1 The Mind- Body problem in Husserl and Merleau- Ponty Roberta Lanfredini 1. The Cognitive mind Phenomenological consciousness is, according to Husserl, essentially but not comprehensively intentional. Nevertheless, even if intentional experiences do not exist (for example the sensations), a consciousness not provided with an openness to the world, that does not direct towards objects, events, and so on, cannot define itself authentically as a consciousness. The notion of intentional consciousness can be easily assimilated to the one that a contemporary philosopher of mind would call a cognitive and functional mind. There are three characteristics that distinguish consciousness as intentional. The first characteristic is the distinction between immanent or reflexive intentionality and transcendental intentionality. In Husserlian phenomenology, whose method consists of the overcoming or the suspension of the natural attitude through the phenomenological reduction, the reflection is the main instrument that allows the passage from the naturalistic object to the priority dimension of the subjectivity (noetic side). And it is still the reflection that allows phenomenology to extend its analytical field from the experiences to the intended object, to the object- in- the how of its determinations and of its ways of givenness (noematic side). Husserlian phenomenology assumes the operating of the reflective-philosophical attitude as not problematic and undisturbed, taking for granted that consciousness has always the possibility to exert a sort of doubling or almost of duplication of itself: as consciousness that lives its own stream of experience, hence primary, and as consciousness that reflects on those experiences as object of phenomenological viewing, hence secondary. The second characteristic is the necessary dependence of the object intended from the determined point of view. Consciousness, as far as it is intentional, is not, as Nagel would have said, a vision from no place, a naked perception of the object, but a perspective cut on things. It s not possible to perceive, to imagine, to judge, to feel a feeling towards something unless specifying the determinations, which means embracing in an essential way a point of view. The third characteristic is the independence of the intentional consciousness from the existence of the object towards which it is addressed. We can, as we know, imagine entities that do not exist (the golden mountain, the source of youth), but also perceive objects that do not exist, as it happens during the hallucinations. Putting intentionality at the centre of the phenomenological description, as Husserl does, means to identify the root of the consciousness in its representational activity. Every act is a representation or is founded on a representation, is considered by Husserl, and before him by Brentano, as an unavoidable principle of the philosophical and phenomenological analysis. Consciousness is not truly consciousness if it hasn t the strength to direct itself towards something else with respect to itself, a strength that is supplied by its very internal structure, by its noetic framework. Something very similar to what nowadays we would call the function of the mental, its role in the cognitive economy and in the relationship with the word. 2. The Qualitative Mind Husserl s answer to the question if all the states of consciousness are intentional is, in contrast with Brentano, negative. Many experiences are intentional, but many others are not. Perception, imagination, emotions, such as fear, are intentional without any doubt; but sensation of pain, anxiousness, depression, angst, panic are not intentional states. If I say I am afraid it is obvious that someone would asks me: of what? ; but if I say: I feel depression or I have a panic attack, the question seems not so obvious anymore. They would say that in these cases, as a matter of fact, it is what is not in that openness to the world that characterizes consciousness in its intentional function. Consciousness is in a way close in its own feeling. The existence of non intentional experiences allows us to isolate a further dimension of the subjectivity: that is the feeling, an element that seems to be at least on the analytical view distinct from the intentional structure of experience. The intentional and representational function does not fill completely the notion of consciousness. There is in fact, soul and propulsive centre of every consciousness, a non
2 intentional sensorial, impressive, material, passive dimension, that suggests a conscious feature, profoundly different from the active, explicit, transparent, schematic, functional, in one word a representational feature. The result is that the sensual and qualitative element is spread if not put in a shape; amorphous and formless if not collocated within a structure; as Kant says, blind if with no concept. Husserl does not make any exception with respect to this trend and recognises in the insightful content the necessary presence of the material element (hyle), essential if aimed to the fulfilment of an empty intention and nevertheless actually non separable from the intentional shape. It s this latter one that, shaping and animating the sensorial content evidently not shaken on its own, supplies to the act its intentional direction, hence giving it a determination that is of its own. The sense becomes hence strictly interlaced with the representational power of consciousness, with its ability to present something. Consciousness, for Husserl, renders the object present and by doing so, gives to the world its own order and sense, allowing that passage from the chaos to the cosmos that characterizes the phenomenological vision. The material aspect of subjectivity corresponds to what for the contemporary philosopher of the mind is the qualitative mind or authentic consciousness. Not the mental or the psychological function, hence, but the qualitative dimension of subjectivity. That dimension which, according to a lot of philosophers of the mind, is the true hard problem of the discipline, the enigma, the mystery, the apparently irreducible element respect to the scientific image of the world. From a qualitative point of view, the subjectivity is characterized not so much by what it means, but by what it feels. Material phenomenology offers a dramatic limitation of the absolute priority of the intentionality, a priority that as a matter of fact would lead to a necessary resizing of the sensual, impressive and affective element. On the other hand, the material aspect of subjectivity also resizes the strength of the reflexive and reductive attitude. In fact the latter can focus only on the noesi intended as an intentional ad functional structure of the act. It does not reflect itself just on the sensations, that oppose themselves for their own nature, to any distances, to each possibility of face to face. The object of reductive reflection is only the sensitive data, the noematic data. But the latter is not the sensation, though the result of its animation, interpretation, projection in the world; not the sensual element but its objectification. What can be made the object of reduction is hence, eventually, the only noetic structure, the functional frame of the act, not the material content. There are two consequences that emerge from what has been said. The first regards the impossibility to make the material content the object of an autonomous reflection and, as consequence, the impossibility to make the object of knowledge a qualitative data without its being shaped and interpreted by an intentional structure. The second consequence concerns the necessary introduction of the embodiment aiming to take account of the two elements that characterized the same immanence. The first is that the material or hyletic dimension of knowledge necessarily supposes the existence of a body that feels. The lack of transparency of consciousness is given by its inevitable conjunction with embodiment. The second is that the same functional structure presupposes the existence of a body that, through the movement, allows the synthesis of the appearances constituting objects. They are conditions that also necessarily presuppose an a priori link also concretely founded on the specificity of the content of the involved elements. In other terms, it would seem that to take account both of the consciousness, in its relationships between material content and functional content, and of the relationship between consciousness and body, the material a priori is the philosophical relevant point. 3. The Living Body The psychic dimension is, according to Husserl, legally connected with embodiment and the result of this essential and necessary connection is the living consciousness and the embodied consciousness. The notion of Leib widens the pure immanence of the stream, with no beginning or end, of lived experiences 1, to its diffusion in the body with respect to which that stream results necessary connected. 1 E. Husserl, Ideas pertaining to a pure phenomenology and to a phenomenological philosophy, Second Book, Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publisher, 1989, p. 98.
