Sustainability metrics and sustainability-performance KPIs

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1 D4.2 Version: 1.0 Date: Author: POLIMI Dissemination status PU Document reference D4.2 Sustainability metrics and sustainability-performance KPIs Project acronym: Project name: Call and Contract: SustainValue Sustainable value creation in manufacturing networks FP7-NMP-2010-SMALL-4 Grant Agreement no.: Project duration: (36 months) Co-ordinator VTT VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (FI) Partners: POLIMI Politecnico di Milano (IT) UiS FIR DIN FIDIA Riversimple CLAAS ELCON UC Center for Industrial asset management, University of Stavanger (NO) Research Institute for Operations Management at RWTH Aachen University (DE) DIN, The German Institute for Standardization (DE) FIDIA (IT) Riversimple LLP (UK) CLAAS Selbstfahrende Erntemaschinen GmbH (DE) Elcon Solutions Oy (FI) University of Cambridge (UK) This project is supported by funding from the Nanosciences, Nanotechnologies, Materials and new Production Technologies Programme under the 7 th Research Framework Programme of the European Union.

2 Project no SustainValue Sustainable value creation in manufacturing networks D4.2 Sustainability metrics and sustainability-performance KPIs Due date of deliverable: Actual submission date: Start date of project: Duration: 36 months Organisation name of the lead partner for this deliverable: POLIMI Revision 1.0 Project co-funded by the European Commission within the Seventh Framework Programme Dissemination Level PU Public x PP RE CO Restricted to other programme participants (including the Commission Services) Restricted to a group specified by the consortium (including the Commission Services) Confidential, only for members of the consortium (including the Commission Services) Page 2 of 88

3 Contents 1 Executive summary Terminology Introduction Overview of findings from task 4.1 within WP Review on existing standards and frameworks Governing Framework for Sustainability Performance in Value Networks Review on performance assessment models Types of rating scales Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Methodology Requirements identification Design choices Development process Development process for TBL assessment based on metrics Development process for maturity assessment Integrated Assessment Platform for Sustainability Performance in Value Networks Maturity assessment for network conditions and structural elements TBL assessment based on sustainability KPIs Recommendations for use Discussion Findings from testing workshop with Riversimple Limitations Further research References Appendix A Tables on attributes and best practices/maturity levels Appendix B Questionnaire including proposed maturity scores Page 3 of 88

4 Document summary information Authors and contributors Initial Name Organisation Role MH Maria Holgado Granados POLIMI Author MM Marco Macchi POLIMI Author JB Jakob Beer UiS Contributor JP Jayantha P. Liyanage UiS Contributor PR Padmakshi Rana UC Contributor KV Katri Valkokari VTT Contributor SE Steve Evans UC Contributor CG Christian Grefrath FIR Contributor CS Christian Schäperkötter CLAAS Contributor Revision history Revision Date Who Comment MH, MM Outline of deliverable MH, JB First draft MH Second draft MH, MM Final version Quality control Role Who Date Deliverable leader Marco Macchi WP leader Jayantha P. Liyanage Project manager Teuvo Uusitalo Disclaimer The content of the publication herein is the sole responsibility of the publishers and it does not necessarily represent the views expressed by the European Commission or its services. Page 4 of 88

