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1 Project number: EIE Grant Agreement EIE/031/S Publishable result-oriented report WP 1 Co-ordination and Management PUBBLICATO (PAD ) Deliverable D 1.9 Progressive Number 4 Date: December 2007 Supported by Elaborato Verificato Ciceri Giovanni (ASV) AUT Negri Antonio Nicola (ASV) VER Approvato Negri Antonio Nicola (ASV) APP The sole responsibility for the content of this publication lies with the authors. It does not represent the opinion of the Community. The European Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therei CESI RICERCA REPORT

2 Report Environment and Sustainable Development Approved Page 2/134 Contractor EC EUROPEAN COMMISSION QUOVADIS EIE/04/031/S Subject Publishable result-oriented report Contract EIE/04/0312/S07.38 Notes ORDER PROT. A QUOVADIS PROJECT EIE PROGRAM GRANT AGREEMENT n. EIE/04/031/S Partial reproduction of this document is permitted only with the written permission from CESI RICERCA. N. of pages 134 N. of pages annexed Issue date December 31, 2006 Prepared ASV G. CICERI Mod. RAPP v. 05 Verified Approved ASV A. NEGRI ASV A. NEGRI CESI RICERCA S.p.A. Via R. Rubattino Milano - Italia Telefono Fax Capitale sociale Euro interamente versato Registro Imprese di Milano, C.F. e P.IVA N. R.E.A ISO 9001: 2000 CH-32919

3 Report Environment and Sustainable Development Approved Page 3/134 Table of contents ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION The quovadis Consortium Quovadis Project: objective and expected results OVERVIEW OF THE ACTIVITIES Work Package 2 - An holistic approach towards quality management and classification at a glance Summary of activities and results Conclusions Work Package 3 Validation exercise Identification and sampling of representative SRF for the production of test materials Production and characterisation of the test materials for validation studies Validation exercises according to ISO-Standard 5725: organization and statistical treatment Work Package 4 - Sampling Introduction Objectives Deliverables Validation of sampling procedures Validation testing sample preparation Ruggedness testing Work Package 5 - Physical parameters Introduction Experimental methods Results Summary and recommendations Work Package 6 Chemical Parameters Objectives Results Work Package 7 : Biological Content Introduction Research programme Results Résumé Literature Work Package 8: Data Collection Activities General characteristic of the CEE Region countries Work Pak 9 Dissemination QUOVADIS Waste-to-fuel conversion? A thinkshop was held at the JRC of Ispra on April 28 and 29, Workshop on actual and potential production and use of SRF, Warsaw on June 13-17, 2005; Workshop in Larnaca (CYPRUS), June presentation of the QUOVADIS Project at the International Solid Waste Association Conference that was held in Buenos Aires on November 6-10, Contractor's meeting in Brussels, 4-5 December Copyright 2008 by CESI RICERCA. All rights reserved - Activity code 287L

4 Report Environment and Sustainable Development Approved Page 4/ Classification, Characterisation and Quality Management of Solid Recovered Fuels, Rome, October 23-25, Other specific paper and publication Short description Expected and/or achieved results Lessons learnt Copyright 2008 by CESI RICERCA. All rights reserved - Activity code 287L

5 Report Environment and Sustainable Development Approved Page 5/134 REVISIONS HISTORY Revision Date Protocol List of modifications and/or modified paragraphs number 0 31/12/

