2 What is a fire alarm system? Per the defini+on in NFPA 72 A system or por+on of a combina+on system that consists of components and circuits arranged to monitor and annunciate the status of fire alarm or supervisory signal- ini+a+ng devices and to ini+ate the appropriate response to those signals
3 Basic Components of a Fire Alarm System Control Panel Communica+ons Ini+a+ng Devices No+fica+on Appliances
4 Control Panel/Communicator A component of the ﬁre alarm system that receives signals from ini+a+ng devices and processes these signals to determine the ﬁre alarm output func+ons
5 Communica+ons DACS Digital Alarm Communica+ons Systems POTS (Plain Old Telephone System) Loop Start with line seizure from the point of demarca+on prior to sending it to the home or business. Cable Company Service assuming you have no CODEC, Voice Compression or back up power issues. One Way/Two Way Radio Mesh Radio and GSM IP Communicators with UL lis+ngs Sole Path Communicators with UL Lis+ngs
6 2010 Edi+on Na+onal Fire Alarm and Signaling Code NFPA Housecleaning Efforts Recently removed transmission methods AcBve MulBplex McCulloh Directly Connected Non- Coded Systems Private Microwave Radio Systems
8 Ini+a+ng Devices A system component that originates transmission of a change- of- state condi+on
13 Types Of Sprinkler Systems Wet Pipe: Since water is always present in the pipes supplying the sprinkler heads, these types of sprinkler system are quick to react upon the opera+on of a sprinkler head in a fire scenario. These are the most common systems and are used in buildings where there is no risk of freezing. Wet systems are required for mul+- storey or high- rise buildings and for life safety systems for UK standards. Dry pipe: The pipes are filled with air under pressure at all +mes and the water is held back by the control valve outside of the protected area. Should a sprinkler head open in a fire scenario, the drop in air pressure opens the valve and water flows into the pipe work and onto the fire. Dry pipe systems are used where wet or alternate systems cannot be used. Alternate: Alternate systems have the pipes full of water for the summer period, then subsequently drained down and filled with air for the winter. This is typically for buildings that are not heated, e.g. underground car parks.
14 Sprinkler System Devices Water Flow Valve Tamper
15 Sprinkler Heads
16 No+fica+on Appliances A fire alarm system component such as a bell, horn, speaker, light, or text display that provides audible, tac+le, or visible outputs, or any combina+on thereof
17 Examples of No+fica+on Appliances
18 Horn/Strobe Strobe- Ceiling Mount)
19 Speaker Bell
20 Fire Alarm Requirements
21 Interna+onal Building Code In Pennsylvania, Ohio, and many other states, the Interna+onal Building Code (IBC) is the model building code for the state. Each building, based on it s use, is assigned a Use and Occupancy Code The Use and Occupancy Code then determines if a fire alarm system is required. Fire alarm systems may also be required by other authori+es, such as insurance companies
22 NFPA 72 The Na+onal Fire Alarm Code Once it is determined that a fire alarm system will be installed, NFPA 72 then tells us how to install the system
23 NFPA 70 The Na+onal Electric Code Once it is determined that a fire alarm is required by the IBC, and has been designed per NFPA 72, the Na+onal Electric Code (NEC) tells us how to wire the system
24 Underwriter s Laboratories (UL)
25 What is UL? UL is a global independent safety science company with more than a century of exper+se innova+ng safety solu+ons from the public adop+on of electricity to new breakthroughs in sustainability, renewable energy and nanotechnology. Dedicated to promo+ng safe living and working environments, UL helps safeguard people, products and places in important ways, facilita+ng trade and providing peace of mind.
26 Huh? Basically, UL is a company that has developed standards on how products should operate safely. Manufacturers send their products to UL to be tested by UL to UL standards. If the product passes the tests, the manufacturer can place the UL mark on the product.
27 What about fire alarms and UL? Fire alarm service companies and monitoring centers apply to UL to become listed companies UL inves+gates the company and ensures the company understands and can comply with applicable standards UL audits listed companies once per year to ensure the company is maintaining compliance
28 Authori+es Having Jurisdic+on (AHJ) will require a UL cer+ficate on a system The UL Cer+ficate is the UL mark for fire alarm systems The UL cer+ficate on a fire alarm system ensures the AHJ that the system was designed, installed, tested and maintained properly One of the main reasons an AHJ will require a UL cer+ficate is to reduce false alarms
29 Factory Mutual (FM) FM basically provides the same service as UL. At one +me, when a property was insured by Factory Mutual insurance, they required the fire alarm system to be FM approved.