3 The notion of living body embraces nevertheless two elements: the matter and the body extension. Each of them interlaces a different relationship with the immanence of the stream of consciousness. To be objectively experienced, consciousness has to result in the living factor of an objectively living body, even if not a priori and necessarily of a material living body. In other terms, only between a flux of experiences and a body extension is there a relationship not empirical but a priori. On the one hand, hence, the result of the union between stream and Leib (intended as a material body) is the empirical subjectivity, with its psychical states, its personal characteristic, its behavioural dispositions and so on. On the other hand, the result of the union between stream and Leib (intended as body extension) is not the empirical subjectivity, but the living body in general. So, according to Husserl, the mind- body problem is in reality a double problem, articulated, at least at first sight, in two different problems: a) the naturalistic problem of the relationship between consciousness and material body; b) the phenomenological problem of the relationship between consciousness and body intended as living body. It is, hence, the notion of body that constitutes the focus between the phenomenal or qualitative dimension and the cognitive or intentional dimension of the mental. The living body is in fact, in its turn, an heterogeneous entity. On one hand, because it acts an essentially kinesthetic role, the body is a disembodied body scheme, with functional and constitutional tasks. On the other hand, because it expresses its own feeling nature, it is living consciousness, the organism immerses itself in a perceptive world, essentially passive and receptive. Also for the phenomenology, however, once we take distance from the naturalistic view expressed by the relationship between empirical consciousness and material body, two problems arise. The first is to clarify both the material body and the living body (or living and embodied consciousness). The second problem is to clarify the relationship between the living body and the body scheme (or kinesthetic body). This implies identifying also within the same phenomenology, even in a different configuration, a problem relative to the qualitative states. 4. Mind, body and material a priori The essential link that exists between the stream of experiences and the body extension in Husserl s phenomenology seems to be read as a case of the material a priori thoroughly analogue to the essential link between colour and extension. Affirmations such as a colour cannot exist without a certain extension, or there s no timber without duration involve modalities of connection between noindependent contents, modalities that are founded on the essential specificity of the parts that compose the whole. The disjoint moments of the phenomenon do not give themselves, hence, if not in connection with other moments (and just for this they cannot be represented separately); differently from contents that, even if not in fact, can be in principle separated from what surrounds them. In this sense, it seems admissible to support that integration between the moments or non independent parts satisfies a necessary material law: the essential impossibility to represent a colour without extension is an impossibility philosophically different from the actual and empirical impossibility that I have to represent, for example, the visual data without the background from which that data assumes emphasis. The relevant notion is, in this case, to be effectively content : its diffusion in a extension (logical material link) is actually contained in the colour, whereas its being linked to a determined background (empirical link) is not effectively contained in a determined colour surface. In the former, it is about inner differences that fuse themselves on the pure essences of the thing. It is about, hence, modalities of a priori connections in the sense that they fuse themselves on the essential specificity, on the nature of the parts that compose a whole. The foundation relationship between moments or non independent parts composes that material logic that gets the name of material a priori. Now, the logic that is involved when we talk about the relationship between mind and body in Husserl's phenomenology would seem to be just this. The form is, however, in every situation a qualified one. Qualities are what fills, they extend over the surface and through the corporeality of the form. Qualifications, however, extend from the things into empty space: rays of light, radiations of heat, etc. That means that thingly qualities condition qualities and qualitative changes in other things and indeed do so in such a way that the effect is a constant function of the situation: to every change of situation there corresponds a change of effect. In virtue of
4 such a subordination to spatial relations which may be determined with exactitude, even the sense qualities become amenable to exact determination. 2 Equally a stream of consciousness without materiality is legally possible: it is a proof, according to Husserl, of the logical possibility of ghosts, without materiality and nevertheless with body scheme. If thereby the a prior (although entirely empty) possibility of the actual ghosts is granted, then the immediate consequence is that a psychic subject without a material Body is indeed thinkable, i.e., as a ghost instead of a natural animal being, but in no way without a Body of some kind. 3 But a stream of consciousness without a body scheme is legally impossible. The psychical stream, to be objectified, has to cover (or spread in) an own body. The essential link is not, hence, for Husserl, between psychical and physical, between mind and material body, but between psychical and body scheme. From the point of view of being given, or of being objectifiable, the psychic layer can not be disembodied, that is it cannot be separated from its body extension. The expression can not is not empirical but a priori. A