1 6 Use of the Balanced Scorecard for ICT Performance Management Jan de Boer, Joachim Vandecasteele and Ken Rau The financial performance of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) organisations has always been under close scrutiny. To assess the overall performance of an organisation, various management methods and tools have been implemented, but only to a limited extent. The well-known Business can also be applied in an ICT environment to provide the different stakeholders with performance information. Introduction The need for adequate ICT control and management is growing rapidly as organisations relentlessly step up the pace and increase the size of investments in ICT. Dependence on reliable, continuous and competitive ICT systems is growing accordingly. As a result, organisations, and hence ICT departments, are under increasing pressure to achieve an above-average performance using ICT. The various stakeholders, including executive management, line managers, the ICT manager, audit and regulatory authorities, shareholders, suppliers and customers, therefore require better insight into whether ICT strategy and the operationalisation of that strategy yields added value without generating unwarranted risks. Remarkably enough, the current day-to-day control of ICT organisations in general is still limited to annual budgeting rounds and subsequent monthly financial reporting. In the case of new ICT developments, project overviews are frequently used, the main input of which consists of descriptive qualitative data. The operation and management of ICT is usually monitored with the aid of up/downtime and helpdesk statistics. This monitoring is often organised on an ad hoc basis. No correlation exists between the various reports, nor is there any relationship with the business strategy. As a result, most organisations lack a wellstructured performance management system for ICT. This article looks at how performance management can be applied to ICT on the basis of the Balanced Scorecard. First of all, the meaning of the term performance management is briefly discussed. Secondly, the theory of the is explained. The growth phase model of the ICT organisation is also taken into consideration, given that the way in which performance management is set up strongly depends on the organisation s level of maturity. Finally, a description is given of how the can be used for each ICT growth phase. Performance management in ICT organisations In order to decide which performance areas require performance management, it is important first of all to determine the role and added value of the ICT organisation. This may vary from business management and ICT management to ICT supply management. The latter, incidentally, is now increasingly a separate entity within ICT organisations. Secondly, in extension of this role, the planning & control process must be carefully designed to determine the objectives and monitor their realisation. It is important to determine the role and added value of ICT from different angles, preferably from the of each stakeholder. Every stakeholder has his own questions after all, which the organisation must be able to answer. Table 1 [Saul00] provides examples of the various stakeholders and their respective queries. In order to answer these and other questions it is important to monitor the processes concerned. However, this should never be confined to financial monitoring alone. As the saying goes: If you can monitor it, you can manage it. This process is operationalised by means of performance management. Performance management can be described as: a management process rather than a steering mechanism, aimed at setting objectives (planning) and monitoring whether these objectives are achieved by the organisation (control). In applying performance management, the organisation must first form a clear notion of what it considers important. The monitoring of the most significant aspects links up with the management cycle and also shows who is responsible for what. Important issues are identified by means of performance management and can thus be analysed. In this context, the monitoring of performance ranges from the use of simple transparent indicators to that of complex monitoring systems. Various aspects can be monitored, such as finance, efficiency, effectiveness, service, etcetera.
2 Use of the for ITC Performance Management 7 Stakeholders Board of Directors Executive Management Committee Line of Business Management Risk Management and Regulatory Management ICT Organisation Key questions What value does ICT add? Does ICT enable or retard growth? Does ICT stimulate organisational innovation and learning? Is ICT well managed? Are our ICT investments profitable? How does ICT affect the customer s experience? Does ICT improve productivity? Does ICT put us in a position to meet future market demands? Are the organisation s assets and operations protected (incl privacy)? Are the key business and technology risks being managed? Are the proper processes and controls in place? Are we doing the right things? Are we effectively managing our service and technology providers? What do we need to improve to meet our objectives? Have we satisfied all key stakeholder interests? Are we able to attract/retain the talent we need? Table 1. Stakeholders. The advantages of implementing performance management are: a clear view of the realisation of strategic financial and non-financial objectives; an explicit definition of key performance indicators for success (enabling monitoring); the application of forecasts and action-oriented reporting; consistent management information at strategic, tactical and operational levels (drill down); the results serve as a guideline for communication within the organisation; the promotion of a results-oriented culture; opportunities to benchmark the organisation. Various models can be used to set up performance management, e.g. McNair s Performance Pyramid, the Effective Progress and Performance Measurement Model by Adams and Roberts, the EFQM model and the model by Kaplan and Norton. The is used more and more in practice ([Kapl97]). This model was developed in order to provide a performance management system which aims to create an ideal balance between objectives in the short and long term, between financial and nonfinancial monitoring and between internal and external performance s. The model recognises that financial performance is important but the emphasis is placed on the fact that the basis for good financial performance consists of satisfied customers, a high level of innovation and internal business processes that run smoothly. Practice has made it clear that the is also particularly suited for measuring the performance of ICT organisations. The translates the vision and strategy of the enterprise into concrete objectives, organised along the lines of the four different s: the financial, the customer, the internal processes and the learning and growth. Together, these s constitute the framework for the Balanced Scorecard. Figure 2 shows a version of the Balanced Scorecard based on Kaplan and Norton. The central issue for each is defined. Each requires the identification of critical success factors (CSFs). These indicate the areas in which the organisation should excel in order to achieve its strategic objectives. These success factors or Do Wells should be similar to organisational core competencies. For each CSF, key performance indicators (KPIs) are fixed. These provide a quantitative indication of the degree to which the CSFs are achieved. Reward Goals & performance Comparison Neutral description Efficiency measurements basis for bonus Comparison between different departments Determine situation of beginning of project Only for internal use Benchmarking by consultants barometer for the industry Industry branch statistics Announced objectives and results of an annual meeting in annual report Published Figure 1. Various objectives and applications of measurements [Olve96].
