Intensity transformations

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1 Intensity transformations Stefano Ferrari Università degli Studi di Milano Elaborazione delle immagini (Image processing I) academic year Spatial domain The spatial domain of an image is the plane that contains the image pixels. The techniques that operates on the spatial domain make direct use of the information contained into the matricial representation of the image; in contrast to other techniques that operate onto representation of the image in other domains (which is computed through a suitable transform). This kind of techniques can be formalized as: g(x, y) = T [f (x, y)] Generally, spatial domain techniques are less computationally demanding. Stefano Ferrari Elaborazione di immagini (Image processing) a.a. 2011/12 1

2 Transformations in the spatial domain The operator, T, is usually defined on a suitable neighborhood of (x, y). A rectangular neighborhood is usually preferred. When the neighborhood fall outside the image, some exestending criteria have to be used: (background-padding, zero-padding, symmetry). If the radius of the neighborhood is 0, the transformation involves only the considered pixel and depends (only) by its intensity: s = T (r) intensity transformation or gray-level mapping. Intensity transformations Intensity transformation techniques are also called point-processing, as opposed to the neighborhood processing techniques. Simple to implement (algorithm, table map). They are used for enhancing images that are devoted to visual processing: no general rule for stating the optimality; application-dependent; user-dependent. Stefano Ferrari Elaborazione di immagini (Image processing) a.a. 2011/12 2

3 Image negative Sometimes, the details are more detectable when the pixels intensity is reversed. For instance, when the details are white or light gray and the background is dark and covers the most of the image. s = L 1 r Logarithmic transformations s = c log(1 + r), c = L 1 log L Useful for representing bidimensional functions that are defined on large intervals and have high and small peaks. e.g.: f : [0, 1] 2 [0, 10 6 ] Stefano Ferrari Elaborazione di immagini (Image processing) a.a. 2011/12 3

4 Gamma transformations Also called power-law transformations. s = c r γ (sometimes s = c (r + ɛ) γ ) Used for correcting the visualization devices output. Useful for contrast correction (or improvement). A too large or too small value for γ can compromise the results. Gamma transformations (2) If the gamma correction factor of the average visualization device is known in advace, a suitable image intensity correction can applied before the visualization. Stefano Ferrari Elaborazione di immagini (Image processing) a.a. 2011/12 4

5 . Gamma transformations (3) a c b d (a) Original image. Gamma transformed images with c = 1, γ = 0.6 (b), c = 1, γ = 0.4 (c), and c = 1, γ = 0.3 (d). Which is the best? Gamma transformations (4) a c b d Gamma correction can be applied also for darkening images. (a) Original image. Gamma transformed images with c = 1, γ = 3.0 (b), c = 1, γ = 4.0 (c), and c = 1, γ = 5.0 (d). Stefano Ferrari Elaborazione di immagini (Image processing) a.a. 2011/12 5

6 Contrast stretching transformations a c b d (a) General shape of the contrast stretching transformations. (b) Low-contrast image. (c) A processed image. (r 1, s 1 ) = (r min, 0) (r 2, s 2 ) = (r max, L 1) (d) Thresholding can be view as the limit of the contrast stretching. (r 1, s 1 ) = (r thr, 0) (r 2, s 2 ) = (r thr, L 1) Intensity level slicing transformations a b Intensity level slicing transformations highlight an intensity range. The transformation in (a) sets all the intensity that are not in [A, B] to 0. The transformation in (b) conserves the intensity that are not in [A, B]. Stefano Ferrari Elaborazione di immagini (Image processing) a.a. 2011/12 6

7 Intensity level slicing transformations (2) a b c (a) Original image. (b) Vessels are highlighted by setting to L 1 the intensity levels that are in the range of interest and to 0 all the others. (c) Vessels intensities are conserved, while the other are darkened. Bit-plane transformation Instead of considering it as a matrix of integer, the image can be seen as composed of layers of bits. Stefano Ferrari Elaborazione di immagini (Image processing) a.a. 2011/12 7

8 Bit-plane transformation (2) Each layer contributes to the final appearance of the image, but most of the information is in the higher layers. Bit-plane transformation (3) a b c Images obtained using: (a) bitplanes 8 and 7; (b) bitplanes 8, 7, and 6; (c) bitplanes 8, 7, 6, and 5; Stefano Ferrari Elaborazione di immagini (Image processing) a.a. 2011/12 8

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