Different approaches for the equalization of automotive sound systems

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Different approaches for the equalization of automotive sound systems"

Transcription

1 Auio Engineering Society Convention Paper Presente at the 112th Convention 2002 May Munich, Germany This convention paper has been reprouce from the author's avance manuscript, without eiting, corrections, or consieration by the Review oar. The AES takes no responsibility for the contents. Aitional papers may be obtaine by sening request an remittance to Auio Engineering Society, 60 East 42 n Street, New York, New York , USA; also see All rights reserve. Reprouction of this paper, or any portion thereof, is not permitte without irect permission from the Journal of the Auio Engineering Society. Different approaches for the equalization of automotive soun systems Angelo Farina 1, Alberto ellini 2, an Marco Romagnoli 3 1 Inustrial Eng. Dept., Università i Parma, ia elle Scienze Parma Italy 2 Information Eng. Dept., Università i Parma, ia elle Scienze Parma Italy 3 ASK Automotive Inustries, via Fratelli Cervi n. 79, Reggio Emilia Italy ASTRACT The paper iscusses the implementation of various possible DSP algorithms on low-cost platforms suitable for mass series prouction of automotive soun systems. The analysis takes into account traitional IIR an FIR filtering schemes, ual-rate an hybri approaches, an new algorithms such as Warpe FIR (WFIR) or frequency-omain partitione convolution (rutefir). The comparison is critically mae checking the implementation, cost an performance of ifferent processing schemes, but also aressing the hot problem of computing the optimal filtering coefficients for each of these schemes starting from measurements taken insie the car cockpit, making use of examples taken from the real life. The results show that both IIR an FIR structures are capable of goo results on low-cost DSP systems; the more avance algorithms will probably become competitive as soon as a new generation of floating-point DSP processors will also be available for low-cost applications. INTRODUCTION One of the major application of Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) in auio systems is the acoustic equalization. This is not limite to the flattening of the overall frequency response, but it is a more extensive concept. In certain case the goal of the equalization is to provie a prescribe frequency response curve (which in general can be very ifferent from the flat one). In other cases, also the time-omain response is important, an the goal of the equalization can be escribe as a re-alignment in time omain (or the linearization of the phase response, which are equivalent options). Special issues are to be aresse when the equalization is to be applie to a multi-channel soun system, an when there are many listeners in ifferent positions. All these issues are relate to car soun systems also, where further specific hot topics nee to be aresse: The optimal frequency response requires a substantial boost of the low frequencies, in orer to ensure a reasonable S/N ratio in presence of lou backgroun noise, which has approximately a brown spectrum. The frequency response shoul be ajuste accoring to the vehicle spee an the engine RPM, since the backgroun noise is strongly variable an epens on these variables. The listeners are locate off-axis with respect to the louspeakers. Moreover the louspeakers are often place in strange positions. This results in a blurre stereo image an may cause perceive coloration because of the (Hea Relate Transfer Function) HRTF filtering of wavefronts coming from not-symmetrical irections. The available electrical power is limite. Therefore a too heavy equalization causes an unacceptable rop in signal amplitue, making the reprouce soun too weak, an causing istortion if

2 the user is force to raise too much the gain control of the amplifier, in orer to compensate the loss of ynamic range. Dealing with an entry-level soun system, the car manufacturer fixes strong constraints on the total cost of the soun system, an also restrains the size, weight an power consumption. In summary it is impossible to achieve at the same time all these requirements: some trae-offs are neee. This paper iscusses in etail the esign of DSP-base equalizers to be inclue in automotive soun systems, base on practical experience one employing both fixe-point an floating-point processors, an making use of ifferent algorithms for performing the equalization. DSP ALGORITHMS FOR AUTOMOTIE SOUND SYSTEM EQUALIZATION In this paper, the following DSP algorithms are taken into account an compare: IIR structures (typically in the form of bi-qua 2 n orer filters). These recursive filters are functionally equivalent to their analog counterparts, an they allow the implementation of general frequency response by cascaing ifferent sections, each being configure as a typical filter type (LP, HP, P, R), an specifying for each section the cut-off frequency f c, the sharpness factor Q, an the gain G (the latter being relevant only for fixepoint implementation, because with floating-point processing a single overall gain can be applie at once, either before or after the cascae of IIR sections). FIR structures. These structures are also efine convolution filters, an are usually implemente as repetitive sum an multiplication, by means of a tightly optimize MAC (Multiply- Accumulate Cycle), which is usually taking just one DSP clock cycle for each coefficient on moern architectures. The length of the impulse response (usually calle the number of taps) is in the orer of some hunreths. Dual-rate FIR structures. These filters are obtaine employing a short FIR for equalizing the higher frequencies, while simultaneously the signal is own-sample an processe with another FIR filter for the low frequencies. Finally the two processe signals are merge back together. This topology aresses specifically the fact that a short FIR filter is not capable of an effective equalization at low frequencies, while the rawback is that the overall structure is more complex an that some errors appear in the cross-over region [1]. Warpe FIR. These structures closely reprouce a stanar FIR filter, except that the elay unit is replace by an all-pass section. y proper choice of the warping coefficient λ incorporate in the all-pass sections, the frequency axis is istorte, giving more resolution to the low frequency range, an compressing the high frequency range in a little number of spectral lines. This allows an accurate low-frequency equalization, at the expense of a coarser equalization at high frequencies. Moreover the computational cost of each cell of the computing network increases [2]. Frequency-omain convolution (Select-Save). This approach is base on the use of large FFT blocks, which allows the implementation of long filters, thus overcoming the constraints impose by processor size. This is usually one with the Select- An-Save algorithm, which requires the use of FFT blocks being long at least twice the length of the impulse response (typically several thousans of samples). This results also in a large processing latency, so that the filtere signals is substantially elaye with respect to the input signal. Another rawback of this algorithm is that it requires very large memory blocks, for storing the input an output buffers, the intermeiate ata an the coefficients [3]. Partitione frequency-omain convolution (rutefir). This algorithm is quite ol, since it was first applie in 1966, when the limite memory available was preventing from using the theoretically more efficient Select-Save algorithm. It was reimplemente only very recently, because it was iscovere that, on moern processors, this turns out to be more efficient than the Select-Save, giving the aitional avantages of require much less memory, an reuce input-output latency [4]. In summary four of the above six structures are conceptually similar, being always ifferent implementation of FIR convolution. The others instea (IIR an WFIR) are recursive structures, which require more care for esigning the filtering coefficients so that the require transfer function is create, without causing instability. In the following chapters an applicative example of the performances of the first two structures is given. All the examples are referre to the equalization of the soun system of the same car, an consequently the results can be compare irectly. DSP PLATFORMS ASK Inustries evelope two inepenent multichannel power amplifiers for automotive applications, incorporating a DSPcontrolle filtering section. The first one is a 4-channels amplifier equippe with a Texas Instruments TMS320C54 processor (16 bits, fixe point, 100 MIPS). This unit is shown in the following figure 1. Figure 1 ASK 4-channels integrate DSP amplifier (DIGIcar). The secon one is a 6-channels amplifier, with igital input an 6- channels output, equippe with an Analog Devices SHARC 21065L processor (32 bits, floating point, 60 M, 180 MFLOPS). This secon system was not employe in this work, but in the next future it will be evaluate in strict comparison with the first one. SOFTWARE TOOLS An automatic proceure for the synthesis of filter coefficients was evelope. It relies on state-of-the art algorithms of signal processing an is base on a frienly user interface, which allows the user to check the effectiveness of its equalization before the actual measurements. This tool, name DIGItools is a stan-alone Win32 application, which allows the generation of 4-channels 7-ban IIR filters, an of 4-channels FIR filters. As far as IIR filters are concerne, for each of the 7 bans the tool allow to specify the center frequency, the filter Q, an the filter gain. Each of the above mentione parameters can be moifie by simple sliers (fig. 2). AES 112 TH CONENTION, MUNICH, GERMANY, 2002 MAY

