PRE-FEASIBILITY REPORT 3 R D PHASE EXPANSION BY ADDITION OF 5 TH STREAM IN ALUMINA REFINERY AT NALCO, DAMANJODI, DIST: KORAPUT, ODISHA

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1 PRE-FEASIBILITY REPORT FOR 3 R D PHASE EXPANSION BY ADDITION OF 5 TH STREAM IN ALUMINA REFINERY AT NALCO, DAMANJODI, DIST: KORAPUT, ODISHA AUGUST 2015 M. N. DASTUR & COMPANY (P) LTD C o n s u l t i n g E n g i n e e r s KOLKATA

2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.. 6 pages 1 - INTRODUCTION Project proponent & identification of the project Brief description of the nature of the project Need the project Demand-supply gap Imports vs. indigenous production & export possibility Domestic/export markets Employment generation due to the project Authorisation Acknowledgement PROJECT DESCRIPTION Type of project including interlinked project Location Details of alternate sites considered Layout Magnitude of operation Project description with process details Basis of design Technological details Laboratory Requirement of raw materials and probable Sources 2-21 Power requirement Instrumentation, automation & communication system the 5 th stream of the alumina refinery Fire detection and alarm system Water supply system alumina refinery Water system co-generation power plant Fire fighting water system Utility system Co-generation power plant Resource optimization and reuse Waste Management and Disposal i -

3 TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Page 3 - SITE ANALYSIS Connectivity Land m, land use and land ownership Topography Existing land use Drainage Soil Climatic conditions Existing physical & social infrastructure PLANNING BRIEF Population projection Nearby Existing Industries Assessment of infrastructure demand (social) PROPOSED INFRASTRUCTURE Industrial area Residential area Proposed social infrastructure Air pollution control measures Water pollution control measures Drinking and sanitation water Sewage treatment plant Solid waste management and disposal Spent acid management 5-8 Work zone pollution control measures 5-8 Corrosion control 5-9 Plant green belt and landscaping REHABILITATION AND RESETTLEMENT PLAN 7 - IMPLEMENTATIONSCHEDULE AND COST ESTIMATES Implementation schedule Cost estimate ii -

4 TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) 7 - IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE AND COST ESTIMATES (cont d) Page Plant cost Land and land development Civil and structural steelwork Plant and equipment Technology supply by process licensor Township Design, engineering, consultancy services and Administration during construction (DE & ADC) Contingency Pre-project activities Margin money working capital Interest during construction Total capital cost Financial indicators ANALYSIS OF PROPOSAL Financial and social benefits Final recommendations TABLES Table 2B-1 - Bauxite grade Table 2B-2 - Quality parameters Table 2B-3 - Annual requirement of major raw materials Table 2B-4 - Estimated power requirements 5 th Stream alumina refinery Table 2B-5 - Make-up water requirement refinery Table 2B-6 - Total water consumption in refinery units Table 2B-7 - Make-up water requirement power plant Table 2B-8 - Power plant permance indices Table 7B-1 - Plant cost estimate Table 7B-2 - Capital cost estimate Table 7B-3 - Financial indicators iii -

5 TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) APPENDICES App 2B-1 - Schematic representation of the Refinery.. 1 App 7B-1 - Preliminary overall implementation schedule.. 1 FIGURES Fig. 2B-1- Site location map Fig. 2B-2- Schematic Flow diagram of EIA steps Fig. 3B-1- Topography of Alumina Refinery Area Fig. 3B-2- Existing Land Use DRAWINGS Dwg B General Layout of Damanjodi alumina refinery Dwg B Block flow diagram of alumina refinery Dwg B Schematic water balance diagram Aluminium refinery and co-generation plant - iv -

6 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This summary presents a concise outline of the Pre-feasibility Report the proposed 5 th stream in Alumina Refinery at Damanjodi, Odisha. 1. NALCO is planning to set up the 5th Stream in its Alumina Refinery at Damanjodi,, as a part of the expansion programme (3rd Phase expansion). The capacity of this Stream will be 1.0 MTPA. The total expansion capacity will increase from MTPA to MTPA. The processing technology will be based on medium pressure digestion, as it is found more economical compared with the existing atmospheric pressure digestion system. 2. The projected availability of alumina in domestic market beyond is estimated at about 8 million tons based on the assumption that the alumina refineries that are currently under initial stages of planning will also materialise and start production by the projected dates. In terms of global scenario, the anticipated shortfall of alumina in global market ranges from 2-10 million tons through years 2015, 2020 and The proposed 5 th stream of the Refinery will come up on the land owned by NALCO, adjacent to the existing four refinery streams. NALCO s captive bauxite mine (Centre & North block Mining Lease and South block Mining Lease) at Panchapatmali hill is located at a distance of about 14 km towards the North-East of the Refinery at Damanjodi,