5 1 Executive summary Deliverable 4.2 is part of work package 4 of the SustainValue project. Work package 4, which comprises of three tasks, aims at at developing a governing framework for sustainability, linked to existing and emerging standards, including (existing or new) metrics to measure sustainability performance. The first task of WP4 was already accomplished and the work done was presented in the deliverable D4.1. The aim of task 4.1 was the definition and specification of multi-objective sustainability performance requirements within complex integrated product-service networks and its main result was a conceptual governing framework for sustainability performance measurement which incorporates principle components of multi-objective sustainability assessment and constitutes the foundation for further work to be carried out within next tasks T4.2 and T4.3. This is a deliverable (D4.2) of task T4.2 Define sustainable metrics, sustainability-performance KPIs and supporting integrated platform. D4.2 concerns the measurement of sustainability performance in complex production value networks and summarizes the activities, processes and results of T4.2. The work carried out within this task, T4.2, has taken as a basis the results of previous task T4.1 so it is built on the sustainability performance requirements identified and the components included in the governing framework for sustainability (network conditions, structural elements and TBL assessment). A preparatory workshop with a SustainValue industrial partner, Claas, was carried out in order to find some evidences on the propositions made in D4.1 regarding the sustainability performance requirements and some envisaged relationships among the components of the governing framework. The main challenge for the work in task T4.2 was to define an integrated platform for measuring performance which deals with the heterogeneity among those components. This created the need of developing two different assessment procedures: one based on metrics and the other one based on maturity measures. The two procedures came out with two different parts of the integrated platform: a TBL assessment based on sustainability KPIs and a maturity assessment for network conditions and structural elements. Both assessments procedures were tested in a workshop with a SustainValue industrial partner, Riversimple, whose feedback and comments led us to improve the integrated platform and to identify practical challenges regarding the use of the platform. This deliverable sets the basis for the work to be accomplished in the third task of WP4, T4.3 Develop sustainability guidelines and define a verification process for continuous value networks improvement. Moreover, there is an envisaged connection between the integrated platform and the current work of WP3 as some thoughts and elements of the proposed TBL and maturity assessment could be considered as useful input for WP3 s methodology to develop sustainable solutions. Page 5 of 88

6 List of figures Fig Governing Framework for Sustainability Performance (D4.1; adapted from Beer and Liyanage, 2012) Fig Continuous representation vs staged representation of CMMI Fig Example 1; taken from Herndon et al. (2003) Fig Example 2; taken from Macchi et al. (2010) Fig Initial structure for the Integrated Assessment Platform for Sustainability Performance Fig Factors of sustainability based on the literature(rana,2011) Fig Template for collection of attributes within each area Fig Structure of each question and its maturity score Fig Attributes identified within the PAs regarding Network Conditions Fig Attributes identified within the PAs regarding Structural Elements Fig Overview of KPIs proposed for economic dimension Fig Overview of KPIs proposed for social dimension Fig Overview of KPIs proposed for environmental dimension Fig Envisaged cause-effect directions in Governing Framework for Sustainability Performance (Beer and Liyanage, 2012) Fig Proposal of a spider chart for illustrating the results of maturty assessment Fig Example of a simple excel calculation for maturity profile Fig Example of KPIs visual representation Page 6 of 88

7 List of tables Table 6-1. Components and areas identified by the Governing Framework Table 6-2. Standards and frameworks used for the defintion of sustainability KPIs Table 7-1. Questions regarding the process area Objective Alignment Table 7-2. Questions regarding the process area Capability Matching Table 7-3. Questions regarding the process area Partnership Health Table 7-4. Questions regarding the process area Organizational Culture Table 7-5. Questions regarding the process area Governance Table 7-6. Questions regarding the process area Strategy and Business Model Table 7-7. Questions regarding the process area Product and Service Development Table 7-8. Questions regarding the process area Performance Management System Table 7-9. Defintion of KPIs proposed for economic dimension Table Defintion of KPIs proposed for social dimension Table Defintion of KPIs proposed for environmental dimension List of Abbreviations BM Business Model CMMI - Capability Maturity Model Integration KPI Key Performance Indicators MM Maturity Model PA Process Area TBL Triple Bottom Line Page 7 of 88