stream that does not spread in a body extension is a countersense exactly as a colour that does not spread on a surface. The psychical is given, hence, in its essential connection with the corporeality (and in its empirical connection with the materiality) and the result of this inseparable link is the living body. It is in connection with what is material that the psychic is given to us. Among material things there are certain ones, or from an eidetic standpoint there are certain ones a priori possible, which are soulless, merely material. On the other hand, there also are certain ones which have the rank of Bodies and as such display a connection with a new stratum of being, the psychic stratum, as it is called here. What is included under this heading? What experience first discloses to us here a stream, with no beginning or end, of lived experiences of which manifold types are well known to us from inner perception, introspection, in which each of us grasps his own lived experiences in their originality. 4 In addition, the actual experience of a merely material thing, not animated by the psychical, confirms, for Husserl, the priority of a pure I, immaterial and disembodied. A pure I caught properly through a reflective conversion of look; a pure I that does not generate and does not over go but enters and goes out of scene ; a pure I that does not hide in its own secret and interior richness, it is absolutely simple; it is absolutely in light. A pure I that is not living consciousness, feeling consciousness, body as taker of localised sensations; but, we could say centre of functions, an intentional structure adequate and transparent towards itself. In this sense, it is admissible to talk about the privilege of the psychical, exactly as it is admissible to talk about the privilege of the colour of the timber respect to its surface, the latter being a sort of substrate in which the various plena (visual, audio, sound) spread themselves. 5. Which body in phenomenology? I m going to try to summarize what has been said. There is a kind of priority of the psychic, but not the possibility to segregate the psychic layer from body layer. With respect to its being objective, the psychic must be inextricably (in the sense of the a priory legality) tied to the body. To see some sort of unbreakable link between mind and body does not endorse a similar indissolubility between psychic and material. The empirical impossibility of a stream of consciousness without a material body should not be confused with an a priori impossibility. This last one exists only between a stream of consciousness and body extension. The object of pure phenomenology is the connection between mind and extension, 2 Ibid. p Ibid. p Ibid. p. 98.
5 not the connection between mind and matter. That connection that gives rise to the living body or, which is the same, to the embodied mind. The application of the concept of the material a priori to the mind- body problem in the phenomenology of Edmund Husserl allows us to distinguish analytically both the points in question (cognitive mind, qualitative mind, matter, extension) and the relationships (empirical and a priori) that exist between those elements. The application of the concept of material a priori to the mind- body relationship shows, on the other hand, also the limit of its conception, in reference to the emerging concept of embodiment. At a closer look, the mind- body problem in Husserl has four subordinated problems: a) the problem of the relationship between cognitive (or intentional) mind and material body b) the problem of the relationship between cognitive (or intentional) mind and living body as body scheme, c) the problem of the relationship between cognitive (or intentional) mind and the feeling body (qualitative mind), d) finally, the problem of the relationship between material body and qualitative mind. Now, Husserl s phenomenology seems to account mainly if not exclusively, for the functional and structural aspects of both the mental and the corporeal: on the one hand intentionality as basic structure of the mental, on the other the kinaesthetic body as the basic structure of the body. The main, hard problems in the phenomenological perspective are, hence, two: 1. the mind body problem : the problem of the relationship between the material part of the concept of body and the two- side concept of mind; 2. the mind mind problem: the problem of the relationship between the intentional mind and the iletic, qualitative mind; between the essential (formal) part and the not- essential (material) part of consciousness. The link between the body scheme (not material body) and the qualitative mind is analogue to the link that subsists between the colour and the extension or space (material a priori). But the hard problem here is that the body scheme is not sufficient to explain the whole concept of body. The hard problem concerns the notion of matter, the notion of material body. And the material body is an essential condition to feeling something, to have an intuition of something. Then, the central problem is the role of the natural, material, concrete notion of the body. The problem is not about the essence of the human being but about the nature of the human being. This role is completely removed by Husserl and this fact marks the difference between the naturalistic approach and the phenomenological approach. The problem is that without an integrated concept of body it is possible to resolve neither the mind- body problem nor the mind - mind problem. For the last resolution it is necessary a paradigm change, in the sense used by Kuhn. This change reintroduces a material concept of body in the phenomenological perspective. 