements Questin t address at the need assessment stage: Are adequate rganizatinal arrangements in place fr achieving the develpment gal? Examples: Des the land administratin agency have sufficient capability t issue land titles? 14

20 Once frmulated, the chsen capacity indicatrs will guide the identificatin f specific measures fr assessing the prcess f change tward greater capacity t achieve the develpment gal. The examples in table 2.2 illustrate this lgic fr each capacity factr. Table 2.2 Frm gal t data: generic and specific indicatrs and measures f three capacity factrs with reference t a hypthetical develpment gal Develpment gal Imprve farmers access t wrking capital thrugh increase in frmal lending frm private investrs by 75% in five years Capacity factrs Cnducive sciplitical envirnment Efficient plicy instruments Effective rganizatinal arrangements Related issues Generic capacity develpment indicatrs Specific capacity develpment indicatrs (specific t this develpment gal) Measures Tls fr data cllectin Resistance f rural cmmunities t use f land as cllateral fr credit because f the belief that ding s is equivalent t selling the land utright Cmpatibility f the DG with scial nrms and values Share f farmers wh believe that pledging land as cllateral des nt equate with selling, and that the land title will increase the value f their land. Cmmunal leaders are supprtive f the use f frmal credit Percentage f survey respndents that believe that pledging land as cllateral des nt equate with selling Percentage f survey respndents that believe that the land title will increase the value f their land Ppulatin-based survey Cmplex administrative regulatins impse high csts f registratin f land titles High incentives prvided by the plicy instrument fr cmpliance Cst f land registratin Cst fr farmers in their dealings with gvernment authrities t btain land titles Surveys/interviews f farmers wh received land titles abut csts f dealing with land authrities Land-administratin agency has a backlg f registratin applicatins Operatinal efficiency in prducing DG-related utputs Land administratin issues the titles within the established timeframe Percentage f land titles issued n time accrding t administrative prcedures Statistics frm land administratin database The change prcess: imprving capacity factrs by empwering agents f change with knwledge and infrmatin The central thesis f the CDRF is that thrugh the acquisitin f new knwledge and infrmatin that is, thrugh learning agents f change can enhance the cnduciveness f the sciplitical envirnment, the efficiency f plicy instruments, and the effectiveness f rganizatinal arrangements and s cntribute t the achievement f develpment gals (Nrth 2005). New knwledge and infrmatin can shift the pwer balance and relatinship amng elements f sciety (state, civil sciety, etc.), pssibly leading t alteratin f the sciety s decisin-making framewrk r belief systems. Fr instance, a skill-building prgram fr parliamentarians and their staffs may result in imprved budgetary versight and enhanced plitical accuntability. Knwledge and infrmatin can imprve stakehlders understanding f a given situatin r cntext, including hw institutins can affect behavirs. Placing knwledge and infrmatin in the hands f new r different stakehlders can even change pwer relatins and the dynamics f decisin-making. 15

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