3 Figure 2 DIGItools IIR esign screenshot. As an example in the following some screenshots from DIGItools are presente. They escribe step by step the efinition of a parametric equalizer, starting from car acoustics measurements. In the screenshots the measurements of the car SPL (Soun Pressure Level) is reporte together with the frequency response of the parametric equalizer an the estimation of the car frequency response with the current equalization. Figures 3 report the above-escribe screenshots for FL, FR, RL, RR channels of a FIAT Stilo, use as a test car. Figure 5 DIGItools IIR equalizer for FIAT Stilo RL channel. Figure 6 DIGItools IIR equalizer for FIAT Stilo RR channel. Figure 7 shows the FIR equalizer tool. It allows to loa the car measure SPL an to choose among a few inversion algorithms, like Kirkeby [5], Neely-Allen [6], Mourjoupolos [7]. Figure 3 DIGItools IIR equalizer for FIAT Stilo FL channel. Figure 6 DIGItools FIR equalizer for FIAT Stilo FL channel. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Figure 4 DIGItools IIR equalizer for FIAT Stilo FR channel. Experiments were performe on a test car to valiate ifferent equalization methos with the 1 st eicate harware esigne by ASK (DIGIcar, shown in fig. 1). The test car was a FIAT Stilo, equippe with a stanar auio system. The DIGIcar DSP amplifier AES 112 TH CONENTION, MUNICH, GERMANY, 2002 MAY

4 was inserte in the system riving irectly the louspeakers an each of the four channels was operate separately. Stanar acoustics measurements were performe with the ai of the Aurora suite of plugins for CoolEit [8], an they were processe by DIGItools to obtain suitable inverse filters, an operate to realize a both parametric IIR equalization an Neely & Allen FIR equalization. The SPL measurements (before equalization) obtaine are shown in the following figures. Fig. 8 shows the impulse response of the FL channel. Figs show the SPLs of the four channels in the frequency omain (with a resolution of 1/3 of octave). Figure 11 Frequency Response of FIAT Stilo RL channel Figure 8 Impulse Response of FIAT Stilo FL channel. Figure 12 Frequency Response of FIAT Stilo RR channel Figure 9 Frequency Response of FIAT Stilo FL channel The inverse filters compute by means of the DIGItools software, starting from the measure car SPLs, were implemente on the DIGIcar platform by means of an assembly coe, highly optimize program. Each of the 4 FIR filters was 387 taps long, an each of the 4 IIR filter was mae of 5 2 n orer sections. Figs show the electrical measurements of the DIGIcar unit programme to realize the four inverse FIR filters. An Auio Precision System 2022 was use for measuring these 4 electrical transfer functions Figure Frequency Response of FIAT Stilo FR channel Figure 13 Electric measurements of DIGIcar FL channel programme to synthesize the FIAT Stilo inverse FIR. AES 112 TH CONENTION, MUNICH, GERMANY, 2002 MAY

5 Figure 14 Electric measurements of DIGIcar FR channel programme to synthesize the FIAT Stilo inverse FIR. Figure 17 Frequency Response of FIAT Stilo FL channel with (thick line) an without DIGIcar FIR equalization Figure 15 Electric measurements of DIGIcar RL channel programme to synthesize the FIAT Stilo inverse FIR. Figure 18 Frequency Response of FIAT Stilo FR channel with (thin line) an without DIGIcar equalization Figure 16 Electric measurements of DIGIcar RR channel programme to synthesize the FIAT Stilo inverse FIR. Figs. 170 show the results of the SPL measurements mae insie the FIAT Stilo while the DIGIcar equalizer was operating. The target curve was set as the flat one, an a noticeable flattening of the spectrum can be seen, especially at meium an high frequency. Each figure reports single channel measurements with an without the igital equalization. Figure 19 Frequency Response of FIAT Stilo RL channel with (thick line) an without DIGIcar equalization. AES 112 TH CONENTION, MUNICH, GERMANY, 2002 MAY