30 Commercial Fire Alarm Monitoring and Dispatching Requirements Fire Alarm system alarm transmissions require immediate dispatch of the fire department (unless otherwise required)
31 UL Runner Response Runner response is required on all UL Listed/FM Placard fire alarm systems. Central Sta+on is responsible for the dispatch of Runners in accordance with procedures based on NFPA 72 aaer normal business hours. During normal business hours, Customer Care/Service is responsible. Runner Service is defined as a service performed at the protected premises, including resebng and silencing of all equipment transmibng fire alarm or supervisory signals to an off- premises loca+on. A UL Runner is a person (other than the required number of operators on duty at central, supervising, or runner sta+ons) available for prompt dispatching, when necessary, to the protected premises. A Runner shall not be required if there will not be a fire department or customer representa+ve on- site.
32 Fire Alarm Response Dispatch runner or technician to the protected premises within 1 hour of receipt of a signal if the equipment needs to be manually reset by the prime contractor. A runner/technician response may be waived by the fire department or other Authority Having Jurisdic+on (AHJ). The customer may not call off a runner response. A runner/technician is not required if the signal results from a prearranged test. If a runner/technician is required, they must arrive within 1 hour of the signal being received.
33 Supervisory Signal Response Dispatch a runner or maintenance person to arrive within 1 hour of the signal being received to inves+gate. Central sta+on must dispatch a runner/maintenance person to the protected premises if a supervisory signal is received, even if the signal has reset. A runner/technician is not required if the signal results from a prearranged test. In addi+on, a runner would not be required if a prearranged procedure is in place with the subscriber on the handling of supervisory signal and the subscriber is able to reset the supervisory signal. If the subscriber is unable to reset the supervisory signal, a runner/technician must s+ll arrive within 1 hour of receipt of the signal. Supervisory alarms are defined as alarms received from sprinkler system supervisory appliances. These include, but are not limited to, valve tampers switches, low air pressure/temperature switches, fire pump supervision, tank level/temperature switches. Addi+onally, when duct detectors are configured not to provide fire alarm response, they shall be considered a supervisory signal
34 Trouble Signal Response Dispatch personnel to arrive within 4 hours to ini+ate maintenance, if necessary. This is interpreted to mean the central sta+on must dispatch a technician to the protected premises if a trouble signal is received. If a reset signal to the trouble signal is received before the technician arrives, the technician would not have to respond. The customer should be no+fied of the reset signal and asked if they s+ll require runner response. Trouble signals also include such signals as AC power loss, badery trouble, phone line trouble, failure to test, and other related control panel problem signals. If the trouble is due to a known cause that would not be able to be repaired by the technician, runner response is not required (i.e. AC power to the building is off due to storm damage).
35 AddiBonal Runner Requirements The UL Runner should complete a Select Security Service Ticket and clearly mark the +cket as a UL Runner so that the customer is charged accordingly. This +cket is for the reset only. If addi+onal work or services are required at the site, the UL Runner should contact the primary on- call Technician.
36 AddiBonal Fire Alarm Requirements No Select Security personnel shall place a fire alarm system or any part of a fire alarm system on test without first inves+ga+ng the cause of the problem on- site. Select Security personnel may place a fire alarm system or a part of a fire alarm system on test at the request of the customer. If it is determined that a fire alarm system or any part of a fire alarm system will be placed on test, the reason for the system being on test and the person placing the system on test shall be documented in the account history on the central sta+on soaware. If it is determined that a fire alarm system or any part of a fire alarm system will be placed on test for a period of more than 8 hours, the Authority Having Jurisdic+on shall be no+fied. The person who was no+fied and the person that made the no+fica+on shall be documented in the account history on the central sta+on soaware. No Select Security personnel shall disconnect a device on a fire alarm system for a period of more than 8 hours. If a device must be disconnected for a period of more than 8 hours, the Authority Having Jurisdic+on shall be no+fied. The person who was no+fied and the person that made the no+fica+on shall be documented in the account history on the central sta+on soaware. Addi+onally, an out of service tag shall be placed on any device that is disconnected and at the fire alarm annunciator.