7 Executive summary (cont d) 4. One additional overland conveyor system with length of around 11km between Panchapatmali deposit and Refinery at Damanjodi has been planned transfer of bauxite. Alumina and caustic lye storage and handling facilities have been envisaged at NALCO s port facility at Visakhapatnam Port Trust (VPT) area, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. 5. Rio-Tinto-Alcan Medium Pressure (MP) digestion process has been considered aluminia refining. 6. The implementation period the project has been considered as 48 months. 7. NALCO bauxite (from Central & North Block mining lease and South Block mining lease of Panchpatmali deposit) is easy to digest and most of the available alumina (tri-hydrate alumina) can be extracted even under atmospheric conditions. This type of bauxite however lends itself very compatible to medium pressure (MP) digestion process (145 0 C) as well, with the resulting increase in liquor productivity. MP digestion combined with high solids precipitation will enable NALCO to expand the production capacity of the Damanjodi refinery by 1.0 MTPA in Line 5. The high yield and liquor productivity will allow reduction of the sizes of all equipment such that the facilities proposed expansion programme can be installed within NALCO owned land with minor extension of existing plant boundary. Against this, the existing technology of atmospheric pressure digestion would have allowed expansion only by 0.8 MTPA. The adverse impact on MP digestion caused by increase in impurities in process circuit and higher boehmite reversion losses, as generally seen in MP digestion plants, are not - 2 -

8 Executive summary (cont d) expected to occur with NALCO bauxite due to low level of impurities in the same. The specific investment cost of MP digestion is lower by about 20 per cent than that Atmospheric pressure digestion process due to higher productivity. Likewise, the differential operating cost of MP digestion is also lower by about 3 per cent. As such, it may be concluded that MP digestion process is more favourable NALCO 5th Stream than atmospheric pressure digestion in terms of both CAPEX and OPEX. 8. Bauxite is the major raw material the refinery and will be obtained entirely from Central & North Block mining lease and South Block mining lease of Panchpatmali mine. Caustic soda in the m of lye will be received by ship at Visakhapatnam Port, stored in storage tanks at port facilities, and then transported to refinery by rail. Slaked Lime is used causticization of the caustic digestion liquor, and also coating the filter media, shall be obtained from nearby external source or from Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. Coal required steam & power generation at the co-generation plant of additional capacity of 1 MTPA alumina refinery, is proposed to be obtained from Talcher & IB Valley coalfields of Western Odisha through linkage arrangement and also by e-auction procurement. Coal will be transported by rail up to the alumina refinery. Fuel oil required calciners will be purchased from any one of the existing refineries at Visakhapatnam and will be transported by rail to the refinery site. 9. The production programme will be as follows: Facility Alumina refinery Production 1 MTPA - 3 -

9 Executive summary (cont d) The major units of the alumina refinery will comprise the following: - Bauxite storage and handling system - Grinding unit - Pre-desilication unit - Digestion unit - Settler and washer unit - Causticisation unit - Security filtration unit - Precipitation unit - Hydrate classification and seed filtration unit - Calcination and product filtration unit - Alumina handling unit - Caustic, acid, floculant & fuel oil storage and handling unit - Compressor house - Evaporation unit - Raw water intake - Cooling towers - Co-Generation Plant - Coal Handling System - Electrical systems and power distributions - Water supply systems Bauxite will be sourced from NALCO s captive mine located at Panchpatmali. Annual requirement of bauxite production of 1 MTPA alumina is about 3.20 tons. Capacity expansion in mine is also envisaged additional production of 3.20 MTPA bauxite. This describes proposed 5 th stream alumina refinery expansion project only. Necessary details pertaining to mining expansion project at Panchpatmali will be presented in a separate Pre Feasibility Report