8 2 Terminology Capability Matching: Capability Matching describes the ability to deploy resources and abilities of organizations for collaborative purpose. Key Performance Indicators (KPI): Key performance indicators (KPIs) represent a set of measures focusing on those aspects of organizational performance that are the most critical for the current and future success of the organization (Parmenter, 2010). Lagging Indicators: Lagging Indicators are an outcome measure. Leading Indicators: Leading Indicators are measures leading to an outcome. Manufacturing Network: used interchangeably with Value Network (see below). Maturity: Maturity can be seen as an evolutionary progress in the demonstration of a specific ability or in the accomplishment of a target from an initial to a desired or normally occurring end stage (Mettler, 2011). Maturity model: Maturity models can be defined as staged roadmaps for assessing the capabilities of a company/organization with respect to a specific management domain (Becker et al., 2009). Objective Alignment: Objective Alignment describes the match between an organization s individual objectives and interests with that of one or more of other partners within a manufacturing network. Organisational governance is the system by which an organisation makes and implements decisions in pursuit of its objectives (ISO 2010). Governance refers to mechanisms (for instance processes, structures, norms) that organizations deploy to influence organisation members and other stakeholders to contribute to organizational goals. (D1.2) Partnership Health: Partnership Health is an indicator of the condition or status of the mutual relationship between two or more partners within a manufacturing network. Performance: Performance can be defined as the degree of stakeholder satisfaction (Wettstein, 2002). Hence, performance is characterized as the relationship between expectation and delivery with respect to stakeholder claims. Performance Measurement: Performance Measurement describes the process of acquiring performance-related data through a given set of measures and generating information by relating the data to a specific context. It can be considered both a requirement for and a subset of performance management. Performance Management: Performance Management is defined as the process of analyzing performance-related information (generated through performance measurement; see above), making decisions based on this information, planning and implementing actions to improve or maintain the state of performance, and feeding back information intended to improve the process of performance measurement. Page 8 of 88

9 Product Service System (PSS) can be defined as the result of innovation strategy, shifting the business focus from designing and selling physical products only, to selling A system of products and services which are jointly capable of fulfilling specific client demands. (D3.1; adapted from Manzini and Vezzoli 2002) Stakeholder: Stakeholders are defined as entities (organizations, individuals or groups of individuals) that affect and/or are affected by the actions of an organization. N.B.: Differs from definition provided by D1.1. Triple Bottom Line is a concept developed by Elkington (1997) which considers a balance between economic, environmental and social issues in organizations. Value Network: Consists of organisations (companies) co-operating with each other to benefit all network members. In manufacturing industries lead producer and its suppliers and customers form a typical value network (D1.2). This group of three or more organizations should be connected in ways that facilitate achievement of a common goal (Provan et al., 2007). Page 9 of 88

10 3 Introduction Workpackage WP4 aims at developing a governing framework for sustainability, linked to existing and emerging standards, including (existing or new) metrics to measure sustainability performance. In this concern, there is a need for a dynamic platform to develop and integrate the necessary sustainability performance standards across the product-service structure; it will have also to integrate Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for efficient performance regulation and sustainability measurement within distributed value-networks. Deliverable 4.2 (D4.2) Sustainability metrics and sustainability-performance KPIs -, is a deliverable of WP4, resulting from task 4.2. It provides an integrated platform to measure sustainability performance in terms of environmental, economical, and social measures. The work done on task 4.2 is based on the findings of the previous task 4.1 which were summarised in the previous deliverable within WP4. Deliverable D4.1 defined the needs to assess performance in a three-fold approach (cf. Figure 32 in D4.1) reflecting various influence factors and conditions in manufacturing firms embedded in complex networks, and leading to triple bottom line performance. In particular, Network level performance either restricts or enables the firm in improving internal processes, which will eventually lead to an outcome based on the triple bottom line (TBL) approach. While the outcome can be measured in terms of common indicators, as proposed by a variety of standards and frameworks (such as EFQM self assessment or GRI), internal processes and network level performance are of a more intangible character, relating to the state of practice in a firm or value network operations, thus they require a different measurement approach. Their intangible character requires rich descriptions of different performance levels to allow meaningful assessment: the maturity models provide the means to assess processes within the company as well as the relationship with network partners. As defined by Volker et al. (2011) the benefits provided by maturity models are manifold: - They provide a normative description of the good practices (in specific business areas and processes). The maturity levels set an ideal standard that organizations can strive for. - They can act as a framework for prioritizing actions, and can help raising awareness about a particular strategic process among the employees and board members. - They can be used also to benchmark (parts of) organizations (i.e. in their practices). Based on these benefits, maturity models are used for the assessment of practices within business processes. This may provide a procedure for assessing the intangible areas within the Governance Framework for Sustainability Performance (network conditions and structural elements). Therefore, the integrated assessment platform for sustainability performance in value networks will include two assessment procedures: a TBL assessment based on metrics, developed from existing standards and frameworks; and a maturity assessment for intangible areas at network and firm level, based on a questionnaire which would be used to define a maturity profile for the internal processes in the firm and its value network. Page 10 of 88