6.The Flesh of the Body The central point, in the Merleau Ponty s phenomenological approach, is the crucial notion of the flesh in place of the notion of body. In phenomenology, the concept of body is strictly connected with the notion of extension, and then, ultimately, with an a priori link. On the contrary, the concept of flesh includes the crucial presence of transcendence in the stream of consciousness. This marks exactly the difference between Husserl s phenomenology and Merleau Ponty s approach. In philosophy of mind there are two main problems within naturalistic perspective. First, there is the problem of explaining the phenomenological content of the consciousness. Second, there is the problem of explaining representational or intentional content. Between the two, only the first problem is considered the hard problem of the Philosophy of mind. We have seen the existence of the hard problem inside Husserl s phenomenology, a problem inherited from Descartes. The problem concerns the central notion of feeling and its relation with body. Both in Descartes and Husserl there is a clear distinction between intellective cogitationes and sensitive cogitationes; between thinking and sensing; between intentional content (comprehensive of the body and its movements around the objects) and hyletic content, the what it feels like problem that Nagel speaks about. A philosophical account of what it feels like needs a new concept of the body, a more material concept than the phenomenological one. We can find this concept in the notion of flesh proposed by Merlau Ponty and in the change of paradigm that this notion presupposes. The mind is inherently embodied. This crucial thesis, that is one of the major discoveries of the cognitive science, characterizes Merleau Ponty s
6 thought. The crucial point here is that the new phenomenological notion of body is largely natural, material, concrete. As Lakoff and Johnson said: Reason is not disembodied, but arises from the nature of our bodies and bodily experience. This is not just the innocuous and obvious claim that we need a body to reason; rather, it is the striking claim that the very structure of reason itself comes from the details of our embodiment. ( ) In summary, reason is not, in any way, a transcendent feature of the universe or of disembodied mind. Instead, it is shaped crucially by the peculiarities of our human bodies, by the remarkable details of the neural structure of our brains, and by the specific of our everyday functioning in the world. ( ) The phenomenological person, who through phenomenological introspection alone ca discover everything there is to know about the mind and the nature of experience is a fiction. 5 Merleau- Ponty s epistemology sets a considerable limit on some conceptual tools employed in Husserl s phenomenology, such as those expressed by the notions of intentionality, constitution, reflection, transcendental, and gives stability to others such as those represented by the notions of passivity, genesis, motivation, sedimentation, noticeably extending their meaning. In many respects, concepts with a critical role in Husserl s phenomenological epistemology find in Merleau- Ponty a deeply different orientation. As Husserl s phenomenology, Merleau- Ponty s epistemological project is radically anti- reductionist and deeply anti- naturalistic. Scientific points of view, according to which my existence is a moment of the world s, are always both naïve and at the same time dishonest, because they take for granted, without explicitly mentioning it, the other point of view, namely that of consciousness, through which from the outset a world forms itself around me and begins to exist for me. To return to the things themselves is to return to that world which precedes knowledge, of which knowledge always speaks, and in relation to which every scientific schematization is an abstract and derivative sign- language, as is geography in relation to the countryside in which we have learned beforehand what a forest, a prairie or a river is. 6 However, in contrast with Husserlian phenomenology, Merleau- Ponty s antireductionist attitude and anti- naturalism don t involve the suspension, or the bracketing, of the natural stance. In a different way, the anti- naturalism professed by Merleau- Ponty has the aim to recover and preserve the natural stance, as well as a space for the pre- categorical thought, within which the consciousness, by its nature and genesis, inhabits. In other words, for Merleau- Ponty, in contrast with Husserl, the naturalization and the natural stance don t follow the same way. The naturalization implies a process of conversion, that is, the translation of something derivative and secondary (for example the phenomenal and qualitative world) into something considered epistemologically basic and grounded (for example the world described by the physics). Instead, the natural stance reveals the necessity of an immersion in the broad context of nature, a process required if we want to give a full and authentic account of these things that phenomenology aims to describe from a morphological point of view. The exclusion of the natural stance involves a description of the things very similar to that provided by a map, which is to a particular region what geography is to a landscape. Accordingly, the segregation of the natural dimension, in addition to the rebuttal of a natural attitude, risks draining the content of the experienced thing, showing the image of a disembodied object, deprived of its flesh, that is a mere functional element with no depth. In philosophy of mind, the rebuttal of the naturalistic stance, as well as the assumption of a natural attitude involve a departure from the supposition that the physical states, e.g. the neuronal states, are primary and irreducible elements. At the same time this involves a departure from a kind of anti reductionism which, on the contrary, considers the states of consciousness as primary and irreducible, that is, as free elements independent from any natural position. It is interesting to observe that anti- reductionism, as stated by Husserl, implies the assumption of a reductive stance. Definitely, in certain respects, the concept of 5 G. Lakoff and M. Johnson, Philosophy in the Flesh. The embodied mind and its challenge to western thought, New York, Basic Books, 1999, p Merleau-Ponty, M., Phenomenology of perception, London, Routledge, 2002, p. IX.