10 Executive summary (cont d) 10. The estimated power requirement of the refinery with cogeneration power plant auxiliaries is given below: 5 th Stream Annual energy consumption, kwh x Average demand, MW min. maximum demand, MW 41 1-min. peak demand, MW 44 Power requirement will be met from co-generation power plant as well as the power supply received from Grid through wheeling arrangement from Nalco Captive power Plant at Angul. 11. The total make up water requirement refinery and power plant will be 572 cu m/hr and will be sourced from Kerandi River or back water of upper Kolab reservoir or Muran river, Koraput District. 12. Fuel oil will be required calciner and start-up of cogeneration power plant. 13. The auxiliary facilities required the proposed plant include air compressors, laboratory and administrative buildings at their respective locations. 14. The proposed refinery will generate pollutants such as fugitive dusts, emission from boiler & calciner, ash, red mud, etc. The required red mud storage/disposal pond and other pollution control measures the proposed refinery including the cogeneration plant will be designed to achieve the desired level of cleanliness without affecting the plant productivity and operational economics of the plants

11 Executive summary (cont d) 15. Implementation of various major activities has been scheduled in a progressive manner in order to ensure integrated execution of the project. Commissioning schedule Alumina refinery would be 48 months from the Go- Ahead. It is estimated that the total manpower requirement 5 th stream alumina refinery different facilities will be about 462 persons

12 1 - INTRODUCTION Project proponent and identification of the project National Aluminium Company Limited (NALCO), a Government of India Enterprise and a Navaratna Company, owns and operates a large integrated Mines-Alumina-Aluminium Complex in India. It has multi-location operations as follows: - Mines and Alumina Refinery, Damanjodi, Dist: Koraput, Odisha - Aluminium Smelter & Captive Power Plant, Dist: Angul, Odisha - Port Handling Facilities, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh ( alumina export and caustic soda import) The Greenfield Alumina-Aluminium Complex was set up with an initial installed capacity of 0.8 million tons per annum (MTPA) of alumina and MTPA of metal. The refinery was based on bauxite from Panchpatmalli bauxite deposits; the smelter and a coal-based captive power plant were located in Angul. The project was started up in 1987 with technology supplied by Aluminium Pechiney, France (now Rio Tinto Alcan). The 1 st Phase expansion of the integrated complex was started in 1997 which included capacity augmentation of the two alumina plant streams, and addition of another line the refinery as well as the smelter. The implementation of 2 nd Phase expansion of the integrated complex started in October The 2 nd phase included addition of another line(4 th ) in the refinery as well as smelter, and is now operational. Further, capacities of Bauxite Mines and 4 th Stream of Alumina Refinery have been augmented through de-bottlenecking. 1-1

13 1 Introduction (cont d) The refinery also includes steam & power plants (SSP) with capacities of 4 x 200 and 1 x 250 tons/hr of steam generation, and 4 x 18.5 MW expansion - back pressure turbines co-generation of power. Another backpressure turbine (5th one) is being added in the existing SPP. As a part of the future expansion programme (3 rd Phase expansion), NALCO is planning expansion by addition of 5th Stream in its Alumina Refinery at Damanjodi based on Panchpatmali Bauxite Deposits. Brief description of the nature of the project The capacity of the proposed stream would be one 1.0 MTPA and processing technology would be based on medium pressure digestion system. There would also be expansion in the mining capacity of Panchpatmali mines by 3.2 MTPA after capacity upgradation and M&R activities. A new overland land bauxite conveying system is proposed to transport bauxite from central block- sector-ii and South block to proposed 5 th stream in alumina refinery. This (PFR) is based on bauxite supply from Panchpatmali Mines and state-of-the-art process technology of Rio Tinto Alcan International Ltd (RTAIL) alumina production at medium pressure (MP) digestion. The stream capacity is much higher than any of the existing ones at Damanjodi as it is based on the recent advancement in alumina technology as well as equipment sizing. Need the project The most commercially mined aluminium ore is bauxite, as it has the highest content of the base metal. India has the fifth largest bauxite reserves with deposits of about 3 billion tonnes or 1-2