6 Report Environment and Sustainable Development Approved Page 6/134 ABSTRACT Solid Recovered Fuels (SRF) are fuels prepared from non-hazardous waste to be utilised for energy recovery in waste incineration or co-incineration plants regulated under Community environmental legislation. In practice, co-incineration of SRF requires a stable supply of pretreated and homogenized waste upgraded to a fuel quality that can be traded amongst producers and users of SRF. This implies specifications that are included in commercial transactions for SRF. For combustible wastes not suitable for environmentally sound recycling, such appropriate specifications for their preparation could usefully be included in European Standards. SRFs are composed of a variety of materials of which some although recyclable may have been made available in such a form that recycling is not environmentally sound. On the one hand, materials collected and/or sorted and prepared into a recyclable form should not be considered as SRFs. On the other hand, recyclable materials should not be excluded from SRFs because such an exclusion could lead to disposal of these materials and wastage of the resources embedded in them. It must be stressed that SRF-technology will lead to a significant reduction of waste disposal on landfill sites. Therefore, it is of considerable importance for a sustainable waste management in the EU. For the time being, a number of issues are still to be considered in order to push the acceptance of SRFs in Europe; a system of quality control and classification for SRFs is one of the key points in this sense: until such a system is not established and widely accepted, end users will still be reluctant to buy and utilize SRFs whose quality and composition is not well known and constant during time. It s therefore necessary that methods and criteria to be used for characterization and classification of SRFs are standardized, validated and adopted by all actors who intend to participate to a single, global market system. The way to this goal is through the definition of European technical standards that cover the whole process: sampling, sample treatment, methods for chemical and physical parameters determination, classification and quality system. European Commission issued mandate M/325 to CEN in order to develop Technical Specifications and European standards for characterization and classification of SRFs. CEN TC 343 Solid Recovered Fuels developed a number of Technical Specifications on SRFs, that need to be validated and published as ENs (European Standards). The QUOVADIS-Project aims to deliver the methodological/performance characteristics of uncertainty of CEN standards on quality management and SRF-specification. The objectives of QUOVADIS project are in close agreement with the European Union's policy in the field of energy, which supports the promotion of a sustainable development in the energy context and a sustainable and more efficient energy systems and new technology to accelerate the penetration of the market, stimulating new investments. This aim is achieved also through the development of validated standards and Quality Management System and results dissemination for the removal of market barriers in EU-25. To meet these requirements, the QUOVADIS consortium proposes a thorough programme of validation covering (a) examination of the implementation of quality-management to the whole production process, and (b) validation exercises based on Round Robins for single TS agreed in the various working groups of CEN TC 343. The TS to be validated so as to guarantee the quality of the produced SRF, can be grouped as follows: sampling statistical considerations, preparation of a laboratory sample, reduction of a laboratory sample to a test sample (CEN TC 343 WG 3); tests for chemical properties such as major and minor constituents (Cl, F, Br, S, N, C, H), heavy metals and trace elements, (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Sb, V, Zn, Al, K, Na, P, Si, Ca) (CEN TC 343 WG 5); pysical properties, such as moisture- and ash-content, volatiles and parameters such as lower heating value, grain-size/particle-size distribution (CEN TC 343 WG 4); biological parameters (biodegradable fraction) (CEN TC 343 WG 3).

7 Report Environment and Sustainable Development Approved Page 7/134 The WGs use the results from the validation tests to make necessary modifications to the TS so that they can be up-graded to draft ENs. The results of this programme will be disseminated widely and, in particular, knowledge will be transferred to the New Member States (NMS)* in the enlarged EU.

