Economics of Passive Solar and Zero Energy Homes

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1 Economics of Passive Solar and Zero Energy Homes Jeff Tiller, PE ASU Energy Center / Department of Technology Southface North Carolina

2 Projected Residential Energy Use NC Residential Energy Use (BBtu) 450, , , , , , , ,000 50,000 0 What can we do about this? Solar Wood Coal LPG Kerosene NaturalGas Electricity Global Insight Report on Energy Use in North Carolina, 2003

3 Final Preliminary Scenario NC Residential Energy Use (BBtu) 450, , , , , , , ,000 New Home Savings Existing Home Savings Energy Efficient Scenario 50,

4 Towards Zero Energy Step 1: High Efficiency Insulation systems; high efficiency windows Air sealing Duct sealing HVAC efficiency Appliances and lighting Energy Star Systems Vision / Environments for Living NC HealthyBuilt Homes Indoor air quality / ventilation/ moisture control Step 2: Passive Solar Design/ Natural Cooling Features Step 3: Solar Thermal Step 4: Green Building Features Step 4: Renewable Electricity

5 Livermore, CA 3,070-square-foot house A 3.6-kW PV array Solar hot water Night breeze comfort system Low-E windows Fly ash concrete

6 Tucson, AZ 1,718 square feet 1kW PV system Solar hot water Low-e windows All homes in urban subdivision exceed model energy code by 50%

7 Califon, NJ Year 1900 farmhouse 1,400 square feet 7.2 kw PV system Blown-in cellulose Insulated siding

8 Fargo, GA 1,836 square feet Nonvented conditioned crawl space 4 kw PV array Structural insulated panels Recycled content decking Compact fluorescent lights High performance HVAC Low E windows

9 New Smyrna, FL A duplex with 1,736 sq ft of living area for unit 1 and 1,224 sq ft of living area for unit amorphous silicon modules bonded to the metal roof panels Light-colored exterior walls Large overhangs and porches help to shade the double-glazed, highperformance windows

10 Lakeland, FL 1998 side-by-side comparison Twelve modules facing south: 2,700 W Six modules face west: 1,350 W The combined capacity: 4,050 W Annual energy use Base home = 22,500 kwh/yr PVRES = 1,500 kwh/yr Design features saved 70% compared to base case PV system saved 22%

11 Systems Vision Project of Advanced Energy High performance affordable homes Three inspections required: framing, insulation, final Ventilation and combustion safety Efficiency standard Energy Star minimum

12 Passive Solar Design Most affordable designs Single story Limited window area Simple appearance; low roof pitch No attention to orientation Passive solar design effort Reorient rooms and windows Insulated slab floor Insulation, air sealing, duct sealing details High efficiency HVAC

13 Typical Design BATH LAUNDRY DINING TV BEDROOM SD UTILITY BATH KITCHEN CLOSET CLOSET CLOSET CLOSET HALL SD 1,147 sq ft SD CLOSET TV SD BEDROOM BEDROOM CLOSET LIVING AREA TV 1063 sq ft

14 Passive Solar Option TV BEDROOM CLOSET CLOSET CLOSET SD LAUNDRY BATH UTILITY CLOSET BATH KITCHEN HALL SD SD CLOSET DINING TV Same window area 90 sq ft face south (8%) Savings: % heating % cooling SD BEDROOM BEDROOM CLOSET LIVING AREA TV 1063 sq ft

15 Passive vs. Non-Passive Plan

16 Available on-line at

17 Affordable Passive Solar Plans

18 Affordable Passive Solar Plans

19 Enthusiastic Response Habitat for Humanity Chapters Redesigned homes for Avery, Catawba Valley, and Watauga Also working with Asheville, North Charlotte, Caldwell County and Alexander County Housing Authorities/ Other Groups NW Housing Authority Watauga Youth Build Mountain Housing

20 NW Housing Authority Currently meeting Systems Vision program guidelines Agreed to adopt new designs Agreed to meet NC HealthyBuilt Home criteria First project: 18-home subdivision in Jefferson, NC The Oaks

21 Baby Cape Design

22

23

24

25 Zero Energy Plan design Catawba Valley Habitat for Humanity Project in Hickory, NC

26 The Zero Energy Home

27 Insulated Foundation

28 Framing

29 Framing Details

30 Framing Details

31 Icynene Insulation

32 Truss Design

33 HVAC System Total cooling load less than 1 ton Geothermal HVAC Typical cfm to bedrooms less than 75 cfm Most of ductwork in conditioned space

34 Passive Solar Design

35 Energy Efficient Appliances and Fixtures

36 Appliances and Lighting Thor washer-dryer combination No dryer vent, runs on 110 V, liquid water drain Energy Star tm refrigerator and dishwasher Compact fluorescent lighting Low sone, effective Panasonic exhaust fans Enthalpy Recovery Ventilation system Insulated window blinds

37 Problems Along the Way South window design Corner structure Quest for high SHGC; Window delivery Truss delivery HVAC loads Solar water heating Cost Installation Photovoltaics UL-listing Interconnection Meter Fee The Freezer

38 Wall Framing Issue

39 Truss Issue

40 Solar Energy Systems

41 The Finished House

42 The power bills 4.5 kw Aug Sep kwh used kwh produced Net energy Cumulative net energy

43 The power generation bills

44 NC GreenPower Payment

45 Solar Water Heating Installed: $4,500 (maxes out tax credit) Decided to hire installer (or self install) Three bids (Two collectors, 80-gallon storage with built-in heat exchanger, pumps, all key parts) $2,900 $2,500 $2,200

46 Solar Hot Water Economics System materials $2,500 Installation 1,500 Total $4,000 Federal tax credit (30%) 1,200 Subtotal $2,800 NC tax credit (35%) 980 Net total $1,820 Annual savings 300 Payback period (years) 6 Mortgage pmts (20 yr, 7%) $170/ yr

47 Photovoltaic Economics Economic Analysis System cost 25,000 Federal tax credit 0.3 3,000 Net cost 22,000 State tax credit ,000 Net cost 19,000 Base credit rate Downpayment ,750 Points Total Financing Cost 4,125 Mortgage Principal 21,250 Interest 0.07 Term 30 Annual Mortgage Payments 1,697

48 PV Economics Income Hours per day 4.5 kwh per day kwh per year 7,391 Average avoided cost rate NC GreenPower rate ,330 Total income 1,608

49 PV Renewable Electricity System 4.5 kw array designed to balance home s electricity demand Connected to grid via Duke Power Generator on NC GreenPower Program

50 Energy Stars of All Sizes

51

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