6 Figure 22 IPA Subjective results for the IIR equalization. CONCLUSIONS Figure 20 Frequency Response of FIAT Stilo RR channel with (thick line) an without DIGIcar equalization. As far as the IIR equalization is concerne a set of parametric equalizers was esigne with DIGItools. It resulte in 5 biqua IIR filters for each channel, which were implemente on the DIGIcar platform. Figure 21 show the electric measurements of the four channel programme to realize the parametric equalizers Figure 21 Electric measurements of DIGIcar channels programme to synthesize the FIAT Stilo IIR parametric equalizer. Subjective results were performe also. Listening tests were performe within the car (Fiat Stilo) equippe with DIGIcar equalization. The IPA proceure was use [9]. Five questions are mae to the listeners, an for each of them the answer range from a minimum to a maximum: 1) Spatial Soun, Flat Soun; 2) Insufficient Level, Sensible Level; 3) Clear Treble, Unclear Treble; 4) Weak bass, Clean bass; 5) Pleasant Soun System, Unpleasant Soun System. 13 listeners were use for the IPA experiments. The final results were IPA = 7.2 with FIR equalization an IPA = 6.9 with IIR equalization (fig. 22). The same car will also be available uring the 112 th AES Conference in Munich for performing aitional listening tests, which will make it possible to enlarge the number of subjects. An automatic proceure for the computation of the coefficients to be employe in both IIR an FIR igital equalization for car soun systems is presente. It allows to compare the two ifferent structures from both implementation an algorithmic point of views. Experiments were performe on a commercial car to show how it is possible to obtain very quickly a nice automatic equalization an to test it with both subjective an objective tests. The example presente here refers to an equalization aime to flattening the frequency response, but the evelope system allows also to equalize for a ifferent target curve, as it is common to o regaring the optimal equalization of a car soun system. The research will therefore prosecute, with the goal to assess the performance improvement obtainable by the use of a DSP-controlle power amplifier uner normal usage conitions (i.e., with the backgroun noise of the car running on the roa), an to select the equalization algorithm which will give the better results at the listening tests. References [1] G. Cibelli, A. ellini, E. Ugolotti, A. Farina, C. Morani, Experimental valiation of louspeaker equalization insie car cockpits, 106th AES Convention, Munich, 8-11 may [2] A. ellini, G. Cibelli, E. Armelloni, E. Ugolotti, A. Farina, Car cockpit equalization by warping filters, IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp , February 2001 [3] Oppenheim, A.. an R. W. Schafer. Discrete-Time Signal Processing. Englewoo Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989 [4] A. Torger, rute-fir an open-source general-purpose auio convolver, [5] O.Kirkeby, P.A. Nelson, P. Rubak, A. Farina, Design of Crosstalk Cancellation Networks by using Fast Deconvolution, preprint of 106th AES Convention, Munich, 8-11 may 1999 [6] S.T. Neely, J.. Allen, Invertibility of a room impulse response, J.A.S.A., vol. 66, pp (1979). [7] J.N. Mourjopolos, Digital Equalization of Room Acoustics, Journal of AES, vol. 42, n. 11, November 1994, pp [8] A. Farina, F. Righini, Software implementation of a MLS analyzer, with tools for convolution, auralization an inverse filtering, 103 r AES Convention, New York, September [9] E. Ugolotti, G. Gobbi, A. Farina, IPA - A Subjective Assessment Metho of Soun Quality of Car Soun Systems, Proceeings of the 110th AES Convention, 2001 May Amsteram, The Netherlans. AES 112 TH CONENTION, MUNICH, GERMANY, 2002 MAY

EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF EQUALIZING FILTERS FOR CAR COCKPITS DESIGNED WITH WARPING TECHNIQUES

EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF EQUALIZING FILTERS FOR CAR COCKPITS DESIGNED WITH WARPING TECHNIQUES FOR CAR COCKPITS DESIGNED WITH WARPING TECHNIQUES Alberto Bellini 1, Gianfranco Cibelli 2, Emanuele Ugolotti 2, Filippo Bruschi 2, Angelo Farina 3 1 Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell Informazione, University

More information

Experimental validation of loudspeaker equalization inside car cockpits

Experimental validation of loudspeaker equalization inside car cockpits Experimental validation of loudspeaker equalization inside car cockpits G. Cibelli, A. Bellini, E. Ugolotti, A. Farina, C. Morandi ASK Industries S.p.A. Via F.lli Cervi, 79, I-421 Reggio Emilia - ITALY

More information

Audio Engineering Society Convention Paper 6444 Presented at the 118th Convention 2005 May 28 31 Barcelona, Spain

Audio Engineering Society Convention Paper 6444 Presented at the 118th Convention 2005 May 28 31 Barcelona, Spain Audio Engineering Society Convention Paper 6444 Presented at the 118th Convention 2005 May 28 31 Barcelona, Spain This convention paper has been reproduced from the author's advance manuscript, without

More information

Achieving quality audio testing for mobile phones

Achieving quality audio testing for mobile phones Test & Measurement Achieving quality auio testing for mobile phones The auio capabilities of a cellular hanset provie the funamental interface between the user an the raio transceiver. Just as RF testing

More information

State of Louisiana Office of Information Technology. Change Management Plan

State of Louisiana Office of Information Technology. Change Management Plan State of Louisiana Office of Information Technology Change Management Plan Table of Contents Change Management Overview Change Management Plan Key Consierations Organizational Transition Stages Change

More information

Improving Emulation Throughput for Multi-Project SoC Designs

Improving Emulation Throughput for Multi-Project SoC Designs Improving Emulation Throhput for Multi-Project SoC Designs By Frank Schirrmeister, Caence Design Systems As esign sizes grow, so, too, oes the verification effort. Inee, verification has become the biggest

More information

Subjective comparison of different car audio systems by the auralization technique

Subjective comparison of different car audio systems by the auralization technique Subjective comparison of different car audio systems by the auralization technique Angelo Farina (*), Emanuele Ugolotti (**) (*) Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Parma, Via delle Scienze

More information

SUBJECTIVE EVALUATION OF THE SOUND QUALITY IN CARS BY THE AURALISATION TECHNIQUE

SUBJECTIVE EVALUATION OF THE SOUND QUALITY IN CARS BY THE AURALISATION TECHNIQUE SUBJECTIVE EVALUATION OF THE SOUND QUALITY IN CARS BY THE AURALISATION TECHNIQUE Angelo Farina (1), Emanuele Ugolotti (2) (1) Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Parma, Via delle Scienze

More information

Automatic Measurement System for Car Audio Applications

Automatic Measurement System for Car Audio Applications Automatic Measurement System for Car Audio Applications Angelo Farina (*), Emanuele Ugolotti (**) (*) Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Parma, Via delle Scienze - 43100 PARMA - tel.

More information

Unbalanced Power Flow Analysis in a Micro Grid

Unbalanced Power Flow Analysis in a Micro Grid International Journal of Emerging Technology an Avance Engineering Unbalance Power Flow Analysis in a Micro Gri Thai Hau Vo 1, Mingyu Liao 2, Tianhui Liu 3, Anushree 4, Jayashri Ravishankar 5, Toan Phung

More information

INFLUENCE OF GPS TECHNOLOGY ON COST CONTROL AND MAINTENANCE OF VEHICLES

INFLUENCE OF GPS TECHNOLOGY ON COST CONTROL AND MAINTENANCE OF VEHICLES 1 st Logistics International Conference Belgrae, Serbia 28-30 November 2013 INFLUENCE OF GPS TECHNOLOGY ON COST CONTROL AND MAINTENANCE OF VEHICLES Goran N. Raoičić * University of Niš, Faculty of Mechanical

More information

CALCULATION INSTRUCTIONS

CALCULATION INSTRUCTIONS Energy Saving Guarantee Contract ppenix 8 CLCULTION INSTRUCTIONS Calculation Instructions for the Determination of the Energy Costs aseline, the nnual mounts of Savings an the Remuneration 1 asics ll prices

More information

A Universal Sensor Control Architecture Considering Robot Dynamics

A Universal Sensor Control Architecture Considering Robot Dynamics International Conference on Multisensor Fusion an Integration for Intelligent Systems (MFI2001) Baen-Baen, Germany, August 2001 A Universal Sensor Control Architecture Consiering Robot Dynamics Frierich