8 Report Environment and Sustainable Development Approved Page 8/134 1 INTRODUCTION Waste incineration practices are currently being diversified and optimised in terms of the efficiency of the recovery of the energy embedded in the waste. One of these tendencies is the conversion of non-hazardous waste into an adequate form for utilisation in an efficient combustion process. The fact that Directive 2000/76/EC on the incineration of waste (WID) now covers both incineration and co-incineration is inter alia recognition of the above described practices. In recital (7) of this Directive it is stated that therefore, a high level of environmental protection and human health protection requires the setting and maintaining of stringent operational conditions, technical requirements and emission limit values for plants incinerating or coincinerating waste within the Community. The limit values set should prevent or limit so far as practicable negative effects on the environment and the resulting risks to human health. In this context, the issue of trading and the need for the development of relevant standards to be used in commercial transactions and utilisation of waste-derived fuels became apparent and were addressed by various CEN Technical Committees. In Europe, in the last ten years, energy policy targets and waste management legislation gave an impetus to the usage of waste derived fuels based on non hazardous wastes. These fuels, having an average content of 50-60% on biogenics, may contribute considerably to the reduction of CO2 emission and the doubling of the share of renewable energy. Moreover, due to liberalisation and need for cost reduction, industry is interested in less expensive homogenous substitute fuels of a specified quality. At present, the main end-users are the cement and lime industry. However, the market chances in the potential bigger market of the power generation sector are increasing also due to the standardisation effort undertaken. Furthermore, the waste management sectors of the New Member States and Acceding Countries are characterised by an increasing of residual wastes quantities within the municipal solid wastes. At the moment these countries are still characterised by a large disparity between landfilling, which is the major disposal option for all categories of waste, and incineration. Solid Recovered Fuels (SRF) are prepared from non-hazardous waste and are composed of a variety of materials of which some, although recyclable in theory, may have become available in forms that made their recycling an environmentally an unsound option. Their use is regulated under EU legislation, and requires specifications for commercial and regulatory purposes. SRF are seen to offer an important contribution to a sustainable means of waste-management in then European Union (EU). Directive 2001/77/EC includes in its scope the production of electricity from biomass, being defined as the biodegradable fraction of products, wastes and residues from agriculture, forestry and related industries, as well as the biodegradable fraction of industrial and municipal waste. The CEN-Report on Solid Recovered Fuels (5th Framework Programme), Part 2, compiled by the European Commission's Joint Research Center at Ispra, recommended to DG ENV to give a mandate to CEN for drafting an European standard for SRF based under the Council Directive 2000/76/EC on the incineration of waste and the European Waste List. Consequently, the European Commission s mandate (M325) given to CEN asks to develop, as a first step, a set of Technical Specifications concerning the use of SRF for energy recovery in waste incineration or co-incineration plants and in a second step to transform this set of Technical Standards into European Standards. Due to the high importance to the EC, the mandate explicitly asks for a validation to be carried out on a minimum number of technical specifications to be decided between the Commission and the CEN Technical Board before these Technical Specifications are transformed into European Standards. This proposal focuses on the requirements of Mandate M325, i.e. the organisation and evaluation of the validation and ruggedness tests for sampling, sample pre-treatment, and measurement Technical Specification (TS) according to the general principles of ISO This includes also the preparation and distribution of 5 appropriate test materials. In addition to TS, the work will include a validation of the TS for

9 Report Environment and Sustainable Development Approved Page 9/134 Quality Management based on a cost-benefit analysis and of the TS for a SRF classification system. The project considers also the endorsement of the new standards and the respective Acquis Communautaire in the new Member States (MS). To this end, special emphasis is given the dissemination of the work results in the New Member States. The QUOVADIS-Project aims to deliver the methodological/performance characteristics of uncertainty of CEN standards on quality management and SRF-specification. 1.1 The quovadis Consortium QUOVADIS Project (funded in the frame of the programme EIE - Intelligent Energy for Europe) focuses on the requirements of Mandate M325, i.e. the organisation and evaluation of the validation and ruggedness tests for sampling, sample pre-treatment, and measurement Technical Specification (TS) according to the general principles of ISO This includes also the preparation and distribution of 5 appropriate test materials. The work will include also a validation of the TS for Quality Management based on a cost-benefit analysis and of the TS for a SRF classification system. Besides, the project considers the endorsement of the new standards and the respective Acquis Communautaire in the new Member States. To this end, special emphasis is given the dissemination of the work results in the New Member States. The project started in 2005 and its duration was 3 years. The Co-ordinator of the project was CESI RICERCA (I) and it s responsible for the work packages concerning validation of chemical parameters, data collection in the New Member States and Dissemination actions; The other main partners was: CNR (IT) CREED (FR) CTI (IT) Enel Produzione (IT) GLR (UK) INFA (DE) IRC/CNR (IT) IVD (DE) JRC (EC) REMONDIS (DE) SCORIBEL (BE) SLU (SWE) STRATENE (FR) TAUW - BW (NL) VTT (FIN) A Project Structure is described in Figure 1.This structure should allow an embedding of the aforementioned different pillars. Despite the simple primary structure the organisation of the workflow within the WPs is rather complex. A careful selection of contributors with a demonstrated expertise in their field is therefore of utmost importance. A synthetic scheme of the structure is reported as follows: Work Package 1 Duration: 36 Partecipants: CESI (IT) Coordination and Management WP Leader: Ciceri, G. (CESI - IT) Pillar 1 Quality Management and Classification Work Package 2 Duration: 36 An holistic approach towards quality management and classification WP Leader: Riva, G. (CTI - IT)