14 1 Introduction (cont d) 5% of world deposits. India s share in world aluminium capacity rests at about 3%. Production of 1 tonne of aluminium requires 2 tonnes of alumina while production of 1 tonne of alumina requires about 2.5 to 3.5 tonnes of bauxite. The principal user segment in India aluminium continues to be electrical and power distribution sector followed by the automotive and transportation, building and construction, packaging, consumer durables, industrial and other applications including defence. India with its abundant supply of quality bauxite and low cost labour has established itself as a low cost producer of primary aluminium As per demand supply analysis of alumina, the domestic as well as global scenario strongly favour creation of new capacities in alumina. In this background, NALCO has a uniquely advantageous position on account of the following factors: - Currently NALCO sells part of its alumina produced within India and exports the remaining quantity. NALCO exported nearly 0.94 MT, 1.30MT and 1.18 MT of alumina in the year of , and respectively. This establishes a clear opportunity NALCO to export additional 1 MT of Alumina globally from 2015 onwards. - There is a huge shortfall in China and GCC countries. There is presently no operating refinery in GCC countries. The one being built in Saudi Arabia would be captive to the smelter and the second being planned in UAE is in initial stage of implementation. NALCO is favourably placed to export their surplus alumina to these countries apart from USA and Russia nearby. - NALCO being a consistent exporter of alumina more than two decades has earned the impeccable reputation of product quality and alumina supply commitments in international markets. NALCO theree has the capability to market higher quantum of alumina in domestic as well as international market. 1-3

15 1 Introduction (cont d) - NALCO is one of the low cost producers of alumina in the world owing to having access to bauxite deposits with a low landed cost at the plant. Consequently, it has a far greater capability to complete with other alumina producers in the domestic as well as international market even if there is a surplus of alumina in the market. In view of above, the project comes up as the need of the hour and its marketability is quite assured. Demand-supply gap The projected availability of alumina in domestic market beyond is estimated at about 8 MT based on the assumption that the alumina refineries that are currently under initial stages of planning will also materialise and start production by the projected dates. The alumina demand is projected to be about 13 MT & 25 Mt in the years & respectively. Based on the demand availability scenario of alumina, the anticipated shortfalls in the domestic market have been estimated below: A. Demand B. Availability C. Likely import D. Shortfall (A-B-C).. (-) From the above it is seen that there is surplus alumina supply in India till which gradually reduce and generates a shortfall in In terms of global scenario, the anticipated shortfall of alumina in global market ranges from 2-10 MT through years 2015, 2020 and

16 1 Introduction (cont d) Import vs. indigenous production and export possibility The production of Alumina in India is presently around 4.8 MT. In addition, a number of alumina refineries are reported to be in various stages of implementation. Besides, expansion of some plants has also been undertaken. The total alumina production is likely to be around 10.8 MT in the year following the completion of the proposed expansion and implementation of new units. India is currently importing and also exporting alumina. However, export of alumina from India has been much more than import, and India exported alumina mainly to China, GCC countries, Romania and Egypt in recent years whereas Australia is the major importing country, as presented below: Import of India Export of India Source: Various issues of Indian Mineral Yearbook Domestic/Export markets Consumption growth of aluminium over the last 5 years has been about 11 per cent. According to projections made by NALCO and Mckinsey & Co, CAGR of demand aluminium in India will be per cent from 2012 to 2022, and 9-11 per cent from 2010 to 2015 respectively. Demand alumina is mainly driven by primary aluminium. At present the per capita aluminium consumption in India is very low at 1.3 kg and is expected to increase subsequently. Considering the growth rate of alumina to be same as growth rate of aluminium and considering 1-5

17 1 Introduction (cont d) past consumption of alumina, the likely domestic demand alumina in the years , and could be as given below: Year Alumina demand mill. tons given below: Currently sectoral consumption of aluminium in India is Sector Share % Packaging 4 Construction 13 Transportation 15 Electrical & power 48 distribution Industrial machinery 7 Consumer durables 7 Others 6 Total 100 Source: AAI National directory of aluminium industry Indian architects are gradually using more aluminium decor and style. Rising per capita income, demand of smaller houses, easy access to credit, rural housing schemes run by state governments are key growth factors in India. These factors would result in healthy growth in both urban and rural construction areas till the year 2020, and well beyond. Besides, a huge investment is planned the infrastructure development of the country in the 12 th five year plan. There would be large scale investments to tackle energy shortages, which would involve the use of aluminium power transmission lines, while the 1-6