37 Fire Alarm Inspec+ons Fire alarm inspec+ons shall be conducted per the requirements of the current version of NFPA 72 and contract documents. The fire alarm inspec+ons will consist of the following:
38 Quarterly Inspec+ons: 1. The technician shall opera+onally test the fire alarm control panel. The fire alarm control panel shall be tested to verify correct receipt of alarm, supervisory and trouble signals, opera+on of no+fica+on appliance and auxiliary func+on outputs, circuit supervision and AC power loss. 2. Fire alarm panel baderies shall be inspected for corrosion or leakage and tested under full load with the primary power disconnected. The badery charging circuit shall be tested to ensure correct voltage output to the baderies. 3. The digital alarm communicator shall be opera+onally tested to ensure receipt of the correct signal to the central sta+on within 90 seconds of going off- hook. The digital alarm communicator shall be tested to ensure line seizure, line failure detec+on, and the ability to transmit line failure within 4 minutes of detec+ng the line fault.
39 4. The sprinkler alarm and supervisory ini+a+ng devices shall be func+onally tested per NFPA 72 standards and manufacturer s instruc+ons. Sprinkler alarm and supervisory ini+a+ng devices include but are not limited to waterflow switches, high/low pressure switches, valve tamper switches and room temperature switches. 5. Waterflow switches shall be tested by flowing water through the inspectors test valve. Ini+a+on of the waterflow alarm signal shall occur within 90 seconds of opening the inspectors test valve. 6. High/low pressure switches shall be operated and verified that receipt of the signal occurs when the required pressure is increased or decreased a maximum of 10 psi. 7. Valve tamper switches shall be operated and verified that receipt of signal occurs within the first two revolu+ons of the hand wheel. 8. Room temperature switches shall be operated and verified that receipt if signal occurs when the room temperature decreases to 40 F.
40 Annual Func+onal Inspec+ons: 1. The technician shall opera+onally test the fire alarm control panel. The fire alarm control panel shall be tested to verify correct receipt of alarm, supervisory and trouble signals, opera+on of no+fica+on appliance and auxiliary func+on outputs, circuit supervision and AC power loss. 2. Fire alarm panel baderies shall be inspected for corrosion or leakage and tested under full load with the primary power disconnected. The badery charging circuit shall be tested to ensure correct voltage output to the baderies. 3. The digital alarm communicator shall be opera+onally tested to ensure receipt of the correct signal to the central sta+on within 90 seconds of going off- hook. The digital alarm communicator shall be tested to ensure line seizure, line failure detec+on, and the ability to transmit line failure within 4 minutes of detec+ng the line fault. 4. Alternate communica+on methods and devices shall be tested per the current revision of NFPA72 and the manufacturer s instruc+ons
41 5. The alarm and supervisory ini+a+ng devices shall be func+onally tested per NFPA 72 standards and manufacturer s instruc+ons. Alarm and supervisory ini+a+ng devices include but are not limited to system spot type smoke detectors, heat detectors, duct detectors, projected beam smoke detectors, manual pull sta+ons, waterflow switches, high/low pressure switches, valve tamper switches and room temperature switches. 6. System spot type smoke detectors shall be tested in place to ensure smoke entry into the sensing chamber and an alarm response. 7. Restorable heat detectors shall be tested with a heat source. Non- restorable heat detectors shall be tested electrically and mechanically. 8. Duct detectors shall be tested to ensure that the device will sample the airstream.
42 9. Projected beam smoke detectors shall be tested per the manufacturer s recommenda+ons. 10. Manual pull sta+ons shall be operated. 11. Waterflow switches shall be tested by flowing water through the inspectors test valve. Ini+a+on of the waterflow alarm signal shall occur within 90 seconds of opening the inspectors test valve. 12. High/low pressure switches shall be operated and verified that receipt of the signal occurs when the required pressure is increased or decreased a maximum of 10 psi. 13. Valve tamper switches shall be operated and verified that receipt of signal occurs within the first two revolu+ons of the hand wheel. 14. Room temperature switches shall be operated and verified that receipt if signal occurs when the room temperature decreases to 40 F.
43 15. The alarm no+fica+on appliances shall be func+onally tested. Alarm no+fica+on appliances shall include but are not limited to bells, horns, horn/strobes, and strobes. 16. Audible no+fica+on appliances shall be tested to ensure proper sound pressure and verified that the sound is dis+nguishable from other audible devices. 17. Visual no+fica+on appliances shall be tested to ensure that the light flashes and has the proper intensity.
44 Semi- Annual Visual Inspec+ons: 1. The fire alarm control panel and annunciators shall be visually inspected to ensure they are secure and accessible. 2. Fire alarm ini+a+ng devices and no+fica+on appliances shall be visually inspected to ensure there are no changes that affect equipment performance
45 What s required to be red?
46 Per NFPA 72, the fire alarm disconnec+ng means (circuit breaker) must be red. Per the IBC, manual pull sta+ons must be red
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