10 Report Environment and Sustainable Development Approved Page 10/134 Partecipants: CTI (IT), GLR (UK), INFA (DE), CREED (FR), RWE-U (DE) Pillar 2 Validation of technical specifications based on an intercomparison approach Work Package 3 Validation exercises production of testing materials, validation intercomparisons and statistical evaluation Duration: 36 WP Leader: Gawlik, B.M.. (JRC-IES - EU) Partecipants: JRC-IES (EU), JRC-IRMM (EU), STRATENE (FR), SCORIBEL(BE) Work Package 4 Duration: 36 Partecipants: TAUW (NL), VTT (FIN), INFA (DE) Work Package 5 Duration: 36 Partecipants: IVD (DE), SLU (SWE), VTT (FIN), IRC/CNR (IT) Work Package 6 Duration: 36 Partecipants: CESI (IT), ENEL GEM (IT), VTT (FIN) Work Package 7 Duration: 36 Partecipants: INFA (DE) Sampling WP Leader: Cuperus, J.C. (TAUW-NL) Physical Parameters WP Leader: Maier, J. (IVD, Stuttgart University-D) Chemical Parameters WP Leader: Achilli, M. (CESI-IT) Biological Parameters WP Leader: S. Flamme. (INFA-GER) Pillar 3 Enlargement perspectives and dissemination of information on the use of SRF Work Package 8 Duration: 36 Partecipants: CESI (IT) Work Package 9 Duration: 36 Partecipants: CESI (IT) Data Collection WP Leader: Ciceri, G. (CESI-IT) Dissemination of results WP Leader: Ciceri, G. (CESI-IT)

11 Report Environment and Sustainable Development Approved Page 11/134 SRFs as source for intelligent energy production supporting Community waste strategies QUOVADIS Steering Committee (DG TREN, DG ENV, DG JRC, CEN, ECOS, ERFO and other financing ntributors) co Pillar 1 2 (WP 2) A holistic approach towards Quality Management of SRF and Classification of SRF TASKS Guidelines and Standards for QM in SRF(WG 1); Database on SRF in Europe according to classification class. system system(wg 2); Evaluation Eval. of cost/benefit of cost/benefit of QMS of QMS(WG 1); Survey on existing QM-Systems for SRF(WG 1); Evaluation Eval. of environmental of benefit benefit (WG 1); Further work on classification(wg 2). Project Coordinator (WP 1) (CESI) Pillar 2 3 (WP 3-7) 3 Validation of technical Specifications based on an intercomparison approach TASKS WP 3: Production of Test Materials; Validation Intercomparisons; Ruggedness testing and validation work for: W P 4: Sampling(WG 3); WP 5: Physical parameters(wg param. 4); WP 6: Chemical Parameters(WG Param. 5); WP 7: Biological Parameters(WG Param. 3). Pillar3 (WP 8, 9) Enlargement perspectives and dissemination of information on the use of SRF TASKS WP 8:Data collection on waste management manag. with emphasis on theacs and the Mediterranean Basin. WP 9: + Dissemination Dissemin.of QUOADIS of QUOADIS -Information; + Analysis of SRF Potential in Europe; + Organisationof a SRF-Workshop in the AC; + Periodic meetings for validation exercises. Figure 1:QUOVADIS-Project Structure The QUOVADIS requires the establishment of an Advisory Steering Committee in order to guarantee an optimum flux of information between the Project Consortium and stakeholders interested in the use of solid waste recovered fuels. The ASC, whose secretariat is with the JRC IES, re-groups the following organisations and institutions: DG TREN (empty chair reserved), DG ENV, a series of industrial associations (e.g. ERFO, PlasticEurope, CEPI, CEMBUREAU, ETRA), which are direct or indirectly supporting the activities of QUOVADIS, as well as CEN TC 343, ECOS and some national stakeholders. These groups interact in the ASC with the Project co-ordinator and consortium within the framework set by the contractual requirements of QUOVADIS. Mr. B. M. Gawlik has been appointed as Secretary of the Steering Committee. The steering Committee will be composed by: the Secretary (B. M. Gawlik) the QUOVADIS Project Manager (G. Ciceri) the QUOVADIS WP's Leaders a list of financial contributors and /or stakeholder The main scope of the ASC is constructive communication between the project partners and the users of the deliverables of the project. As the issue of waste-to-fuel-to energy recovery is a very sensitive topic, the ASC shall guarantee a high transparency on the way work is performed by the project partners. Although the ASC is intended as an advisory body, the consortium members of QUOVADIS agree to consider any advice forwarded by the ASC carefully and to react upon invitation in a written form to any input received. All communication is to be channelled through the co-ordinator of the project. The ASC is designed as an open group. Interested parties can join the group at any time, but with no financial obligation whatsoever. 1.2 Quovadis Project: objective and expected results