18 1 Introduction (cont d) government s tax breaks wind-farm projects and renewable energy sources would boost demand aluminium use in the production of wind turbines. As per the 11 th and 12 th plans there would be a total consumption of about 4 million tons of aluminium in the power sector by the year Besides, there is a possibility of increase in demand once the country having signed the international civil nuclear co-operation deal starts building nuclear power plants. The developed countries have on an average 140 kg of aluminum per vehicle, while India is at 40 kg levels. First aluminium can body manufacturing facility - Can Pack of Poland came into operation in India in July Can is a major consumption m of aluminium, and is expected to contribute to aluminium growth in India in a big way. Accordingly, the average growth rate of aluminium demand works out to be 12 per cent. On analysis of global market it was observed that the future world demand alumina will be primarily driven by production of primary aluminium. It was also observed that world consumption of primary aluminium had almost doubled between 2002 and According to recent projections by CARE Research, demand growth primary aluminium would be 5.3 per cent. Considering this projection, past trend in consumption of aluminium and prevalent global economic turmoil due to financial crisis of Europe, the likely world demand primary aluminium in the years 2015, 2020 and 2025 could be 51, 65 & 72 MT respectively. The likely availability of primary aluminium in the years 2015, 2020 and 2025 is estimated to be 50, 55 & 56 MT respectively. The likely demand alumina considering the requirement production of primary aluminium, as well as the demand other end-uses, could be as given below: 1-7

19 1 Introduction (cont d) Year Alumina, mill. Tons For For other aluminium (1) end-uses (2) Total NOTES: (1) At 2 tons alumina per ton of aluminium. (2) At 4.5 per cent of alumina aluminium production. Employment generation due to the project It is estimated that the total direct employment generation from the 5th Stream expansion project will be about 462. In addition to this, mining expansion project will also generate number of direct employment and manpower requirement of mining expansion project is presented separately in the pre feasibility report mine. The 5th stream Alumina Refinery will be headed by a Deputy General Manager (DGM) and he will report to the existing GM (Refinery) of NALCO. As the 5th stream refinery is an expansion in the existing Refinery so it is presumed that the existing corporate administrative service will be available necessary help so only a skeleton administrative service is considered this expansion. The new DGM who will be the in-charge of the new expansion unit and will report to the existing General Manager who is the full-time Chief Executive of the total Plant. The DGM will be responsible the new units operations including planning, production, maintenance and services, quality, safety & environment). The DGM will be assisted by senior managers production and maintenance and services. The quality control and Lab will be headed by a Metallurgist and will directly report to the DGM. The summary of manpower is given below: 1-8

20 1 Introduction (cont d) Admin dept M E S HSK SK SSK O Total on pay roll Refinery Administration Works management Maintenance & services Production Total (M Management staff, E Engineers and officers, S Supervisory staff HSK Highly skilled staff, SK Skilled staff, SSK Semi skilled staff O Office staff) Authorisation National Aluminium Company Limited (NALCO) vide its Letter Reference No. P&T/CONT/61 dated 9 th February 2015 commissioned M. N. Dastur & Company (P) Ltd, Consulting Engineers, Kolkata to prepare a on 5 th stream alumina refinery expansion project. Acknowledgement CONSULTING ENGINEERS gratefully acknowledge the co-operation and assistance extended by NALCO in preparation of this Pre-Feasibility report. 1-9

21 2 - PROJECT DESCRIPTION This Chapter gives an elaborate description of the installation of 5 th stream in the Alumina Refinery along with its auxiliaries and necessary enablers. TYPE OF PROJECT INCLUDING INTERLINKED PROJECT NALCO is planning 5 th Stream in its Alumina Refinery with proposed capacity of 1.0 MTPA at Damanjod, Odisha. There will also be expansion in the mining capacity of Panchpatmali mines by 3.20 MTPA after capacity upgradation and M&R activities. A new overland land bauxite conveying system is also proposed to transport bauxite from central block- sector-ii and south block mining lease to proposed 5 th stream in alumina refinery. LOCATION NALCO intends to set up 5th stream in Alumina Refinery within existing plant of NALCO. NALCO Refinery is located at Damanjodi in Koraput District of Odisha State, India. The tentative co-ordinate of the existing plant is 18 46'20"N/82 55'1"E. The location of the plant is shown in Fig. 2B-1 on the next page. DETAILS OF ALTERNATIVE SITE CONSIDERED This proposed project is a part of 3 rd Phase expansion plan of NALCO that includes expansion of 1.0 MTPA Alumina production by introducing a 5 th stream in its Alumina Refinery. This expansion project is sited within the existing plant Odisha and no other alternate sites have been considered. Total area of the existing plant is around 615 acres out of which, approximately 62 acres will be utilised 5 th stream expansion. 2-1