More information

ICEpower ICEtheater7

ICEpower ICEtheater7 ICEpower Page 1 Page 2 Size an Power Dear Auio - the auiophile home theater solution 7 x 150W into 8 ohm auio amplifier Manufacturer In recent years, interest within home theater an cinematic movie experiences

More information

Modelling and Resolving Software Dependencies

Modelling and Resolving Software Dependencies June 15, 2005 Abstract Many Linux istributions an other moern operating systems feature the explicit eclaration of (often complex) epenency relationships between the pieces of software

More information

Minimizing Makespan in Flow Shop Scheduling Using a Network Approach

Minimizing Makespan in Flow Shop Scheduling Using a Network Approach Minimizing Makespan in Flow Shop Scheuling Using a Network Approach Amin Sahraeian Department of Inustrial Engineering, Payame Noor University, Asaluyeh, Iran 1 Introuction Prouction systems can be ivie

More information

Firewall Design: Consistency, Completeness, and Compactness

Firewall Design: Consistency, Completeness, and Compactness C IS COS YS TE MS Firewall Design: Consistency, Completeness, an Compactness Mohame G. Goua an Xiang-Yang Alex Liu Department of Computer Sciences The University of Texas at Austin Austin, Texas 78712-1188,

More information

View Synthesis by Image Mapping and Interpolation

View Synthesis by Image Mapping and Interpolation View Synthesis by Image Mapping an Interpolation Farris J. Halim Jesse S. Jin, School of Computer Science & Engineering, University of New South Wales Syney, NSW 05, Australia Basser epartment of Computer

More information

Detecting Possibly Fraudulent or Error-Prone Survey Data Using Benford s Law

Detecting Possibly Fraudulent or Error-Prone Survey Data Using Benford s Law Detecting Possibly Frauulent or Error-Prone Survey Data Using Benfor s Law Davi Swanson, Moon Jung Cho, John Eltinge U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 2 Massachusetts Ave., NE, Room 3650, Washington, DC

More information

FAST JOINING AND REPAIRING OF SANDWICH MATERIALS WITH DETACHABLE MECHANICAL CONNECTION TECHNOLOGY

FAST JOINING AND REPAIRING OF SANDWICH MATERIALS WITH DETACHABLE MECHANICAL CONNECTION TECHNOLOGY FAST JOINING AND REPAIRING OF SANDWICH MATERIALS WITH DETACHABLE MECHANICAL CONNECTION TECHNOLOGY Jörg Felhusen an Sivakumara K. Krishnamoorthy RWTH Aachen University, Chair an Insitute for Engineering

More information

Data Center Power System Reliability Beyond the 9 s: A Practical Approach

Data Center Power System Reliability Beyond the 9 s: A Practical Approach Data Center Power System Reliability Beyon the 9 s: A Practical Approach Bill Brown, P.E., Square D Critical Power Competency Center. Abstract Reliability has always been the focus of mission-critical

More information

A Data Placement Strategy in Scientific Cloud Workflows

A Data Placement Strategy in Scientific Cloud Workflows A Data Placement Strategy in Scientific Clou Workflows Dong Yuan, Yun Yang, Xiao Liu, Jinjun Chen Faculty of Information an Communication Technologies, Swinburne University of Technology Hawthorn, Melbourne,

More information

Synchronization of sampling in distributed signal processing systems

Synchronization of sampling in distributed signal processing systems Synchronization of sampling in distributed signal processing systems Károly Molnár, László Sujbert, Gábor Péceli Department of Measurement and Information Systems, Budapest University of Technology and

More information

Optimal Control Policy of a Production and Inventory System for multi-product in Segmented Market

Optimal Control Policy of a Production and Inventory System for multi-product in Segmented Market RATIO MATHEMATICA 25 (2013), 29 46 ISSN:1592-7415 Optimal Control Policy of a Prouction an Inventory System for multi-prouct in Segmente Market Kuleep Chauhary, Yogener Singh, P. C. Jha Department of Operational

More information

Audio Engineering Society Convention Paper Presented at the 110th Convention 2001 May 12 15 Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Audio Engineering Society Convention Paper Presented at the 110th Convention 2001 May 12 15 Amsterdam, The Netherlands Audio Engineering Society Convention Paper Presented at the 0th Convention 200 May 2 5 Amsterdam, The Netherlands This convention paper has been reproduced from the author's advance manuscript, without

More information

Automatic Long-Term Loudness and Dynamics Matching

Automatic Long-Term Loudness and Dynamics Matching Automatic Long-Term Louness an Dynamics Matching Earl ickers Creative Avance Technology Center Scotts alley, CA, USA earlv@atc.creative.com ABSTRACT Traitional auio level control evices, such as automatic

More information

This post is not eligible for sponsorship and applicants must be eligible to work in the UK under present visa arrangements.

This post is not eligible for sponsorship and applicants must be eligible to work in the UK under present visa arrangements. WMG 7.60 per hour Ref: WMG005/15 Fixe Term Contract: 4 Weeks Full Time to be unertaken in summer 2015 (with the possibility of a further 4 weeks employment, applicants must therefore be available for the

More information

Purpose of the Experiments. Principles and Error Analysis. ε 0 is the dielectric constant,ε 0. ε r. = 8.854 10 12 F/m is the permittivity of

Purpose of the Experiments. Principles and Error Analysis. ε 0 is the dielectric constant,ε 0. ε r. = 8.854 10 12 F/m is the permittivity of Experiments with Parallel Plate Capacitors to Evaluate the Capacitance Calculation an Gauss Law in Electricity, an to Measure the Dielectric Constants of a Few Soli an Liqui Samples Table of Contents Purpose

More information

GPRS performance estimation in GSM circuit switched services and GPRS shared resource systems *

GPRS performance estimation in GSM circuit switched services and GPRS shared resource systems * GPRS performance estimation in GSM circuit switche serices an GPRS share resource systems * Shaoji i an Sen-Gusta Häggman Helsinki Uniersity of Technology, Institute of Raio ommunications, ommunications

More information

RUNESTONE, an International Student Collaboration Project

RUNESTONE, an International Student Collaboration Project RUNESTONE, an International Stuent Collaboration Project Mats Daniels 1, Marian Petre 2, Vicki Almstrum 3, Lars Asplun 1, Christina Björkman 1, Carl Erickson 4, Bruce Klein 4, an Mary Last 4 1 Department

More information

Convention Paper 6492 Presented at the 118th Convention 2005 May 28 31 Barcelona, Spain

Convention Paper 6492 Presented at the 118th Convention 2005 May 28 31 Barcelona, Spain Audio Engineering Society Convention Paper 6492 Presented at the 118th Convention 2005 May 28 31 Barcelona, Spain This convention paper has been reproduced from the author's advance manuscript, without