7 phenomenological reduction has a meaning contrasting the concept of reduction used in philosophy of mind. Phenomenological reduction requires giving up, or at least taking distance from, the natural stance (the scientific and object- oriented attitude) emphasized by reductionism in philosophy of mind. However, as paradoxical as it may sound,phenomenological reduction and reduction in philosophy of mind share a critical aspect that justifies, at least in part, their homonymy: both of them affirm the necessity of a radical departure from the natural stance (in the case of phenomenology) and from the manifest image (in the case of philosophy of mind). Starting from this shared necessity, phenomenological approach and reductionism in philosophy of mind turn into two antithetical paths: the former establishes the priority of conscious experience and considers the physical states the neuronal states included secondary and derivative; while the latter establishes the priority of the physical states and considers the states of consciousness as derivative and according to some of its defenders not existing and illusory, therefore eliminable. Assuming this point of view, the absence in Merleau- Ponty s works of a process of reduction also of the phenomenological one is perfectly clear. To endorse a philosophical project characterized by a radical anti- naturalism is not to deny the natural character of the consciousness. In this basic methodological distinction a critical change of paradigm can be summed up noticing that on the one hand the exigency of Husserl s phenomenology was that of disentangling the subject from the world, and that on the other hand Merleau- Ponty s phenomenology is concerned to completely immerge the subject in the world, restoring the natural bilateralism between thought and the environment that an original phenomenological description should always preserve. The reflective subject of the Husserlian phenomenology, that is, the subject conceived as the condition of possibility, rather than the bearer, of an actual experience is the result of an analytic reconstruction and not of an original phenomenological description. In contrast with this paradigm, in Merleau- Ponty s phenomenology there is no absolute priority for an impenetrable and objective reality, as well as there is no absolute priority for the idea of a subject conceived as a constitutive power, that is, as an invulnerable inwardness that can be reached through a backward walk. Merleau- Ponty transforms the correlative analysis, typical of the Husserlian phenomenology within which the structure of consciousness is the basic element, in a bilateral analysis according to which both the subjective and the objective poles require a foundational priority. Accordingly, he extends the methodological approach from a perspective that privileges the external frame of the experience, to a perspective that fills that frame with an actual content. In this view, the constitutive structure, or the reflective component, is progressively placed side by side with the domain of the unreflecting; the transparency of representation with the opacity of the feeling; the expressible character of the structured datum shows the relevance of the dumb, tacit, unexpressed and inexpressible nature that the experience inexorably brings with itself. This is a powerful change of perspective that makes it possible to transform puzzles in philosophy of mind (as in the case of the question of qualia), into genuine problems. On the other hand, as noticed by Kuhn, the conversion of a puzzle into a problem becomes possible only when a change in the theoretical and conceptual background happens, a change that opens the door to a different definition of the problem and not to other solutions of the same puzzle. This conceptual change is evident in the way Merleau- Ponty faces the problem of sensation as opposed to the puzzle of qualia. As it is well known, because of their subjective nature (intrinsic, private, and hardly reducible to a third person perspective) and their essentially qualitative character (direct, immediate, and so ineffable), qualia are considered in philosophy of mind the only and genuine hard problem. But Merleau- Ponty s phenomenology adds another trait, maybe the most important, to those standard features usually ascribed to qualia. Qualia are essentially and not accidentally associated to the subject s embodied dimension, that is, to the possession of a lived body contrasting with the mere possession of a physical body (as in Descartes philosophy). The introduction of the body establishes the role of the natural subject, that is, the role of the embodied, situated subject relative to which both the notions of reduction in philosophy of mind and phenomenological reduction appear to be inadequate. On the other hand, the introduction of the body determines an epistemological shifting from the above mentioned puzzle of qualia to the problem of sensation.
8 There are two ways of being mistaken about quality: one is to make it into an element of consciousness, when in fact it is an object for consciousness, to treat it as an incommunicable impression, whereas it always has a meaning; the other is to think that this meaning and this object, at the level of quality, are fully developed and determinate. 7 According to Merleau- Ponty, it is necessary to reconsider the question of sensitivity as a genuine problem: this is not a question concerning the possession of inert qualities or contents defined by well marked boundaries. Contrasting the identification of the notion of sensation with that of qualia assumed as a reply to external stimuli, the sensitivity is not something determined, instantaneous and detailed, but it is vague, ambiguous and indeterminate. On the other hand, for Merleau- Ponty, it is not correct to consider the domain of sensitivity as intrinsically formless and structureless except when a theoretical and meaningful system intervenes to check the rush and chaotic sphere of sensorial stimuli. This is the idea of a great part of post neo- empiricist epistemology, according to which, to be accessible the datum should be interpreted and embedded in a circle of hypotheses and background theories. On the contrary, according to the idea proposed by Merleau- Ponty, the sensible datum is not tied to a theoretical and conceptual apparatus, but shows on its own a proper structure, even if flowing and ambiguous. The sensible and perceptive field that the qualities inhabit far from representing the immediate result of an external stimulus, or a mere reply to an external situation, depends on specific variables such as for example the biological sense of the situation. This makes the sensible experience a critical process analogous to that of procreation, or that of breathing and growth. The things are for Merleau- Ponty flesh and not mere bodies, they are not a mere extensions or bodily surfaces covered by specific qualities. Accordingly, the sensations are not a mere reception of qualities but represent a vital inherence, they don t offer inert qualities but active and dynamic properties characterized by a proper value related to their functional role in preserving our life. The pure quale would be given to us only if the world were a spectacle and one s own body a mechanism with which some impartial mind made itself acquainted. Sense experience, on the other hand, invests the quality with vital value, grasping it first in its meaning for us, for that heavy mass which is our body, whence it comes about that it always involves a reference to the body. 8 The identification between qualia and sensitivity derives from a process of alienation suffered by the concept of body that inevitably leads to the leveling off of both the notion of consciousness and the notion of experiential thing. By contrast with this view, the embodied thought becomes the result of a circular conception of experience and knowledge. This is a conception within which the experience assumes an insight that neither the Husserlian notion of plena, nor the notion of qualia in philosophy of mind, are able to show. In the first case because the former notion is too close to an extensional idea of the qualitative element. In the second, because the latter notion is too close to the empirical notion of sensible datum and to a physiologic and mechanistic interpretation of sensation. The idea of sensation assumed as a filling quality and the sensation assumed as the phenomenal and qualitative reply to an external stimulus, contribute to levelling out the domain of experience, draining and atrophying its own sense, that is, the idea of sensitivity as a living rhythm. A sensitivity that, in order to be understood, cannot be divorced from the analysis of the notions of body and embodiment, together with the awareness of the radical change of paradigm introduced by them. References - E. Husserl, Ideas pertaining to a pure phenomenology and to a phenomenological philosophy, Second Book, Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publisher, G. Lakoff and M. Johnson, Philosophy in the Flesh. The embodied mind and its challenge to western thought, New York, Basic Books, M. Merleau-Ponty, Phenomenology of perception, London, Routledge, Ibid. p Ibid. p. 8.