11 4 Overview of findings from task 4.1 within WP4 This chapter introduces the findings from previous task 4.1 that have set the foundation for the work done in this task T4.2. An overview of the findings of the previous deliverable, D4.1, already finalised within WP4 is done here in order to set the basis of the work carried out for the accomplishment of D4.2. The previous review on existing standards and frameworks for sustainability measures and the proposed Governing Framework for Sustainability Performance in Value Networks have driven the activities done within task Review on existing standards and frameworks Deliverable D4.1 presented an analysis of a series of most common standards and frameworks from literature and standardization bodies in order to provide a basis for the work to be developed within WP4. The standards and frameworks under analysis were selected from the following sources: - ISO (International Standard Organizations), considering (i) the ISO family of voluntary standards and guidance documents to help organizations addressing environmental issues; (ii) a specific ISO standard focused on the energy management system (ISO 50001); (iii) a specific ISO standard focused on the social responsibility (ISO 26000); - SA (Social Accountability International), for what concern a specific standard on the labor conditions in respect of social responsibility; - EMAS (Eco-Management and audit scheme) published by European Commission in order to provide to companies a management tool for evaluating, reporting and improving their environmental performances; - GRI (Global Reporting Initiative) framework on Sustainability global economy, for measuring and reporting economic, environmental, social and governance performances (which they consider as the four key areas of sustainability). In particular, the standards and frameworks analysed were the following: ISO 14001:2004 Environmental Management System, ISO 14031:1999 Environmental Performance Evaluation, ISO 14040:2006 series Environmental Management Life Cycle assessment principles and framework, ISO 14064:2006 Greenhouse gases Part 1 (Specification for quantification and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and removals at the organization level)- Part 2 (Specification with guidance at the project level for quantification, monitoring and reporting of greenhouse gas emission reduction or removal enhancements) - Part 3 ( Specification with guidance for the validation and verification of greenhouse gas assertions), ISO 50001:2011 Energy management Systems Requirements with guidance for use (old ISO 16001:2009 Energy management systems and guidelines for using ), ISO 26000:2010 Guidance on Social Responsibility, SA 8000:2008 Social accountability, EMAS: 2009 Eco-management and audit scheme, GRI: 2011 Global Reporting Initiative. Among the previous standards and frameworks some of them were selected for being specifically used during the activities within task 4.2 and they were reviewed in details in order to extract from them the adequate sustainability-performance indicators to be included in the integrated Page 11 of 88