More information

Towards a Framework for Enterprise Architecture Frameworks Comparison and Selection

Towards a Framework for Enterprise Architecture Frameworks Comparison and Selection Towars a Framework for Enterprise Frameworks Comparison an Selection Saber Aballah Faculty of Computers an Information, Cairo University Saber_aballah@hotmail.com Abstract A number of Enterprise Frameworks

More information

Unsteady Flow Visualization by Animating Evenly-Spaced Streamlines

Unsteady Flow Visualization by Animating Evenly-Spaced Streamlines EUROGRAPHICS 2000 / M. Gross an F.R.A. Hopgoo Volume 19, (2000), Number 3 (Guest Eitors) Unsteay Flow Visualization by Animating Evenly-Space Bruno Jobar an Wilfri Lefer Université u Littoral Côte Opale,

More information

Lecture L25-3D Rigid Body Kinematics

Lecture L25-3D Rigid Body Kinematics J. Peraire, S. Winall 16.07 Dynamics Fall 2008 Version 2.0 Lecture L25-3D Rigi Boy Kinematics In this lecture, we consier the motion of a 3D rigi boy. We shall see that in the general three-imensional

More information

SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE SOUND ANALYSIS TOOLS FOR FIELD WORK.

SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE SOUND ANALYSIS TOOLS FOR FIELD WORK. SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE SOUND ANALYSIS TOOLS FOR FIELD WORK. Pavan G. '' ^ Manghi M. \ Fossati C.'' ^ Centra Interisciplinare i Bioacustica e Ricerche Ambientali, Universita i Pavia, Via Taramelli 24, 27100

More information

Seeing the Unseen: Revealing Mobile Malware Hidden Communications via Energy Consumption and Artificial Intelligence

Seeing the Unseen: Revealing Mobile Malware Hidden Communications via Energy Consumption and Artificial Intelligence Seeing the Unseen: Revealing Mobile Malware Hien Communications via Energy Consumption an Artificial Intelligence Luca Caviglione, Mauro Gaggero, Jean-François Lalane, Wojciech Mazurczyk, Marcin Urbanski

More information

Convolution of anechoic music with binaural impulse responses

Convolution of anechoic music with binaural impulse responses Convolution of anechoic music with binaural impulse responses Angelo Farina Dipartimento Ingegneria Industriale Università di Parma Abstract The following paper presents the first results obtained in a

More information

Product Differentiation for Software-as-a-Service Providers

Product Differentiation for Software-as-a-Service Providers University of Augsburg Prof. Dr. Hans Ulrich Buhl Research Center Finance & Information Management Department of Information Systems Engineering & Financial Management Discussion Paper WI-99 Prouct Differentiation

More information

Performance And Analysis Of Risk Assessment Methodologies In Information Security

Performance And Analysis Of Risk Assessment Methodologies In Information Security International Journal of Computer Trens an Technology (IJCTT) volume 4 Issue 10 October 2013 Performance An Analysis Of Risk Assessment ologies In Information Security K.V.D.Kiran #1, Saikrishna Mukkamala

More information

Calibration of the broad band UV Radiometer

Calibration of the broad band UV Radiometer Calibration of the broa ban UV Raiometer Marian Morys an Daniel Berger Solar Light Co., Philaelphia, PA 19126 ABSTRACT Mounting concern about the ozone layer epletion an the potential ultraviolet exposure

More information

An Introduction to Event-triggered and Self-triggered Control

An Introduction to Event-triggered and Self-triggered Control An Introuction to Event-triggere an Self-triggere Control W.P.M.H. Heemels K.H. Johansson P. Tabuaa Abstract Recent evelopments in computer an communication technologies have le to a new type of large-scale

More information

ThroughputScheduler: Learning to Schedule on Heterogeneous Hadoop Clusters

ThroughputScheduler: Learning to Schedule on Heterogeneous Hadoop Clusters ThroughputScheuler: Learning to Scheule on Heterogeneous Haoop Clusters Shehar Gupta, Christian Fritz, Bob Price, Roger Hoover, an Johan e Kleer Palo Alto Research Center, Palo Alto, CA, USA {sgupta, cfritz,

More information

An introduction to the Red Cross Red Crescent s Learning platform and how to adopt it

An introduction to the Red Cross Red Crescent s Learning platform and how to adopt it An introuction to the Re Cross Re Crescent s Learning platform an how to aopt it www.ifrc.org Saving lives, changing mins. The International Feeration of Re Cross an Re Crescent Societies (IFRC) is the

More information

10.2 Systems of Linear Equations: Matrices

10.2 Systems of Linear Equations: Matrices SECTION 0.2 Systems of Linear Equations: Matrices 7 0.2 Systems of Linear Equations: Matrices OBJECTIVES Write the Augmente Matrix of a System of Linear Equations 2 Write the System from the Augmente Matrix

More information

A New Evaluation Measure for Information Retrieval Systems

A New Evaluation Measure for Information Retrieval Systems A New Evaluation Measure for Information Retrieval Systems Martin Mehlitz martin.mehlitz@ai-labor.e Christian Bauckhage Deutsche Telekom Laboratories christian.bauckhage@telekom.e Jérôme Kunegis jerome.kunegis@ai-labor.e

More information

An Alternative Approach of Operating a Passive RFID Device Embedded on Metallic Implants

An Alternative Approach of Operating a Passive RFID Device Embedded on Metallic Implants An Alternative Approach of Operating a Passive RFID Device Embee on Metallic Implants Xiaoyu Liu, Ravi Yalamanchili, Ajay Ogirala an Marlin Mickle RFID Center of Excellence, Department of Electrical an

More information

PROBLEMS. A.1 Implement the COINCIDENCE function in sum-of-products form, where COINCIDENCE = XOR.