ON EXTERNAL OBJECTS By Immanuel Kant From Critique of Pure Reason (1781) General Observations on The Transcendental Aesthetic To avoid all misapprehension, it is necessary to explain, as clearly as possible,
Skepticism about the external world & the problem of other minds So far in this course we have, broadly speaking, discussed two different sorts of issues: issues connected with the nature of persons (a
Phenomenological Research Methods Clark Moustakas, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks California, 1994 I Human Science Perspectives and Models Moustakas starts with discussing different human science perspectives
ART A. PROGRAM RATIONALE AND PHILOSOPHY Art education is concerned with the organization of visual material. A primary reliance upon visual experience gives an emphasis that sets it apart from the performing
Hume on identity over time and persons phil 20208 Jeff Speaks October 3, 2006 1 Why we have no idea of the self........................... 1 2 Change and identity................................. 2 3 Hume
Descartes : The Epistemological Argument for Mind-Body Distinctness Detailed Argument Introduction Despite Descartes mind-body dualism being the most cited aspect of Descartes philosophy in recent philosophical
Bergson Class Notes 1/30/08 Time and Free Will (Chapter 2) Reiterations The basic principle is that one should not think of the properties of the process by means of the properties of the product In general:
1/9 Locke 1: Critique of Innate Ideas This week we are going to begin looking at a new area by turning our attention to the work of John Locke, who is probably the most famous English philosopher of all
Descartes Meditations Module 3 AQA Meditation I Things which can be called into Doubt Descartes rejects all his beliefs about the external world because they are doubtful and he wants to find a foundation
Reality in the Eyes of Descartes and Berkeley By: Nada Shokry 5/21/2013 AUC - Philosophy Shokry, 2 One person's craziness is another person's reality. Tim Burton This quote best describes what one finds
Michael Lacewing The ontological argument St Anselm and Descartes both famously presented an ontological argument for the existence of God. (The word ontological comes from ontology, the study of (-ology)
Re-Definition of Leadership and Its Implications for Educational Administration Daniel C. Jordan Citation: Jordan, D. (1973). Re-definition of leadership and its implications for educational administration.
Philosophy 110W - 3: Introduction to Philosophy, Hamilton College, Fall 2007 Russell Marcus, Instructor email: email@example.com website: http://thatmarcusfamily.org/philosophy/intro_f07/course_home.htm
Kant s Dialectic Lecture 3 The Soul, part II John Filling firstname.lastname@example.org Overview 1. Re-cap 2. Second paralogism 3. Third paralogism 4. Fourth paralogism 5. Summing-up Critique of Pure Reason Transcendental
Preface A Plea for Cultural Histories of Migration as Seen from a So-called Euro-region The Centre for the History of Intercultural Relations (CHIR), which organised the conference of which this book is
Reply to French and Genone Symposium on Naïve Realism and Illusion The Brains Blog, January 2016 Boyd Millar email@example.com 1. Acknowledgements I would like to thank the managing editor of The Brains
The completed drawing By Anette Højlund How does form come into existence? This is one of the questions behind the title of my PhD thesis, which reads, How does drawing imagine the world? The idea of the
Avant. The Journal of the Philosophical-Interdisciplinary Vanguard Volume II, Number 1/2011 www.avant.edu.pl Music-animated body Jakub Ryszard Matyja Introduction When Descartes is mentioned in contemporary
School of Advanced Studies Doctor Of Management In Organizational Leadership/information Systems And Technology The mission of the Information Systems and Technology specialization of the Doctor of Management
LEARNING THEORIES Ausubel's Learning Theory David Paul Ausubel was an American psychologist whose most significant contribution to the fields of educational psychology, cognitive science, and science education.