3 8 Financial How attractive is the ICT organisation for the organisation as a whole? organisation view the customer?. The time horizons of the s are also distinct. These vary from a relatively short period of time for the financial to the long term for the learning and growth. How is the quality of the ICT service provision perceived by the customers? Internal How effective and efficient are the processes in the ICT organisation? Our experience is that, by applying the Balanced Scorecard, cause and effect relationships become clear. These relationships allow us to identify the consequences of a performance level in one on the performance level in another. These cause and effect relationships are used to prevent suboptimisation. Figure 2. Balanced Scorecard [Kapl96]. Figure 3. Sample. Is the ICT organisation capable of innovation and improvement? The has a number of other important features. The financial and customer s in particular, are characterised by a clear outside-in approach. In other words, the view which customers and stakeholders have of the ICT organisation. In practice however, the concept of focus is used but this primarily concerns an inside-out approach. For example: How does the ICT Another distinctive feature is that KPIs need to be SMART: Specific, Measurable, Ambitious, Relevant (maximum of between 16 and 20 indicators) and Time-bound. On the other hand, they should have a positive impact on behaviour and it should be possible for managers to exert influence on them. Only if the KPIs meet these quality standards, can performance management provide ICT managers with a relevant picture. In order to establish a picture of the performance of the ICT organisation and to be able to make better decisions, periodic reports are created relating to the various KPIs. Figure 3 is an example of a KPI report for ICT. Example Strategic objectives Measures Business proponent 2000 Baseline 2001 Target Dec Jan Feb Actual YTD Plan YTD B/(W) Plan Grow revenue 1. Revenue by product/service 2. # and % of active online customers K. Gilbert/ M. Baumli K. Gilbert $ ,000 48% $ ,000 72% $ ,000 $ ,000 Retain value customer # of incremental and total online customers Profit (value) per customer and portfolio (blended) K. Gilbert M. Baumli 120, ,000 $ , ,000 $ 280 QTRLY QTRLY 28,000 $ ,000 $ 258 Maximize reliability 5. Weighted internet availability 6. Response time (open net account summary) L. Gasparini L. Gasparini 96.3% 18.2 sec. 98.9% 15 sec. 94.2% 15.2 sec. 98.9% 18 sec. Effective marketing 7. Acquisition cost per enrollment K. Gilbert $ $ $ $ 21.8 Manage attrition 8. satisfaction ratio 9. Online checking attrition rate R. Wallace K. Gilbert/ R. Wallace 16.3% 11.0% QTRLY QTRLY 13.8% 14.2% Superior leadership 10. Weighted competitor index measurement M. Baumli Superior service Bill pay claim ratio Telephone total service factor S. Geraghty R. Wallace 2.6% 77.2% 0.9% 86.0% 2.1% 83.0% 1.6% 82.0% Greater than 5% worse than plan Within 5% of plan Greater than 5% better than plan
4 Use of the for ITC Performance Management 9 Reporting of this kind is referred to as Balanced Scorecard reporting. For the vast majority of the KPIs, a monitoring frequency of one month is required in order to establish an adequate picture and in order to make precise forecasts. Performance forecasts can be made on the basis of past results and an understanding of cause and effect relationships. The quality of the forecasts can be assessed after the event in order to learn from it and make the necessary adjustments. The final feature of a good : a mix of results adapted to the organisation ( lagging indicators ) and performance drivers for the achievement of strategic objectives ( leading indicators ). Short-term KPIs of a financial nature are mainly lagging indicators. Non-financial KPIs with a long-term focus are generally the performance drivers. With the financial indicators it is also possible for the monitoring of costs and income to apply management accounting principles that are different from financial accounting principles. for ICT organisations Linking business and ICT objectives Organisations that use the to derive a Business, will recognise the need to first derive objectives specific to ICT before identifying indicators of ICT performance. Here, the desire to link organisational objectives with ICT objectives is finally realised. As a first step in the development of the for ICT, the business strategy is analysed to identify strategic business intent. For each strategic business intent, one or more ICT objectives are identified that describe how ICT can contribute. These objectives, which are not necessarily equal to the business objectives, are then used in the identification of performance indicators for ICT as described below. In this way, ICT objectives are inextricably linked to business direction and strategy. Financial Theory The financial of the ICT Balanced Scorecard comprises the more traditional indicators for establishing the organisation s financial position. The factors measured here are those that generate proceeds for the shareholders. Looking back No matter what action is taken within an organisation, it always leads to a positive or negative result that is expressed in financial terms. The financial is the that ultimately reveals the economic effects (of the other three s). Financial performance monitoring shows whether an organisation s strategy and its implementation of that strategy contribute to the improvement of the bottom line or top line. Cause and effect The financial contains the financial ICT indicators. The traditional indicators usually refer back to the organisation s performance in the recent past. They basically provide a reflection of decisions made. Examples