12 assessment platform. Those standards that were investigated during task 4.2 are herein presented briefly (cf. D4.1). ISO 14001:2004 Environmental Management System This standard specifies the requirements for an Environmental Management System (EMS) in order to enable an organization to develop and implement a policy and objectives which take into account the environmentally-related legal requirements and are concerned with environmental aspects. Indeed, the primary aim of the norm is to provide companies with a management system model claimed to allow the improvement of corporate environmental performances. ISO 14031:1999 Environmental Performance Evaluation The ISO 14031: 1999 gives guidance on the design and use of environmental performance evaluation (EPE) and on the identification and selection of environmental performance indicators, for use by all organizations, regardless of type, size, location and complexity. EPE therefore can be considered also a tool for the initial review within the EMAS Regulation. ISO 26000:2010 Guidance on Social Responsibility ISO is the designation of the future International Standard that has to give guidance on social responsibility (SR). It is for the usage by many different organizations, of both public and private sectors, in developed and developing countries. It will assist them in their efforts to operate in the socially responsible way that society increasingly demands. ISO contains guidance, not requirements, and therefore will not be for use as a certification standard like ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 14001:2004. EMAS: 2009 Eco-management and audit scheme EMAS (Eco-management and audit scheme) is a voluntary instrument created by the European Community which the organizations (companies, government agencies, etc.) may join (i) to assess and improve their environmental performances and (ii) to provide information on their environmental management to the public and other stakeholders. Synthetically speaking, then, the EMAS regulation can be considered for two aims: (i) the evaluation of environmental efficiency before and after improvement plans are carried out; (ii) the public presentation of environmental information to different stakeholders. GRI: 2011 Global Reporting Initiative. The Global Reporting Initiative (abbreviated GRI) Sustainability Reporting Guidelines have been considered the most comprehensive reporting framework up to date. These guidelines contain all three elements (the environmental, economic and social categories ) that make-up the triple bottom line of sustainable development. GRI s Sustainability Reporting Guidelines are intended to help organizations reporting information on sustainability in a systematic way. Page 12 of 88

13 4.2 Governing Framework for Sustainability Performance in Value Networks The main result of task 4.1, presented previously in deliverable D4.1, was the Governing Framework for Sustainability Performance (see Fig. 4-1). The framework and its three components provide an integrated view that was used as a starting point for the work within task 4.2. The principal areas to be assessed/measured inside each of its components were already defined and explained in D4.1. Thus, this section includes just short descriptions and an overview of the three components and their areas. Network Conditions This component represents the network perspective within the framework. The network perspective is based on taking into account value adding partners within a given manufacturing system as well as the inherent stakeholders of the system. As stated in D4.1 this component needs to be included in the performance assessment in order to conduct a comprehensive sustainability assessment. Three areas were identified as part of the network level (cf. D4.1): Objective Alignment: It describes how well organizations are able to align their organizational objectives with their stakeholders to find common ground for progress in sustainable business development. Capability matching: It describes how well the capabilities of network partners fit and thus how well they will be able to communicate, innovate, and change. Partnership Health: It characterizes the chemistry between organizations, e.g. the level of trust and collaboration between network partners. Structural Elements The firm level is considered in this component within the framework, with the purpose to represent internal factors (i.e. internal to the firm) impacting on sustainability performance. There is a potential interrelation between this component and the previous one, Network Conditions, based on a cause and effects basis. Changes and decisions at network level could have an effect on the internal structural elements in a firm and vice versa. Five areas were identified within the Structural Elements (cf. D4.1): Organizational Culture: The culture present in an organization (cf. Schein, 1990, p. 111, Schein, 2009, p. 27) is frequently considered one of the main factors of organizational performance. Individuals in firms can, for instance, have increased awareness of sustainability issues and thus contribute to sustainability goals. Performance Management System: In a firm, it established a particular incentive scheme. This incentive scheme can significantly alter individuals behavior and thus impact on firm sustainability performance. Certain characteristics of the performance management system, clear responsibilities as well as regular evaluation and updates of the system thus represent factors that can affect the sustainability performance of the firm. Page 13 of 88