Descartes Handout #2 Meditation II and III I. Meditation II: The Cogito and Certainty A. I think, therefore I am cogito ergo sum In Meditation II Descartes proposes a truth that cannot be undermined by
Michael Lacewing Substance dualism A substance is traditionally understood as an entity, a thing, that does not depend on another entity in order to exist. Substance dualism holds that there are two fundamentally
Orit Hazzan's Column Abstraction in Computer Science & Software Engineering: A Pedagogical Perspective This column is coauthored with Jeff Kramer, Department of Computing, Imperial College, London ABSTRACT
The Slate Is Not Empty: Descartes and Locke on Innate Ideas René Descartes and John Locke, two of the principal philosophers who shaped modern philosophy, disagree on several topics; one of them concerns
Kant on Time Diana Mertz Hsieh (firstname.lastname@example.org) Kant (Phil 5010, Hanna) 28 September 2004 In the Transcendental Aesthetic of his Critique of Pure Reason, Immanuel Kant offers a series of dense arguments
NOÛS 43:4 (2009) 776 785 Critical Study David Benatar. Better Never To Have Been: The Harm of Coming into Existence (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006) ELIZABETH HARMAN Princeton University In this
Michael Lacewing Personal identity: Physical and psychological continuity theories A FIRST DISTINCTION In order to understand what is at issue in personal identity, it is important to distinguish between
UNIT 1: RATIONALISM HANDOUT 5: DESCARTES MEDITATIONS, MEDITATION FIVE 1: CONCEPTS AND ESSENCES In the Second Meditation Descartes found that what we know most clearly and distinctly about material objects
Page 1 PHILOSOPHY General Major I. Depth and Breadth of Knowledge. A. Will be able to recall what a worldview is and recognize that we all possess one. B. Should recognize that philosophy is most broadly
Michael Lacewing Descartes arguments for distinguishing mind and body THE KNOWLEDGE ARGUMENT In Meditation II, having argued that he knows he thinks, Descartes then asks what kind of thing he is. Discussions
J. T. M. Miller, Department of Philosophy, University of Durham 1 Methodological Issues for Interdisciplinary Research Much of the apparent difficulty of interdisciplinary research stems from the nature
Aporia vol. 18 no. 1 2008 Charles Hartshorne and the Ontological Argument Joshua Ernst Th e ontological argument distinguishes itself from the cosmological and teleological arguments for God s existence
//FS2/CUP/3-PAGINATION/MQP/2-PROOFS/3B2/9780521874540C04.3D 63 [63 75] 1.12.2007 8:53PM CHAPTER 4 Sense-certainty and the this-such Willem A. devries Hegel s Phenomenology of Spirit is knowledge s voyage
Interview with J. Kevin O Regan Avant. The Journal of the Philosophical-Interdisciplinary Vanguard Volume II, Number 2/2011 www.avant.edu.pl ISSN: 2082-6710 What would the robots play? Interviev with J.
John R. Searle Why I Am Not a Property Dualist I have argued in a number of writings 1 that the philosophical part (though not the neurobiological part) of the traditional mind body problem has a fairly
PsyD Psychology (2014 2015) Program Information Point of Contact Marianna Linz (email@example.com) Support for University and College Missions Marshall University is a multi campus public university providing
Kant s Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals G. J. Mattey Winter, 2015/ Philosophy 1 The Division of Philosophical Labor Kant generally endorses the ancient Greek division of philosophy into
DOCTOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION POLICY Section 1 Purpose and Content (1) This document outlines the specific course requirements of the Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) at the University of Western
Traveling in A- and B- Time Theodore Sider The Monist 88 (2005): 329 335 Some say that presentism precludes time travel into the past since it implies that the past does not exist, but this is a bad argument.
C:\Ton\DELTA00Mouthaan.doc 0 oktober 00 Competencies of BSc and MSc programmes in Electrical engineering and student portfolios Ton J.Mouthaan, R.W. Brink, H.Vos University of Twente, fac. of EE, The Netherlands
Do you "self-reflect" or "self-ruminate"? By Alain Morin http://psych.pomona.edu/scr/ln_dec02_selfruminate.htm [SCR 2002 December, No. 1] We all spend time analyzing our inner thoughts and feelings; past
WHITE PAPER Risk, Cost and Quality: Key Factors for Outsourcing QA and Testing In association with: TCS Marianne Kolding December 2012 Ed Cordin IDC OPINION IDC EMEA, 389 Chiswick High Road, London, W4
Inner sense and time Ralf M. Bader Merton College, University of Oxford 1 Introduction According to Kant, inner and outer sense have different forms. Whereas space is the form of outer sense, time is the
REGULATIONS AND CURRICULUM FOR THE MASTER S PROGRAMME IN INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE FACULTY OF HUMANITIES AALBORG UNIVERSITY SEPTEMBER 2015 Indhold PART 1... 4 PRELIMINARY REGULATIONS... 4 Section 1 Legal
Psychology (MA) ACADEMIC DIRECTOR: Carla Marquez-Lewis CUNY School of Professional Studies 101 West 31 st Street, 7 th Floor New York, NY 10001 Email Contact: Carla Marquez-Lewis, firstname.lastname@example.org
The Kantian Paradox Raivydas Simenas Creighton University a) Introduction The success of Western cultural, political and especially economical development during the last two centuries not surprisingly
No God, No Laws Nancy Cartwright Philosophy LSE and UCSD Introduction. My thesis is summarized in my title, No God, No Laws : the concept of a law of Nature cannot be made sense of without God. It is not
Event Marketing in IMC 44 CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 3.1. Introduction The overall purpose of this project was to demonstrate how companies operating in emerging markets can successfully organize activities
8) Creating Awareness (A systemic perspective, to also develop your own awareness as a coach) July 2014 1 CREATING AWARENESS CAUTION : Coaching competencies are not displayed in a sequential fashion, one
Design Philosophy Should the School Building be Part of the Pedagogy? (From the Perspective of an Architect) The futurist thinker Dr. Jonas Salk, American medical researcher and virologist, is best known
Social Work 282 School of Social Work St. Patrick s Building 469 Telephone: 788-5601 Fax: 788-7496 The School Director of the School: Gillian Walker Supervisor of Graduate Studies: Allan Moscovitch The
Blutner/Philosophy of Mind/Mind & Body/Cartesian dualism 1 Mind & Body Cartesian Dualism The great philosophical distinction between mind and body can be traced to the Greeks René Descartes (1596-1650),
Behavior and Philosophy, 31, 145-150 (2003). 2003 Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies FOR THE RADICAL BEHAVIORIST BIOLOGICAL EVENTS ARE NOT BIOLOGICAL AND PUBLIC EVENTS ARE NOT PUBLIC Dermot Barnes-Holmes
Research into competency models in arts education Paper presented at the BMBF Workshop International Perspectives of Research in Arts Education, Nov. 4 th and 5 th, 2013. Folkert Haanstra, Amsterdam School
A comparison of the OpenGIS TM Abstract Specification with the CIDOC CRM 3.2 Draft Martin Doerr ICS-FORTH, Heraklion, Crete Oct 4, 2001 1 Introduction This Mapping has the purpose to identify, if the OpenGIS
1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Exploration is a process of discovery. In the database exploration process, an analyst executes a sequence of transformations over a collection of data structures to discover useful
The Light (La Luce) The Light (La Luce) An Introduction to the Creative Imagination by Massimo Scaligero translated by Eric L. Bisbocci LINDISFARNE BOOKS Translation Copyright 2001 Eric L. Bisbocci All
School of Advanced Studies Doctor Of Health Administration The mission of the Doctor of Health Administration degree program is to develop healthcare leaders by educating them in the areas of active inquiry,
GIVING WINGS TO NEW IDEAS Wingspread Journal, Summer 1996 CHAOS, COMPLEXITY, AND FLOCKING BEHAVIOR: METAPHORS FOR LEARNING by Stephanie Pace Marshall Sir Isaac Newton saw the universe as an orderly clock.