22 2 Project description (cont d) LAYOUT For the refinery, all the new facilities have been proposed to be installed within the existing land limit of NALCO. Though in order to accommodate some of the proposed units, the existing boundary wall of works needs to be modified at different locations. Plant general layout of Damanjodi alumina refinery B , showing the proposed facilities is enclosed with this report. FIG. 2B-1 : SITE LOCATION MAP 2-2

23 2 Project description (cont d) MAGNITUDE OF OPERATION Addition of 5th stream in alumina refinery will increase the alumina production capacity by 1 MTPA. The annual requirement of bauxite production of 1 million tons of alumina will be about 3.2 million tons. Mining activity at Central Block Sector-II & south block of Panchpatmali bauxite mine (Captive mine of NALCO) will have to be geared this scale of operation. PROJECT DESCRIPTION WITH PROCESS DETAILS The process technology 5 th Stream is based on medium pressure digestion of bauxite from Panchpatmali mines. This enables complete digestion of gibbsite at reduced residence time and higher liquor RP (Al 2O 3/Na 2O ratio), though at a higher digestion temperature when compared with atmospheric pressure digestion. A block flow diagram of alumina refining process is placed as Drawing B that reflects the various processing steps adopted. The flow sheet is similar to the one existing plant, except that medium pressure digestion process has been recommended rather than atmospheric pressure digestion. A schematic representation of the Refinery is furnished in Appendix 2B-1. Basis of design The basis of design Stream-5 is the Process Package received from Rio Tinto Alcan International Ltd. (RTAIL), who has also been associated with NALCO expansions under Phase-I and Phase-II, besides the Greenfield plant itself. This technology is being followed in almost all the plants worldwide that are based on use of gibbsitic bauxite. As the medium pressure digestion technology has now been offered by RTAIL to achieve 1 mtpa production rate from a single stream at much higher liquor productivity, it has become quite attractive to adopt at NALCO. 2-3

24 2 Project description (cont d) The bauxite grade considered is as given in Table 2B-1. TABLE 2B-1 - BAUXITE GRADE Al 2O 3 Total % ATH % SiO 2 Total % SiO 2 Reactive % Fe 2O 3 Total % CaO % C Mineral % C Organic % C Total % S Total % TiO % P 2O % LOI % As the medium pressure digestion process may lead to higher build up of impurities, the plant design has considered that the liquor of this stream will not be mixed with the existing streams. Based on operating experience, NALCO may decide to mix these in future. However, due to relatively clean Panchpatmali bauxites, the liquor impurities are expected to remain close to existing levels in spite of medium pressure digestion. The precipitation process will be based on the Rio Tinto Alcan/AP Sursat process comprising high concentration solids precipitation that is currently in application at the NALCO Damanjodi refinery. This will provide the highest possible liquor productivity (yield) in conjunction with digestion at 145 O C. International quality standards are envisaged alumina produced such that the product alumina can be exported to consumers worldwide. The quality parameters considered are as given below in Table 2B

25 2 Project description (cont d) TABLE 2B-2 - QUALITY PARAMETERS Loss On Ignition C.. 0.5% - 1.0% Bulk Density (t/m3) Particle Size Distribution +125 µm.. 15% max - 45 µm.. 8.0% % max BET Surface Area.. 55 to 80 sq m/g Soda Content (w/w %) Soluble Soda Content.. <5% of total soda The latest equipment design and sizes have been considered so as to minimize the operation and maintenance requirement. Technological details Bauxite handling and secondary crushing: Bauxite from Panchpatmali deposit will be brought to the new bauxite storage area (adjacent to the existing one) of the refinery by overland conveyor. It is proposed to provide independent bauxite storage facility such that normally Panchpatmali bauxite can be fed to Line-5. Two additional stock piles are considered 5th stream. Combined capacity of the two stock piles considered will be about 360,000 tons. The bauxite to Line-5 will be separately handled and secondary-crushed in a manner similar to the existing plant, and no significant change is envisaged. The product size envisaged is 100 per cent passing 30 mm. Bauxite grinding: The crushed bauxite will be ground in open circuit ball mills to a product size of: - P 100 of approximately 1,700 µm - P95 of approximately 600 µm - P 80 of approximately µm 2-5

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