of key performance indicators in relation to ICT projects are the return on investment (ROI), the economic value added (EVA), growth in net result, the added value per employee and various cost ratios. A cause-effect diagram (see figure 4) can be useful in this context. Looking ahead It is also possible within this to think of indicators for future results, e.g. sales growth in a new target market. In addition, the performance in the other s can also serve as an early warning for future financial developments. For instance, the quality of product innovations can be assessed in the internal, while the net profit on new products is used as an indicator in the financial. Separate financial performance indicators Cause-effect diagram Turnover Materials Financial Sitec PCB HCl WC ROI Return on Investment Profit margin x Circulation of assets Gross profit : Turnover : Invested capital Cost of sales Net operating capital + Fixed assets Personnel Write-offs Other (selling & administration) Other (selling & administration) Debtors Cash Creditors Figure 4. DuPont cause-effect diagram.
5 10 Creation of added value Internal Financial Key Performance Indicator Key Performance Indicator Figure 5. Relationship Key Performance Indicators and Scorecard. Figure 6. Sample Invoiceability report. Invoiceability External Teams (Norm = 95.5%) 1999 Invoiceability Internal Teams (Norm = 65.8%) Key Performance Indicator Practice In the (see figure 6), the organisation s management strategy within the financial is aimed at improving management information and achieving a performance level in line with the market. The indicators used here include: reliability of provisions, reliable financial forecasts, invoiceability of ICT customer teams and the internal/external staff ratio. The invoiceability of the ICT development teams over the past months is indicated below. In addition, a (budgeted) forecast is also given for the remaining months, as well as the trend in Total Total Analysis In April, the invoiceability of internal staff was lower than budgeted for. The invoiceability of external staff increased in April but still remained below the norm. The failure to achieve the invoiceability norm for internal staff was due to the public holiday(s) in April and a higher rate of absenteeism. The number of hours worked on internal projects is also clearly below the norm. The invoiceability of the external staff increased because fewer hours were spent on internal projects. In addition, less time was devoted to departmental activities. In the last quarter of the financial year, the organisation can try to prevent the absenteeism peak in the previous year by introducing interesting assignments and a clear vision for the future. Theory The customer of the centres around a single question: how does the customer perceive the quality of the ICT service?. The customer has steadily become more significant in recent years. In the past, organisations were able to compete on the basis of the quality of their products and services as well as technological innovation. Today, organisations are focusing primarily on customers and their specific needs. It is extremely important in this context to carefully select one s market segments and customer groups. Businesses that try to be everything to everybody usually end up meaning nothing to nobody. Looking back Once the organisation has established what its market segments are, it selects the objectives and the type of monitoring required for the chosen segments. As a rule, organisations select two groups of monitoring criteria for their customer. The first group consists of common criteria used by virtually all organisations. In organisations whose departments are not obliged to use the internal ICT service, this core group includes general indicators such as:
6 Use of the for ITC Performance Management 11 market share; customer loyalty; customer acquisition; customer satisfaction; customer profitability. A number of general indicators can be found on virtually every. satisfaction is of course crucial to almost every organisation. Yet it is surprising how few organisations have insight into e.g. the profitability per customer. Many customer portfolios are therefore managed without this key information. Being forced to think about what is important to know about which customers, often proves to be a very valuable exercise. Looking ahead The second group of monitoring criteria is based on a number of more in-depth assumptions, namely the added value propositions. This group of criteria represents the features that suppliers provide with their goods and services in order to promote the level of satisfaction and loyalty among their customers. Added value propositions thus lead to product differentiation. The characteristics of these added value propositions can be subdivided into the following three categories: characteristics of goods and services: functionality, quality, time and price; customer relations: quality of purchasing experience and personal relations; image and reputation of the product or service. The particular significance of this second group of indicators in the is that these indicators provide insight into future customer behaviour while the general indicators look back at how customers valued the organisation in the past. Practice In the of an organisation, the management strategy within the customer is designed to achieve clear products, services and prices, a good relationship with satisfied customers, a project-based approach and good cooperation between the customer and the ICT organisation. These are called the critical success factors for the customer. Taking these critical success factors as a starting point, various quantifiable indicators have been