Subjects Summary Degree in Art and Design Fourth Year Semester ECTS Subject 1 12 Workshop on Applied Arts This practical subject focuses on mastering techniques, materials and the professions of artistic
Agenda Pomona College LCS 11: Cognitive Science argument Jesse A. Harris February 25, 2013 Turing test review Searle s argument GQ 2.3 group discussion Selection of responses What makes brains special?
MALCHIODI, Cathy, (1998) The art therapy sourcebook, Los Angeles, Lowell House. pp. 1-6. What Is Art Therapy? Art can be said to be and can be used as the externalized map of our interior self. Peter London,
Chapter 2 A Systems Approach to Leadership Overview 2.1 Introduction Developing a high performance organisation is an appropriate and achievable goal in today s business environment. High performance organisations
Frege s theory of sense Jeff Speaks August 25, 2011 1. Three arguments that there must be more to meaning than reference... 1 1.1. Frege s puzzle about identity sentences 1.2. Understanding and knowledge
College of Arts and Sciences: Social Science and Humanities Outcomes Communication Information Mgt/ Quantitative Skills Valuing/Ethics/ Integrity Critical Thinking Content Knowledge Application/ Internship
How Psychology Needs to Change Lois Holzman, Talk given at Vygotsky Today Symposium, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Banja Luka, Bosnia-Herzegovina, November 2004. I am a psychologist and I am proud
1. Descartes, Locke and Berkeley all believe that Introduction to Philosophy, Fall 2015 Test 2 Answers a. nothing exists except minds and the ideas in them. b. we can t ever be justified in believing in
General Philosophy Dr Peter Millican, Hertford College Lecture 3: Induction Hume s s Fork 2 Enquiry IV starts with a vital distinction between types of proposition: Relations of ideas can be known a priori
Aporia vol. 24 no. 1 2014 Conceptual Parallels Between Philosophy of Science and Cognitive Science: Artificial Intelligence, Human Intuition, and Rationality Research in the cognitive sciences is founded
Hegel s Trinitarian Claim G. W. F. Hegel is one of the greatest thinkers of the Greek-Western trinitarian tradition. He said that the theologians of his day had effective ly abandoned the doctrine of the
Business Process Models as Design Artefacts in ERP Development Signe Ellegaard Borch IT University of Copenhagen, Rued Langgaards Vej 7, 2300 København S, Denmark email@example.com Abstract. Adequate design
Humberto Maturana Romesín American Society for Cybernetics 2008 Wiener Medalist Comments on the Occasion of this Award First of all I wish to thank you for the distinction that you wish to bestow on me.
1 of 11 "Phenomenology," Edmund Husserl's Article for the Encyclopaedia Britannica* (1927) REVISED TRANSLATION BY RICHARD E. PALMER  Introduction 1. Pure Psychology: Its Field of Experience, Its Method
Cognitive History Timeline Review of Cognitive Psychology : History 1 Philosophical Considerations Schools of Thought Mind = the entity that can process information and display intelligence Brain = the
Start PARADOX Start Harold Nelson DESIGN CAPACITY - A BASIS OF HUMAN ACTIVITY By Harold G. Nelson, Ph.D., M. Arch. DRAFT ú DRAFT - Design is the ability to imagine, that-which-does-not-yet-exist, to make
An Introduction to MODULE - I 1 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY As human beings our curiosity drives us to know the reasons behind various events happening around us. Whenever we meet somebody or see someone
How does the problem of relativity relate to Thomas Kuhn s concept of paradigm? Eli Bjørhusdal After having published The Structure of Scientific Revolutions in 1962, Kuhn was much criticised for the use
Honours programme in Philosophy Honours Programme in Philosophy The Honours Programme in Philosophy offers students a broad and in-depth introduction to the main areas of Western philosophy and the philosophy
Student First Name: Raed Student Second Name: Algharabat Copyright subsists in all papers and content posted on this site. Further copying or distribution by any means without prior permission is prohibited,
Learning about the influence of certain strategies and communication structures in the organizational effectiveness Ricardo Barros 1, Catalina Ramírez 2, Katherine Stradaioli 3 1 Universidad de los Andes,