14 Governance: It has not received as much attention in sustainable business development as it should have given the implications of a firm s governance structure for its options to pursue sustainable business. Strategy and Business Model: They are interrelated. In fact, some authors consider business model part of the strategy (business model as economic logic, cf. Hambrick & Fredrickson 2005) whereas others propose a broader view of business models and the business modeling process (cf. Osterwalder & Pigneur 2010). Either way, a firm s business model and its strategy pre-determine the integration and delivery of sustainability in a firm. Product and Service development: The design of a product, the choice of materials, the way it can and needs to be maintained, the ease of use, its durability and the possibility for recycling are but a few characteristics of product and service development influencing sustainability performance. A good deal of a product s later sustainability performance can be determined in the design phase (Rebitzer, 2002; Wimmer, 1999). For manufacturing firms and networks in particular, product and service development will hence be a decisive factor for sustainability performance. Sustainability (TBL) Performance This component within the framework represents metrics and indicators for sustainability performance based on a triple bottom line (TBL) approach. Thus, the metrics and indicators concerns the three sustainability dimensions: economic, environmental and social. While the previous two performance categories Network Conditions and Structural Elements represent mainly leading indicators, this category predominantly consists of lagging indicators. That is, what is measured in this category can be understood as the result or outcome of measures taken within the previous two categories. Other popular frameworks build on similar distinction between causes of performance and performance effects (EFQM: Enabler and Results; ISO 14031: Management Performance Indicators and Operational Performance Indicators; the Balanced Scorecard/Strategy Maps concept is also based on this conception). Page 14 of 88

15 Fig Governing Framework for Sustainability Performance (D4.1; adapted from Beer and Liyanage, 2012) 5 Review on performance assessment models This chapter introduces different rating scales as a background for driving the reasoning on the best alternative that could be chosen for the performance assessment regarding two of the components within the governing framework network conditions and structural elements which would be developed in task 4.2. After that, the maturity models are explained in more detail, specially the Capability Maturity Model Integration which will be an important part of the sustainability performance assessment presented later in this deliverable. 5.1 Types of rating scales If the task is to quantify qualitative data so that conclusions can be derived, there is a variety of different rating scales that can be used for this purpose. Each rating scale poses different requirements on input information and provides different levels of information quality in terms of granularity, objectivity, linearity, freedom of interpretation, and, more generally, information richness (Moultrie et al. 2007). Hence, it depends on the particular application and on the expectations of the user what type of assessment scale suits best. Page 15 of 88

16 Granularity: Different scales provide for different levels of granularity of information. If the measurement is to support the decision for one of several plans that differ in detail, a relatively high level of granularity may be required. If the decision that is to be made is merely one of binary character (e.g., yes or no, black or white, proceed or stop ), a lower level of detail can suffice the information requirements. Linearity: Many scales such as Likert scale, Guttman scale, and maturity models include discrete levels in ascending order between two extreme poles. Depending on how detailed the step range of the scale is, the assessment can allow for fine-grained assessment or rather rough decisions between two levels. When the step range is rather wide, it may be impossible to find an adequate representation on the scale since intermediate positions between two characteristics can normally not be considered, which can lead to bias on part of the rater. Choice and design of the scale should reflect linearity between the different items on the scale (equal intervals and symmetry). Objectivity: When assessing information and summarizing it on scales, people can have different opinions on the particular characteristic of an attribute. The impact of subjective judgment can be limited when the characteristics that can be selected for each attribute are unambiguous. Certain scales are particularly suited for subjective judgment (e.g., Likert scale) whereas others are better suited to limit subjective judgment (e.g., Guttman scale or maturity models). Freedom of Interpretation: Qualitative information and its summary in form of scales in many cases are open to a certain degree of subjective interpretation, which needs to be taken into account when designing measurement schemes and attempting assessment. The degree of subjectivity can be limited through choice of an appropriate measurement scale. The different rating scales suitable for qualitative research represent mainly nominal and ordinal scale types. Nominal scales can be used to assign items to certain characteristics such as names or categories. Except for the assessment of frequencies, no statistical operations are allowed for this scale type. Nominal scales can consist of both dichotomous (e.g., gender) and non-dichotomous data (e.g., colours). Ordinal scales include an order but (with exceptions) do not allow for interpretation of the distance between different levels (Fahrmeir et al. 2004). Some rating scales for qualitative research will be discussed below. 1 Binary Scales. They provide for rating of items the interesting property of which is dichotomous. Generally, binary scales can be of different scaling character, i.e., they can be nominal scales (e.g., assessment of gender; yes/no questions) and ordinal scales (e.g., assessment of age groups). When it comes to performance management, binary scales are of limited use to point out ways towards performance improvement. Depending on how the questions are formulated, binary scales can tend to involve subjective assessment and freedom of interpretation (Moultrie et al. 2007). Likert Scales They are ordinal scales and thus involve ordering of the characteristics displayed. They include two extreme poles on each side of the scale and several 1 There may be intermediate types (e.g., between Likert scales and maturity models) which are not important in this context. Page 16 of 88

