Species-of-the-Week. Blanding s Turtle (Emydoidea blandingii) Species of Special Concern in Michigan

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1 Species-of-the-Week Blanding s Turtle (Emydoidea blandingii) Habitat Productive & clean shallow water (soft substrates) = ponds, marshes, swamps, bogs, wet prairies, slow rivers Spring & summer = terrestrial habitat for mating & nesting = sunny & well-drained soils Species of Special Concern in Michigan Food Diet = crayfish & aquatic insects Primarily, forage underwater Reproduction Mainly in Spring (shallow & deep water) 4-2 yrs Clutch size = 6-2 eggs I.P. = 5-75 days (Aug/Sep) Behavior - Males = overland travel during mating - Females leave wetlands to nest

2 Biodiversity Why is Biodiversity Important? Genetic diversity and: evolution reproduction adaptation disease Why is Biodiversity Important? Species Diversity and: Evolution Community stability Predator-prey relations (keystone predators) Umbrella species Why is Biodiversity Important? Ecosystem Diversity and: Evolution Flow of Energy & Nutrients Disturbance & change Diversity = Richness + Evenness richness: count of # species evenness: relative abundance of species Ecosystem A Ecosystem B 4 oak species 3 oak species Three Scales of Diversity bl oak = 4 bl oak = 2 wh oak = 3 wh oak = 6 r oak = 2 r oak = 2 pin oak = pin oak = A = B = alpha (α) diversity within habitat C = beta (β) diversity among habitat D = gamma (γ) diversity geographic scale 2

3 Alpha & Gamma Species Shannon-Wiener Index most used - sensitive to change in status of rare species H ' = s i= ( p i )(ln p i ) H = diversity of species (range -+) s = # of species p i = proportion of total sample belonging to ith species Alpha & Gamma Species Shannon-Wiener Index H ' = s i= ( p i )(ln p i ) Alpha & Gamma Species Simpson Index sensitive to changes in most abundant species D = s i= D = diversity of species (range -) s = # of species p i = proportion of total sample belonging to ith species ( p i ) 2 Alpha & Gamma Species Simpson Index D = s i= ( p i ) 2 3

4 Alpha & Gamma Species Species Evenness H ' J = H ' max H max = maximum value of H = ln(s) Beta Species Sorensen s Coefficient of Community Similarity weights species in common S 2a = S 2 a + b + c S s = coefficient of similarity (range -) a = # species common to both samples b = # species in sample c = # species in sample 2 Beta Species Sorensen s Coefficient of Community Similarity Dissimilarity = D S = b + c / 2a + b + c Or. - S s Species Sample Sample 2 Sorensen s Coefficient Sample Total occurrences = b = 7 - # joint occurrences = a = 5 Sample 2 Total occurrences = c = 5 - # joint occurrences = a = 5 Species-of-the-Week American woodcock (Scolopax minor) S s = 2 * 5 / =.45 (45%) D s =.45 =.55 (55%) 4

5 Habitat Woods & thickets with moist soil, small openings near woody cover aspen, alder, willow cover types (early successional = seedling/sapling stage; <3 in dbh) 5

6 Food Diet = 5-9% earthworms Diurnal foraging in spring/summer Nocturnal foraging in winter Long bill used as probe (foot stomping) Reproduction Courtship behavior = males on breeding fields Mar- Apr -- polygynous Clutch size = ~4 eggs I.P. = 2 days; near full grown in 28 days Behavior - Migratory winters in SE U.S. - Nonvocal calls = wing position Terms - Population - Relative vs. Absolute Abundance - Parameter vs. Statistic - Population Index - Accuracy - Precision -Bias 6

7 Complete Counts (Census) - open habitat = visible wildlife - concentration of activity - small study area Complete Counts (Census) -Drives * Biased (under- or overestimate) - Territorial (Spot) Mapping e.g., breeding birds Limitations: - territorial species (grouse, songbirds) - sex ratio known or assumed -nonterritorial males? (floaters) -ability to id species & map territories Territorial (Spot) Mapping Complete Counts (Census) - Aerial Counts & Sensing - must see animal to count it! - Aerial Photos or IR Thermal Scans - photos of migratory waterfowl Complete Counts (Census) - Aerial Counts & Sensing Aerial line-transect counts - must see animal to count it! Aerial Photos or IR Thermal Scans - photos of migratory waterfowl - IR scans of wildlife (bowhunting study in MN loss rate) Complete Counts - Sample Plots - Line transects (ground or aerial) - e.g., flush count for grassland birds - assumes % detection 7

8 Indices of Relative Abundance dependent on the collection of samples that represent some relatively constant but unknown population size Traps, number of fecal pellets, vocalization frequency, pelt records, catch/unit effort, number of artifacts, questionnaires, cover, feeding capacity, roadside counts Indices of Relative Abundance Capture Techniques Capture Techniques Female Male Spatial Organization 8

9 Remote Camera Systems DNA Fingerprinting GPS 9

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