PROBLEMS. A.1 Implement the COINCIDENCE function in sum-of-products form, where COINCIDENCE = XOR. 724 APPENDIX A LOGIC CIRCUITS (Corrispone al cap. 2 - Elementi i logica) PROBLEMS A. Implement the COINCIDENCE function in sum-of-proucts form, where COINCIDENCE = XOR. A.2 Prove the following ientities

More information

JON HOLTAN. if P&C Insurance Ltd., Oslo, Norway ABSTRACT

JON HOLTAN. if P&C Insurance Ltd., Oslo, Norway ABSTRACT OPTIMAL INSURANCE COVERAGE UNDER BONUS-MALUS CONTRACTS BY JON HOLTAN if P&C Insurance Lt., Oslo, Norway ABSTRACT The paper analyses the questions: Shoul or shoul not an iniviual buy insurance? An if so,

More information

SEC Issues Proposed Guidance to Fund Boards Relating to Best Execution and Soft Dollars

SEC Issues Proposed Guidance to Fund Boards Relating to Best Execution and Soft Dollars September 2008 / Issue 21 A legal upate from Dechert s Financial Services Group SEC Issues Propose Guiance to Fun Boars Relating to Best Execution an Soft Dollars The Securities an Exchange Commission

More information

Feedback linearization control of a two-link robot using a multi-crossover genetic algorithm

Feedback linearization control of a two-link robot using a multi-crossover genetic algorithm Available online at www.scienceirect.com Expert Systems with Applications 3 (009) 454 459 Short communication Feeback linearization control of a two-link robot using a multi-crossover genetic algorithm

More information

Safety Management System. Initial Revision Date: Version Revision No. 02 MANUAL LIFTING

Safety Management System. Initial Revision Date: Version Revision No. 02 MANUAL LIFTING Revision Preparation: Safety Mgr Authority: Presient Issuing Dept: Safety Page: Page 1 of 11 Purpose is committe to proviing a safe an healthy working environment for all employees. Musculoskeletal isorers

More information

On Adaboost and Optimal Betting Strategies

On Adaboost and Optimal Betting Strategies On Aaboost an Optimal Betting Strategies Pasquale Malacaria 1 an Fabrizio Smerali 1 1 School of Electronic Engineering an Computer Science, Queen Mary University of Lonon, Lonon, UK Abstract We explore

More information

Hybrid Model Predictive Control Applied to Production-Inventory Systems

Hybrid Model Predictive Control Applied to Production-Inventory Systems Preprint of paper to appear in the 18th IFAC Worl Congress, August 28 - Sept. 2, 211, Milan, Italy Hybri Moel Preictive Control Applie to Prouction-Inventory Systems Naresh N. Nanola Daniel E. Rivera Control

More information

Enterprise Resource Planning

Enterprise Resource Planning Enterprise Resource Planning MPC 6 th Eition Chapter 1a McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserve. Enterprise Resource Planning A comprehensive software approach

More information

Cross-Over Analysis Using T-Tests

Cross-Over Analysis Using T-Tests Chapter 35 Cross-Over Analysis Using -ests Introuction his proceure analyzes ata from a two-treatment, two-perio (x) cross-over esign. he response is assume to be a continuous ranom variable that follows

More information

Chapter 9 AIRPORT SYSTEM PLANNING

Chapter 9 AIRPORT SYSTEM PLANNING Chapter 9 AIRPORT SYSTEM PLANNING. Photo creit Dorn McGrath, Jr Contents Page The Planning Process................................................... 189 Airport Master Planning..............................................

More information

A NATIONAL MEASUREMENT GOOD PRACTICE GUIDE. No.107. Guide to the calibration and testing of torque transducers

A NATIONAL MEASUREMENT GOOD PRACTICE GUIDE. No.107. Guide to the calibration and testing of torque transducers A NATIONAL MEASUREMENT GOOD PRACTICE GUIDE No.107 Guie to the calibration an testing of torque transucers Goo Practice Guie 107 Measurement Goo Practice Guie No.107 Guie to the calibration an testing of

More information

Reading: Ryden chs. 3 & 4, Shu chs. 15 & 16. For the enthusiasts, Shu chs. 13 & 14.

Reading: Ryden chs. 3 & 4, Shu chs. 15 & 16. For the enthusiasts, Shu chs. 13 & 14. 7 Shocks Reaing: Ryen chs 3 & 4, Shu chs 5 & 6 For the enthusiasts, Shu chs 3 & 4 A goo article for further reaing: Shull & Draine, The physics of interstellar shock waves, in Interstellar processes; Proceeings

More information

Forecasting and Staffing Call Centers with Multiple Interdependent Uncertain Arrival Streams

Forecasting and Staffing Call Centers with Multiple Interdependent Uncertain Arrival Streams Forecasting an Staffing Call Centers with Multiple Interepenent Uncertain Arrival Streams Han Ye Department of Statistics an Operations Research, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, hanye@email.unc.eu

More information

Performance Evaluation of Egbin Thermal Power Station, Nigeria

Performance Evaluation of Egbin Thermal Power Station, Nigeria Proceeings of the Worl Congress on Engineering an Computer Science 20 Vol II, October 9-2, 20, San Francisco, USA Performance Evaluation of Egbin Thermal Power Station, Nigeria I. Emovon, B. Kareem, an

More information

BOSCH. CAN Specification. Version 2.0. 1991, Robert Bosch GmbH, Postfach 30 02 40, D-70442 Stuttgart

BOSCH. CAN Specification. Version 2.0. 1991, Robert Bosch GmbH, Postfach 30 02 40, D-70442 Stuttgart CAN Specification Version 2.0 1991, Robert Bosch GmbH, Postfach 30 02 40, D-70442 Stuttgart CAN Specification 2.0 page 1 Recital The acceptance an introuction of serial communication to more an more applications

More information

Predicting Television Ratings and Its Application to Taiwan Cable TV Channels

Predicting Television Ratings and Its Application to Taiwan Cable TV Channels 2n International Symposium on Computer, Communication, Control an Automation (3CA 2013) Preicting Television Ratings an Its Application to Taiwan Cable TV Channels Hui-Ling Huang Department of Biological

More information

Aon Retiree Health Exchange

Aon Retiree Health Exchange 2014 2015 Meicare Insurance Guie Aon Retiree Health Exchange Recommene by Why You Nee More Coverage I alreay have coverage. Aren t Meicare Parts A an B enough? For many people, Meicare alone oes not provie

More information

Audio Engineering Society Convention Paper Presented at the 110th Convention 2001 May 12 15 Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Audio Engineering Society Convention Paper Presented at the 110th Convention 2001 May 12 15 Amsterdam, The Netherlands Audio Engineering Society Convention Paper Presented at the 110th Convention 2001 May 12 15 Amsterdam, The Netherlands This convention paper has been reproduced from the author's advance manuscript, without

More information

MSc. Econ: MATHEMATICAL STATISTICS, 1995 MAXIMUM-LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION

MSc. Econ: MATHEMATICAL STATISTICS, 1995 MAXIMUM-LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION MAXIMUM-LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION The General Theory of M-L Estimation In orer to erive an M-L estimator, we are boun to make an assumption about the functional form of the istribution which generates the

More information

HOST SELECTION METHODOLOGY IN CLOUD COMPUTING ENVIRONMENT

HOST SELECTION METHODOLOGY IN CLOUD COMPUTING ENVIRONMENT International Journal of Avance Research in Computer Engineering & Technology (IJARCET) HOST SELECTION METHODOLOGY IN CLOUD COMPUTING ENVIRONMENT Pawan Kumar, Pijush Kanti Dutta Pramanik Computer Science