17 intermediate levels in order of intensity or magnitude among which the rater can choose the most suitable one to describe his assessment object. As Moultrie et al. (2007) point out, Likert scales provide a higher degree of information granularity but still do not provide much guidance for performance improvement. The authors also suggest to complement a Likert scale with anchor phrases for the two pole to provide more details about what each level actually means, thereby improving information richness and guiding character of the scale. If Likert scales are symmetric and have approximately similar distance between each level, their character tends to become of interval scale which allows for more statistical operations and more sophisticated interpretation. Maturity Models. Building on the general concept of Likert scale, maturity models provide anchor phrases and descriptions for each scale level. The advantage is that the rater is provided with richer information on which he/she can base her assessment. Also, more comprehensive descriptions of scale levels provide better guidance for performance improvement. While maturity models are similar to Likert scale, they may in fact represent Guttman scales (Gutman 1944). In Guttman scales, a lower level characteristic is always included in all higher levels, which makes them a suitable scale for assessment of performance. The fact that higher levels are better provides guidance for improvement. When each level of the scale is described in detail, the maturity model allows detailed assessment of the object of interest since the characteristics to achieve a certain level on the scale can easily be identified and assessed. 5.2 Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) The potential to guide performance improvement has been pointed out in the previous section as one characteristic of different types of rating scales. As it can be seen from the descriptions, maturity models can provide guidance for firms that attempt to improve their performance. Maturity models (MMs) can be defined as staged roadmaps for assessing the capabilities of a company/organization with respect to a specific management domain (Becker et al., 2009). According to Röglinger et al. (2012), their basic rationale is to outline the stages of maturation paths and they can serve, concretely, for descriptive (assessing as-is situations), prescriptive (identifying desirable future maturity levels) and comparative (allowing both internal and external benchmarking) purposes. García-Mireles et al. (2012) suggest that the application of MMs can be supported by tools such as questionnaires which can assist the evaluation of current status or improvement recommendations for an organization or a process. One of the widely discussed maturity models is the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) which derives from the Capability Maturity Model (CMM) introduced by Paulk et al. (1993). CMM bases on the idea that improvement is done by little steps rather than by radical changes, by focusing on some process areas and by adopting some key practices therein (Macchi et al., 2011). The CMMI is a de facto standard, originally proposed for the maturity assessment in the software engineering domain, soon applied to many other application domains in business (project management, supply chain management, etc.). Page 17 of 88

