# PROBABILITY II BEGINNER CIRCLE 4/21/2013

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1 PROBABILITY II BEGINNER CIRCLE 4/21/ WARM-UP: GOING SHOPPING The math circle instructors go to the store to shop. The set of all items in the store will be called S, and there is a function that assigns a price to each item in the store, P. For instance P (Bazooka Bubblegum) =.25 The price function can also assign prices to shopping carts that are full of items. For instance, Derek s shopping cart (which we will call S Derek ) contains Peanuts (\$ 1.25), an episode of Seinfeld on DVD (\$ 15), and Jonathan (\$ ). Therefore, P (S Derek ) = Problem 1. Morgan, Jeff and Isaac go shopping. There shopping carts contain S Morgan ={Waterballoon, Waterbed, Watermelon, Watergun} S Jeff ={Waterballoon, Watermelon, Pineapple} S Isaac ={Waterbed, Watergun} Upon check out, we discover that P (S Morgan ) =10 P (S Jeff ) =8 P (S Isaac ) =7 What is P ({ Pineapple})? Notice that Jeff and Isaac s purchases make up Morgan s purchases, plus a watermelon. So the price of the watermelon is =5. Problem 2. Derek and Jonathan go to the store. Jonathan is planning on going to the beach, so he buys S Jonathan = { Swim Shorts, Surf Board, Snorkle} Jeff Hicks/Los Angeles Math Circle/UCLA Department of Mathematics. 1

4 LAMC handout 4/21/ SETS! A set is a group of things, none of which are repeated. In this section, we look at some relationships that sets can have with each other. Definition 1. The union of two sets, A B, is the set of all things that are in A or in B Definition 2. The intersection of two sets, A B, is the set of all things in A and in B Definition 3. The size of a set A is the number of elements in it, and is written A. Definition 4. The empty set is the set with no elements in it Problem 7. Let A = {1, 3, 5, 4, 6} and B = {1, 2, 3, 7, 8, } (i) What is A B {1, 3} (ii) What is A B {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} Problem 8. Let A be the set of all animals with fur, and B be the set of all animals that fly. Name some animals in A B. Bats and flying squirrels Problem 9. Suppose that none of the elements in A are in B. (i) What is A B The Empty set (ii) What is A B in terms of A and B It is A + B 4

5 LAMC handout 4/21/13 5 Problem 10. Let S denote the set of all rolls made with two dice. Let S [2] be the subset of all rolls that are a 2, and S [4] be the set of all rolls that have faces totaling to 4. For this question, when you want to say the roll where the first die shows a 2, and the second die shows a 5, write (2,5) (i) What is the set of all dice that have faces totaling to 2 or 4? {(1, 1), (1, 3), (3, 1), (2, 2)} It is the set (ii) What is the size of that set? The size of the set is 4 Problem 11. Again, let S denote the set of all rolls made with two dice. Let S E1 be the set of all rolls where the first die has an even value, and S E2 be the set of all rolls where the second die roll has an even value. (i) What is the set of all dice rolls where the first die and the second die have an even value. S E1 S E2 (ii) What is the size of that set? 9 (iii) What is the set of all dice rolls where the first die or the second die have an even value? S E1 S E2 (iv) What is the size of that set? = 27 5

6 LAMC handout 4/21/13 6 (v) What is the size of the set where neither the first or second die have an even value? 9 Problem 12. Last week, we looked at the probability function, P, which assigns probabilities to subsets of the possible outcomes, S. The probability function follows the rules that P (S) = 1 and P (A or B) = P (A) + P (B). Can you rephrase P (A or B) in terms of set operations? Explain in sentences. The set of outcomes that are either A or B is given by the set A B. Therefore, we can write P (A or B) = P (A B) Problem 13. How would describe the an event being in both A and B in terms of set operations? Explain in full sentences. The set of outcomes that are A and B, is given by the set A B. Problem 14. Suppose you are rolling 2 die, then (i) P (The first die rolling an even number ) 1/2 (ii) P (The second die rolling an even number ) 1/2 (iii) P ( The first and second die rolling and even number ) 1/4 6

7 LAMC handout 4/21/13 7 (iv) P ( The first or the second die rolling an even number ) 3/4 Problem 15. Cards are played with a deck of 52 cards. There are four suits of cards (Spades, Hearts, Diamonds, Clubs), each with 13 cards: 1Ace -10, Jack, Queen and King. (1) How many cards are in the set of cards that are red? 26 (2) How many cards are in the set are face cards? 12 (3) How many cards are face cards, and red cards? 6 (4) How many cards are face cards or red cards? = 32 Problem 16. Justify why A (B C) = (A B) (A C) in full sentences. What does this mean in terms of probability? 7

8 LAMC handout 4/21/13 8 Problem 17. Justify why A (B C) = (A B) (A C). What does this mean in terms of probability? Problem 18. Review problem 6 from the warm up and solve it using sets. 8

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