More information

USING SIMPLIFIED DISCRETE-EVENT SIMULATION MODELS FOR HEALTH CARE APPLICATIONS

USING SIMPLIFIED DISCRETE-EVENT SIMULATION MODELS FOR HEALTH CARE APPLICATIONS Proceeings of the 2011 Winter Simulation Conference S. Jain, R.R. Creasey, J. Himmelspach, K.P. White, an M. Fu, es. USING SIMPLIFIED DISCRETE-EVENT SIMULATION MODELS FOR HEALTH CARE APPLICATIONS Anthony

More information

Final Year Project Progress Report. Frequency-Domain Adaptive Filtering. Myles Friel. Supervisor: Dr.Edward Jones

Final Year Project Progress Report. Frequency-Domain Adaptive Filtering. Myles Friel. Supervisor: Dr.Edward Jones Final Year Project Progress Report Frequency-Domain Adaptive Filtering Myles Friel 01510401 Supervisor: Dr.Edward Jones Abstract The Final Year Project is an important part of the final year of the Electronic

More information

Manure Spreader Calibration

Manure Spreader Calibration Agronomy Facts 68 Manure Spreaer Calibration Manure spreaer calibration is an essential an valuable nutrient management tool for maximizing the efficient use of available manure nutrients. Planne manure

More information

An intertemporal model of the real exchange rate, stock market, and international debt dynamics: policy simulations

An intertemporal model of the real exchange rate, stock market, and international debt dynamics: policy simulations This page may be remove to conceal the ientities of the authors An intertemporal moel of the real exchange rate, stock market, an international ebt ynamics: policy simulations Saziye Gazioglu an W. Davi

More information

Trace IP Packets by Flexible Deterministic Packet Marking (FDPM)

Trace IP Packets by Flexible Deterministic Packet Marking (FDPM) Trace P Packets by Flexible Deterministic Packet Marking (F) Yang Xiang an Wanlei Zhou School of nformation Technology Deakin University Melbourne, Australia {yxi, wanlei}@eakin.eu.au Abstract- Currently

More information

hurni@ieee.org 1. INTRODUCTION ABSTRACT

hurni@ieee.org 1. INTRODUCTION ABSTRACT Deployment Issues of a VoIP Conferencing System in a Virtual Conferencing Environment R. Venkatesha Prasa i Richar Hurni ii H.S. Jamaagni iii H.N. Shankar iv i, iii {vprasa, hsjam}@cet.iisc.ernet.in i,

More information

BOSCH. CAN Specification. Version 2.0. 1991, Robert Bosch GmbH, Postfach 50, D-7000 Stuttgart 1. Thi d t t d ith F M k 4 0 4

BOSCH. CAN Specification. Version 2.0. 1991, Robert Bosch GmbH, Postfach 50, D-7000 Stuttgart 1. Thi d t t d ith F M k 4 0 4 Thi t t ith F M k 4 0 4 BOSCH CAN Specification Version 2.0 1991, Robert Bosch GmbH, Postfach 50, D-7000 Stuttgart 1 The ocument as a whole may be copie an istribute without restrictions. However, the

More information

Optical Pattern Inspection for Flex PCB Challenges & Solution

Optical Pattern Inspection for Flex PCB Challenges & Solution Proceeings of the 17th Worl Congress The International Feeration of Automatic Control Optical Pattern Inspection for Flex PCB Challenges & Solution Rambabu K, Dinesh Kumar M, Vijay Kumar K, S P Nath*,

More information

Application Report ...

Application Report ... Application Report SNVA408B January 00 Revise April 03 AN-994 Moeling an Design of Current Moe Control Boost Converters... ABSTRACT This application note presents a etail moeling an esign of current moe

More information

Implementing IP Traceback in the Internet An ISP Perspective

Implementing IP Traceback in the Internet An ISP Perspective Implementing IP Traceback in the Internet An ISP Perspective Dong Wei, Stuent Member, IEEE, an Nirwan Ansari, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks consume the resources of remote

More information

The most common model to support workforce management of telephone call centers is

The most common model to support workforce management of telephone call centers is Designing a Call Center with Impatient Customers O. Garnett A. Manelbaum M. Reiman Davison Faculty of Inustrial Engineering an Management, Technion, Haifa 32000, Israel Davison Faculty of Inustrial Engineering

More information

Fast Deconvolution Using Frequency-Dependent Regularization

Fast Deconvolution Using Frequency-Dependent Regularization Fast Deconvolution Using Frequency-Dependent Regularization Ole Kirkeby, Per Rubak, and Angelo Farina * Department of Communication Techology, Fredrik Bajers Vej 7, Aalborg University, DK-9220 Aalborg

More information

Innovation Union means: More jobs, improved lives, better society

Innovation Union means: More jobs, improved lives, better society The project follows the Lisbon an Gothenburg Agenas, an supports the EU 2020 Strategy, in particular SMART Growth an the Innovation Union: Innovation Union means: More jobs, improve lives, better society

More information

Sensitivity Analysis of Non-linear Performance with Probability Distortion

Sensitivity Analysis of Non-linear Performance with Probability Distortion Preprints of the 19th Worl Congress The International Feeration of Automatic Control Cape Town, South Africa. August 24-29, 214 Sensitivity Analysis of Non-linear Performance with Probability Distortion

More information

The world s first Acoustic Power Equalization Technology Perfect Acoustic Power Equalization. Perfect Time/Phase Alignment.

The world s first Acoustic Power Equalization Technology Perfect Acoustic Power Equalization. Perfect Time/Phase Alignment. Consumer Electronics Applications The world s first Acoustic Power Equalization Technology Perfect Acoustic Power Equalization. Perfect Time/Phase Alignment. Acoustic Power Equalization Technology For

More information

Game Theoretic Modeling of Cooperation among Service Providers in Mobile Cloud Computing Environments

Game Theoretic Modeling of Cooperation among Service Providers in Mobile Cloud Computing Environments 2012 IEEE Wireless Communications an Networking Conference: Services, Applications, an Business Game Theoretic Moeling of Cooperation among Service Proviers in Mobile Clou Computing Environments Dusit

More information

A Generalization of Sauer s Lemma to Classes of Large-Margin Functions

A Generalization of Sauer s Lemma to Classes of Large-Margin Functions A Generalization of Sauer s Lemma to Classes of Large-Margin Functions Joel Ratsaby University College Lonon Gower Street, Lonon WC1E 6BT, Unite Kingom J.Ratsaby@cs.ucl.ac.uk, WWW home page: http://www.cs.ucl.ac.uk/staff/j.ratsaby/

More information

Owner s Manual. TP--WEM01 Performance Series AC/HP Wi-- Fi Thermostat Carrier Côr Thermostat TABLE OF CONTENTS

Owner s Manual. TP--WEM01 Performance Series AC/HP Wi-- Fi Thermostat Carrier Côr Thermostat TABLE OF CONTENTS TP--WEM01 Performance Series AC/HP Wi-- Fi Thermostat Carrier Côr Thermostat Fig. 1 - Carrier Côrt Thermostat TABLE OF CONTENTS Owner s Manual A14493 PAGE OVERVIEW... 2 Your Carrier Côrt Thermostat...