12 Report Environment and Sustainable Development Approved Page 12/134 The objectives of QUOVADIS project are in close agreement with the European Union's policy in the field of energy, which supports the promotion of a sustainable development in the energy context and a sustainable and more efficient energy systems and new technology to accelerate the penetration of the market, stimulating new investments. This aim is achieved also through the development of validated standards and Quality Management System and results dissemination for the removal of market barriers in EU-25. To meet these requirements, the QUOVADIS consortium proposes a thorough programme of validation covering (a) examination of the implementation of quality-management to the whole production process, and (b) validation exercises based on Round Robins for single TS agreed in the various working groups of CEN TC 343. The TS to be validated so as to guarantee the quality of the produced SRF, can be grouped as follows: sampling statistical considerations, preparation of a laboratory sample, reduction of a laboratory sample to a test sample (CEN TC 343 WG 3); tests for chemical properties such as major and minor constituents (Cl, F, Br, S, N, C, H), heavy metals and trace elements, (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Sb, V, Zn, Al, K, Na, P, Si, Ca) (CEN TC 343 WG 5); pysical properties, such as moisture- and ash-content, volatiles and parameters such as lower heating value, grain-size/particle-size distribution (CEN TC 343 WG 4); biological parameters (biodegradable fraction) (CEN TC 343 WG 3). The WGs use the results from the validation tests to make necessary modifications to the TS so that they can be up-graded to draft ENs. The results of this programme will be disseminated widely and, in particular, knowledge will be transferred to the New Member States (NMS)* in the enlarged EU. Expected results will include both direct outcomes and indirect effects of the activities described in the proposal. Main direct results are listed below: Full documentation (including round robins and ruggedness) on validated TS for 19 TS for chemical, physical, biological, and sampling to be submitted to CEN; the set of standards is composed of: sampling, (sampling and sample reduction; laboratory sample reduction to test sample); chemical parameters (minor elements -As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V, Zn-; major elements - Si, Al, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, P, Ti-; elemental analysis - C, H, N-; halogens and sulphur -Cl, Br, F, S-; metals with melting point below 700 C; digestion method before chemical analysis); physical parameters (calorific value; bulk density; moisture content; content of volatile matter; ash content; ash melting behavior; particle dimensions and particle size distribution; durability and density of pellets and briquettes; bridging properties) ; biological parameters (biodegradable fraction); Validated classification system for SRF; Documentation on the application of QM to 3 pilot plants including CBA for validation of the QM-TS; A comprehensive database on SRF in Europe considering the classification system necessary for the validation of the TS; Proceedings on 2 dissemination WS in the AC and 1 final conference event. Besides the documentation for validation as requested by mandate M325, which will support the SRF-market, the project makes a significant contribution in improving the waste management in

13 Report Environment and Sustainable Development Approved Page 13/134 the AC by dissemination of knowledge on existing options and the availability of standards supporting trade and legislation. The project is designed in a way that SRF-related industry gets into contact with partners and regulatory authorities in the AC. This should catalyse the implementation of the Acquis in these states. Promoting the use and technology development of SRF in Europe through an harmonised Quality Management and Classification System and diffusion of validated TS, this project will have both environmental, economical and social benefits.