18 Maturity models normally include a sequence of levels (or stages) that form an anticipated, desired, or logical path from an initial state to maturity (Röglinger et al., 2012). In this regard, there are two possible representations in CMMI approach (Minzoni, 2004): - Staged Representation (SR): 5 Maturity Levels (MLs) are defined, and they are related to the whole organization that must be evaluated, and an overall score for maturity is given. The maturity levels give a pre-defined set of process areas across the organization as a roadmap for maturity considering the overall organization. - Continuous Representation (CR): 6 Capability Levels (CLs) are defined, instead of MLs; a CL represents a measure assigned to single process area (PA) or a selected set of process areas. The capability levels according to CMMI are: Initial (CL1); Managed (CL2); Defined (CL3); Quantitatively Managed (CL4); Optimizing (CL5) These two representations are shown in Fig According to the definition given by Paulk et al. (1993): A maturity level is a well-defined evolutionary plateau towards achieving mature processes. Each maturity level provides a layer in the foundation for continuous process improvement ( ) Achieving each level of the maturity framework establishes a different component in the construction process, resulting in an increase in the process capability of the organization. Following this definition the maturity (capability) levels goes from a low level, representing unorganized processes, to the highest level, representing a proactive attitude based on a continuous improvement approach. Two examples are given next to illustrate different scales already proposed regarding maturity and capability levels. Example 1 (Fig 5-2) shows the capability levels in a service organization used by Herndon et al. (2003). Example 2 (Fig 5-3) concerns the introduction of new ICT for service maintenance (Macchi et al, 2010), note that in this example a continuous representation is chosen, although they term maturity level referring to what in continuous representation is named capability level. Fig Continuous representation vs staged representation of CMMI Page 18 of 88

19 Fig Example 1; taken from Herndon et al. (2003) Fig Example 2; taken from Macchi et al. (2010) 6 Methodology Deliverable D4.1 has set up the principal boundaries for the development of an integrated platform for measuring sustainability in manufacturing value networks. A summary of such boundaries is herein presented as a set of key requirements and design choices which were taken at the beginning of task 4.2 in order to fully follow the assessment structure given by the Governing Framework for Sustainability Performance. Afterwards, the development process for the different parts of the integrated platform is explained to give an overview of the different approaches taken during the activities of task Requirements identification Several requirements can be identified from the work carried out in task 4.1. As first key requirement, the integrated platform should support a comprehensive assessment of the manufacturing value network s effectiveness based both on enabling factors and results. This categorization builds on the three-fold approach suggested by Donabedian (1988; 2002; 2005), i.e. structure, process and outcome. The first two (structure and process) are considered as Page 19 of 88

20 enabling factors while the last one (outcome) has been renamed as results. Enabling factors have to be intended as the factors that an organization can manipulate, while results concern what an organization will achieve (Beer and Liyanage, 2012). As it was defined in D4.1, the enabling factors are constituted by two of the components of the Governing Framework for Sustainability network conditions and structural elements, and the results comprise the component named as sustainability (triple bottom line) performance. Correspondingly, the user of the platform may (i) assess the results according to the status of the enabling factors and (ii) use the results as feedback to activate rethinking / reengineering of the enabling factors according to a continuous improvement approach. Indeed, when negative results are measured, a company may be motivated to revisit enabling factors that have been identified as potential causes for bad performance. Hence, awareness about potential chains of causes and effects is important (which is one of the central tenets of the Balanced Scorecard/Strategy Maps approach). As second key requirement, the platform should support the interactive performance regulation between Network conditions and Structural elements; the two issues are in fact mutually dependent. This means that the user of the platform may (i) be able to review & redefine the Structural elements based on the knowledge acquired on Network conditions and vice versa (i.e., to review & redefine the Network conditions if a company decides to make any principal change to the Structural elements). As third key requirement the platform should integrate the relevant measures already present in existing standards and frameworks. Accordingly, the user of such a platform may (i) reuse all the existing knowledge without reinventing the wheel with new measures and (ii) make a benchmark through a set of indicators that are commonly adopted in industry 6.2 Design choices The components inside the Governing Framework for Sustainability include areas of different nature (summarized in table 6-1). As already mentioned in D4.1, network conditions and structural elements are of intangible character: hence, even if their performance characteristics are visible in the state of practices of given business process areas, such characteristics are not directly measureable with quantitative metrics; their performance assessment is more difficult. To this concern, different rating scales were discussed for measuring/assessing the state of practices (see section 5.1). Opposite to this, triple bottom line (TBL) assessment concerns more tangible performance characteristics that could be more easily measured through metrics. AlthoughThe main challenge of developing an integrated platform is how to deal with this heterogeneity among the areas. Page 20 of 88

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