More information

A novel sharp beam-forming flat panel loudspeaker using digitally driven speaker system

A novel sharp beam-forming flat panel loudspeaker using digitally driven speaker system Audio Engineering Society Convention Paper Presented at the 131st Convention 2011 October 20 23 New York, NY, USA This Convention paper was selected based on a submitted abstract and 750-word precis that

More information

! # % & ( ) +,,),. / 0 1 2 % ( 345 6, & 7 8 4 8 & & &&3 6

! # % & ( ) +,,),. / 0 1 2 % ( 345 6, & 7 8 4 8 & & &&3 6 ! # % & ( ) +,,),. / 0 1 2 % ( 345 6, & 7 8 4 8 & & &&3 6 9 Quality signposting : the role of online information prescription in proviing patient information Liz Brewster & Barbara Sen Information School,

More information

Bellini: Ferrying Application Traffic Flows through Geo-distributed Datacenters in the Cloud

Bellini: Ferrying Application Traffic Flows through Geo-distributed Datacenters in the Cloud Bellini: Ferrying Application Traffic Flows through Geo-istribute Datacenters in the Clou Zimu Liu, Yuan Feng, an Baochun Li Department of Electrical an Computer Engineering, University of Toronto Department

More information

Security Vulnerabilities and Solutions for Packet Sampling

Security Vulnerabilities and Solutions for Packet Sampling Security Vulnerabilities an Solutions for Packet Sampling Sharon Golberg an Jennifer Rexfor Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA 08544 {golbe, jrex}@princeton.eu Abstract Packet sampling supports a

More information

Energy-Efficient System of Feedstock Transport Operating in a System of Particulate Material Forming Press Compact Sintering Furnace

Energy-Efficient System of Feedstock Transport Operating in a System of Particulate Material Forming Press Compact Sintering Furnace Energy-Efficient System of Feestock Transport Operating in a System of Particulate Material Forming Press Compact Sintering Furnace R. Moszumański Astract Compare to casting an plastic forming of soli

More information

Optimizing Multiple Stock Trading Rules using Genetic Algorithms

Optimizing Multiple Stock Trading Rules using Genetic Algorithms Optimizing Multiple Stock Traing Rules using Genetic Algorithms Ariano Simões, Rui Neves, Nuno Horta Instituto as Telecomunicações, Instituto Superior Técnico Av. Rovisco Pais, 040-00 Lisboa, Portugal.

More information

Heat-And-Mass Transfer Relationship to Determine Shear Stress in Tubular Membrane Systems Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Nopens, Ingmar

Heat-And-Mass Transfer Relationship to Determine Shear Stress in Tubular Membrane Systems Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Nopens, Ingmar Aalborg Universitet Heat-An-Mass Transfer Relationship to Determine Shear Stress in Tubular Membrane Systems Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Nopens, Ingmar Publishe in: International Journal of Heat an Mass Transfer

More information

ISSN: 2277-3754 ISO 9001:2008 Certified International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT) Volume 3, Issue 12, June 2014

ISSN: 2277-3754 ISO 9001:2008 Certified International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT) Volume 3, Issue 12, June 2014 ISSN: 77-754 ISO 900:008 Certifie International Journal of Engineering an Innovative echnology (IJEI) Volume, Issue, June 04 Manufacturing process with isruption uner Quaratic Deman for Deteriorating Inventory

More information

Convention Paper Presented at the 118th Convention 2005 May 28 31 Barcelona, Spain

Convention Paper Presented at the 118th Convention 2005 May 28 31 Barcelona, Spain Audio Engineering Society Convention Paper Presented at the 118th Convention 25 May 28 31 Barcelona, Spain 6431 This convention paper has been reproduced from the author s advance manuscript, without editing,

More information

Convention Paper Presented at the 112th Convention 2002 May 10 13 Munich, Germany

Convention Paper Presented at the 112th Convention 2002 May 10 13 Munich, Germany Audio Engineering Society Convention Paper Presented at the 112th Convention 2002 May 10 13 Munich, Germany This convention paper has been reproduced from the author's advance manuscript, without editing,

More information

Option Pricing for Inventory Management and Control

Option Pricing for Inventory Management and Control Option Pricing for Inventory Management an Control Bryant Angelos, McKay Heasley, an Jeffrey Humpherys Abstract We explore the use of option contracts as a means of managing an controlling inventories

More information

arxiv:1309.1857v3 [gr-qc] 7 Mar 2014

arxiv:1309.1857v3 [gr-qc] 7 Mar 2014 Generalize holographic equipartition for Friemann-Robertson-Walker universes Wen-Yuan Ai, Hua Chen, Xian-Ru Hu, an Jian-Bo Deng Institute of Theoretical Physics, LanZhou University, Lanzhou 730000, P.

More information

Supporting Adaptive Workflows in Advanced Application Environments

Supporting Adaptive Workflows in Advanced Application Environments Supporting aptive Workflows in vance pplication Environments Manfre Reichert, lemens Hensinger, Peter Daam Department Databases an Information Systems University of Ulm, D-89069 Ulm, Germany Email: {reichert,

More information

Consumer Referrals. Maria Arbatskaya and Hideo Konishi. October 28, 2014

Consumer Referrals. Maria Arbatskaya and Hideo Konishi. October 28, 2014 Consumer Referrals Maria Arbatskaya an Hieo Konishi October 28, 2014 Abstract In many inustries, rms rewar their customers for making referrals. We analyze the optimal policy mix of price, avertising intensity,

More information

AVR223: Digital Filters with AVR. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction

AVR223: Digital Filters with AVR. 8-bit Microcontrollers. Application Note. Features. 1 Introduction AVR223: Digital Filters with AVR Features Implementation of Digital Filters Coefficient and Data scaling Fast Implementation of 4 th Order FIR Filter Fast Implementation of 2 nd Order IIR Filter Methods

More information

your reliable partner EAS -Compact Backlash-free Torque Limiting Clutches K.490.V14.EN

your reliable partner EAS -Compact Backlash-free Torque Limiting Clutches K.490.V14.EN ES -Compact Backlash-free Torque Limiting Clutches K.490.V4.EN www..com We safeguar the movements of this worl Specialists for power transmission for more than a century mayr power transmission is one

More information