14 Report Environment and Sustainable Development Approved Page 14/134 2 OVERVIEW OF THE ACTIVITIES 2.1 Work Package 2 - An holistic approach towards quality management and classification at a glance Work-Package 2 was focused on the validation of: the Technical Specification (TS) on Specification and Classification developed by TC 343 WG 2. This TS facilitated good understanding between seller and buyer as well as good communication with manufacturers of relevant equipment. the TS on quality-management (QM) developed by TC 343 WG 1, offered a route through which the confidence of customers and regulators on the characteristics of the fuel, and in particular, on conformity to agreed specifications, that can be established and maintained, so that SRF could become a readily accepted fuel of the future. To fulfil these main objectives, four Tasks were conceived within WP2: Task 2.1 State of the art on quality of SRF and method for Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) The required actions were: (a) to collect information on the quality of SRF at production plants throughout the EU, including those in the Mediterranean states, and to review existing QM systems applied to the production and trade of SRF at these plants; and (b) to agree the methodology to be applied to perform a cost/benefit analysis (CBA) by which the direct and environmental costs associated with the implementation of QM at the selected sites will be assessed in Task 2.4. Task 2.2 European Database on the quality of SRF and validation of the TS on classification. The required action was to develop a European database on the quality of SRF according to the classification system introduced by the TS for specification and classification and to check that this TS is fit for purpose Task 2.3 QM Guidelines. The required actions were to produce guidelines and one or more model-manuals for the application of the TS for QM systems that CEN/TC 343/WG1 finalized. Task 2.4 Implementation and validation of the TS on QM. The required action was to implement, with the assistance of the above-mentioned methodology for CBA (Task 2.1) and the guidelines for QM (Task 2.3), the TS for QM within selected sites, so as to assess benefits (and disadvantages) resulting from that implementation.

15 Report Environment and Sustainable Development Approved Page 15/134 Swedish hs PARTNERS Italy France Germany United Kingdom German hs Italian hs 1 Italian hs 2 Figure 2: Quovadis WP2 Partners & Host Sites The deliverables required in the contract with the European Commission are shown in the following table. NUMBER CONTENT MONTH D2.1 Updated list of European production plants 4 of SRF and report on CBA methodology to be used in Task 2.5 D2.2 SRF quality-data to be used in Task D2.3 Application of QM systems to the production 12 of SRFs throughout the EU D2.4 European database on SRF production 20 D2.5 Validation of TS on SRF classification and 28 QM specification and classification including recommendations to TC 343 for the eventual revision of the TS before its upgrade to a European Standard (EN) D2.6 Guidelines for the application of TS on QM to 7 selected sites D2.7 Model manual(s) for the site-specific 33 implementation of QM D2.8 Results of the implementation of QM at 33 selected sites, so as to check the validity of the draft TS on QM for SRF and to provide recommendations to TC 343 for the validation or eventual revision of the TS before its upgrade to a EN

16 Report Environment and Sustainable Development Approved Page 16/ Summary of activities and results As far as Work Package 2 is concerned, the work done was focused to the finalisation of the final definition at CEN/TC 343 level of the parameters and the classes to be considered for the implementation of the classification system. The TSs produced and approved by CEN/TC 343 were acquired as reference document for the validation exercise. Up to now the classification system was applied to the data base developed by WP2. As far as objective 3 is concerned, the work done was focused to continue and practically conclude the dissemination of the documentation on the application of QM to three selected plants, and the implementation of the Quality management System. As far as objective 4 is concerned, the work done was focused on the preparation of an updated list of European production plants of SRF in the former EU 15. Table 1: SRF identified producers over Europe, and producers providing data about plant, processes and SRF quality in respect of the classification parameters. Country Identified Producers Producers providing data Finland 21 2 Belgium 11 1 France No answer None Germany 40 8 The Netherlands 8 4 Italy Austria 19 None Greece 6 None Sweden 12 3 Portugal 3 None Denmark 1 1 Spain No plants No plants UK 4 1 Ireland No plants No plants Luxembourg No plants No plants Identified problems and corrective action taken Problems arose about the collection of data on the quality of SRF at production plants throughout the EU, including those in the Mediterranean states, but they were completely solved with an extra relevant effort spent by the WP leader and the other WP Partners. Task 2.1 State of the art on quality of SRFs and method for Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA). Considerable effort was invested by the Task Leader in seeking information on the quality of SRF at production plants throughout the EU, including those in the Mediterranean states. The first Deliverable D 2.1 Part 1 was issued on April 2005 showing the first results of the survey. Because this collection of data was so important for the validation of the TS on classification and specification, requests for support was made to the most important institutions operating in the field on European level, including all national representatives within CEN TC 343. The methodology applied to perform a CBA, by which the direct and environmental costs associated with the implementation of QM at the selected sites was assessed, was finalised and the Deliverable D 2.1 Part 2 was issued on April D 2.2 and 2.3 were issued on March 2006 (a delay in respect of the delivery date of December 2005 was asked for and Quovadis Coordinator provided a positive response on the request). Globally, a rate of responses of 50% on the state of the art of the existing QMS was provided, and a good rate in the answers on the state of the art of the SRF production was provided as well. Furthermore, the Task members cooperated in the Deliverable D 2.7 and D 2.8.

17 Report Environment and Sustainable Development Approved Page 17/134 Task 2.2 European Database on the quality of SRF and validation of the TS on classification. European database on SRF production The data, collected from Task 2.1, were checked for plausibility and analysed with a data base. All in all, data from 90 SRFs forms about 78 plants out of 10 countries were received by Task 2.2 members. If analyses results for the classification parameters NCV, Cl or Hg were available, these data were used for the following classification: 1. less than ten assays available: no categorisation possible, 2. ten or more assays available: categorisation via statistic, 3. forty or more assays available: categorisation via statistic and via random generator (RND) additional. For the above mentioned classification parameters, the results of the categorisation are shown in the following tables: Table 2: Results of NCV classification via statistic Class limit Evaluation via statistic [MJ/kg ar] Class (mean) Number of SRFs Percentages 1 > > > > > No class Total Table 3: Results of Chlorine classification via statistic Class limit Evaluation via statistic Class [% dm] (mean) Number of SRFs Percentages 1 < 0, < 0, < 1, < 1, < 3,0 1 2 Total

18 Report Environment and Sustainable Development Approved Page 18/134 Table 4: Results of Mercury classification via statistic Class limits Evaluation via statistic *) Class [mg/mj ar] [mg/mj ar] Number of (Median) (80 th percentile) SRFs Percentages 1 < 0,02 < 0, < 0,03 < 0, < 0,08 < 0, < 0,15 < 0, < 0,50 < 1, Total The detailed description of the classification procedure, the results and the discussion of them were shown in the report D 2.4 European database on SRF production according to the classification system (September 2006), which also contains the analysis of selected specification parameters. Report on the validation of TS on specification and classification including recommendations to TC 343 for the eventual revision of the TS before its upgrade to an European Standard (EN). Also the Deliverable D 2.5 was delivered to the Quovadis Coordinator. Task 2.3 QM Guidelines. The first contract-deliverable (D2.6), a report on Guidelines for the site-specific implementation of the TS on QM to selected sites required by Month 7 was delivered. To improve the usefulness of D2.6, the following extra parts were added: (a) text from the TS on QM; (b) a note on how the outputs of the five WGs of TC343 should fit together; (c) a note on WP2 of QUOVADIS; (d) suggestions for a manual; and (e) a check-list (drafted by Task 2.1) that was requested by other members of WP2. (d) Deliverable D2.7 Model manual(s) for the site specific implementation of QM, was delivered in September Task 2.4 Implementation and validation of the TS on QM. At the request of the Task Leader, Task 2.3 members participated directly and fully in the validation of the TS on QM at three of the four host-sites (i.e. one in Norway and two in Italy), assisting in the development and application of the methodology for validation, and in drafting of the report for Deliverable D2.8. This required a combination of visits to sites, and desk-work. D2.8 was delivered to the Quovadis Coordinator. Activities in Norway. The Norwegian plant of a French Group offered its SRF-producing plant as one of the host-sites for Task 2.4. The Task-Leader, formed a team to carry out the necessary studies, which included several senior staff from the Norwegian plant and Task 2.3 members. An inspection of the site was made by Task 2.4 members, Task 2.1 and 2.3 teams in April The input materials at the Norwegian plant are mixed commercial and industrial wastes (municipal wastes are delivered directly to a mass-burn incinerator), with a separate stream of waste wood. These raw materials are processed into two grades of SRF a baled fluff that is delivered to a nearby district heating plant and chipped wood.

19 Report Environment and Sustainable Development Approved Page 19/134 The plant already has a QM system (QMS) based on ISO 9000, so the main aim of the current investigation was to provide answers to the following questions: (a) Does the current QMS in use at the plant need to be amended so that it complies with the draft TS of TC343? (b) Is it possible to estimate costs and benefits of applying QMS? (c) Do Items (a) and/or (b) raise difficulties that ought to be considered by WP2? It became clear that more specific procedures needed to be drafted for control of input materials and for sampling and testing. A pragmatic approach was adopted for the assessment of the costs of three cases of QMS: (a) The hypothetical case of no QMS. (b) The current QMS. (c) An amended QMS to comply with the TS of TC343. A questionnaire to collect relevant data on costs was prepared and this part of the study was sent. Procedures were written to cover areas of the TS compliant QMS that were not already in place under the current QMS. Site work to investigate the practicalities of the implementation of these procedures was completed. This work highlighted some issues regarding practical implementation of these procedures. Cost data associated to: 1) implementation of the TS compliant QMS and 2) maintenance of this QMS were collected and analysed. A draft report presenting the implementation of the QMS and issues relating to practicalities of this implementation as well as the cost analysis was produced. The methodology for collection of benefits was confirmed, and a questionnaire was drafted to cover intangible benefits. Activities in Italy. One Italian Group offered its SRF-producing plant as one of the host-sites for Task 2.4. Task 2.1 leader, formed a team to carry out the necessary studies, which included several senior staff and staff from the plant. Four meetings were held by the team in July, October and November, 2005, and one in February 2006 (also Task 2.3 and 2.4 were invited). Other meetings between Task 2.1 members and the company s management took place in The plant already had a QMS based on ISO 9001, so the main aim of the investigation was to monitor the following: a) Is there a procedure for the input materials? If so, provide an explanation of it; b) Is it possible to provide quality-control of the process? c) Is it possible to provide quality-control of the final product? d) Does the material produced satisfy the limits in the TS for classification and specification? e) Are there external controls on the product? f) General considerations on the implementation of the TS of TC 343 to the plant. A draft report was discussed during the meeting of WP 2 at Ispra on December the 5th, A second Italian Group offered its SRF-producing plant as one of the host-sites for Task 2.4. Task 2.1 Leader, formed a team to carry out the necessary studies, which included several senior staff from Task 2.1, and from the Italian Group. Three meetings were held by the team in

20 Report Environment and Sustainable Development Approved Page 20/134 July, October and November, 2005, and one took place in February 2006 (also Task 2.3 and 2.4 members attended). Other meetings between Task 2.1 members and the company s management took place in Task 2.1 provided Task 2.4 the information and data about the 2 Italian host sites. Task 2.1 in 2006 worked constantly with the 2 plant teams and their management for the analysis of the Quality Management System and the analysis of costs, and the costs were reviewed in the light of the last developments of the QMS itself in constant cooperation with the management of the companies. A draft technical report on the evaluation of costs of the first plant was prepared by Task 2.1, and was discussed during a Paris meeting of WP2 (September 2006) and during the meeting at the German plant (October 2006). The same was done for the second Italian plant and the documentation was delivered to the Task 2.4 leader. Activities in Germany At the meeting of WP 2 on 5th December the German coordinator reported that preliminary activities started at the plant, and gave a presentation of the processes at this new plant, which was used as the fourth host site for the purposes of Task 2.4. The WP 2 Partners met in October at the German facility to visit the plant and to discuss about programmes and data. The input materials were production specific wastes for the production of the SRF-quality BPG in the SRF-production plant. MSW, bulky wastes and mixed commercial wastes were sorted positively via NIR-technology in the sorting plant. The gathered High Calorific Fractions were used to produce the SRF-quality SBS. It can be summarized for the German plant that a QMS was established and maintained in conformity with and certified according to: Efb 3. RAL-GZ 724 In practice the conformity with all of the three systems was checked externally within one run with the help of the so-called check-list. The existing QMS was extended on the complete new plant too. The extension comprised i.e. the following tools: 1. Quality management manual (digital) for the complete plant ABA 2. automatic sampling of the products 3. High speed analysis of Cl for the high calorific fractions and the products BPG and SBS 4. training of the stuff 5. new work orders for the plant. These mentioned tools helped to increase: 1. operational capacity of the complete plant. 2. availability of the plant 3. HCF and SRF-quality 4. commercialization of the products Regarding these aspects it seemed possible to give useful indications about costs and benefits of the extension of the QMS. All these information were delivered to the Task 2.4 Leader for the preparation of D 2.8.

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