defined. Examples of these are performance according to SLA norms, realisation of projects according to plan and trackable progress of projects. For this we have looked more closely at part of the performance according to SLA norms. Analysis shows an upward trend in the incident resolution times, as can be seen in the first diagram of figure 8. The norms for priority B and priority C incidents are easily met. After a decline in April, the figures for priority A incidents also improved in, though the norm for priority A incidents is not yet achieved. Figure 8. Sample Operations reports. The second diagram also displays an upward trend for the delivery of standard workstation equipment, though the performance here still falls considerably short of the norm. Dealing with other non-standard workstations shows a downward trend and the norm is not met. The results of implementing authorisations are inferior to the previous months; this norm is not realised. Internal Theory The internal of the considers factors that indicate: How effective and efficient are the processes of the organisation?. As described in the customer, it is extremely important for an organisation to gear its operations to the requirements and needs of its customers. To cater for these needs, customer-focused measures must be transformed into internal measures that are designed to meet the customer s expectations. After all, in the final analysis, an excellent customer service is the result of the processes, decisions and activities that take place within the organisation. Price/quality ratio as perceived by customer Functionality value = Products/ service criteria Resolution of incidents within SLA norms (Norm = 80%) Priority A, < 2 hrs Priority B, < 4 hrs Priority C, < 8 hrs Provision of workstations 90 and other intake 80 (Norm = 100% < 5 days) UserIDs/authorisation 70 (Norm = 60% < 8 hours) Provision of standard workstation equipment Servicing other nonstandard workstations Implementation of user IDs and authorisations Quality Time Price + Image Figure 7. Price/ quality ratio. + Relation
7 12 Innovation process Operations process After-sales services Identifying customers Identifying products Research of new products Development of products Delivering products/ services Service customers Meeting customer needs Figure 9. Value chain processes [Kapl97]. Some examples are: throughput time, accessibility, delivery reliability, effectiveness of sales efforts 1) CMM: Capability Maturity Model 2) SLM: Service Level Management Figure 10. Sample Problem Management reports. Realisation Problem Management in accordance with PvA (Norm = 100% End 2000) Realisation Problem Management in accordance with IPW levels (Norm End 2000 = 100% level 2, 80% level 3) In accordance with level 2 level Managers must focus on the critical internal processes that enable the organisation to meet the customer s needs. Primary processes, for instance, need to be improved with regard to quality, time, productivity and costs. Perhaps even more important is to fine-tune these processes to the strategy in order to avoid any inconsistency between operational activities and longterm objectives. The objectives and performance indicators for this can therefore only be developed in practice, after the management has prepared the objectives and performance targets for the financial and the customer. Value chain The internal processes assessed in the Balanced Scorecard are the most important processes for delivering goods and services to the customer. Every organisation comprises a unique complex of processes by means of which it is able to create added value for customers and achieve financial results. Kaplan and Norton have developed a standard model for adding value which may serve as a framework for the design of the internal processes. The value chain consists of three essential business processes: Innovation process: sudden and latent customer needs are traced, after which goods and services are developed to cater for these needs. Operational process: ensure the production and delivery of existing goods and services to customers. This is the traditional focus of performance measurement systems. Cost reduction and operational processes that run smoothly, remain important objectives. After sales service: in this phase all activities are aimed at managing the relationship and adding value to the customer to whom a product or service has already been delivered. Focus It is essential that all processes not just the most obvious ones are held against the light. If the production department is highly efficient but the post room takes three weeks to dispatch parcels, there is little point in (only) screening the first. Not all process indicators can be included in the. Remember that the significance of the scorecard lies in its focus. It is therefore best to select processes that are in need of improvement and opt for a small number of relevant process indicators. Practice In the of this organisation, the management strategy within the internal processes is aimed at realising effective ICT development and management processes that are firmly embedded in the organisational structure; at realising operationalisation of supplier management; and at realising integration of the various branches. The indicators applied to this customer situation are: Development processes partly at CMM1 level 2; Operational SLM2 processes at level 3; Operational partnership with key suppliers; Performance of principal suppliers; Integration in conformity with road map. The Key Performance Indicator Operational SLM processes at level 3 for Problem Management is shown in figure 10. Analysis In the case of Problem Management, a lot of time is spent on the coaching of staff with respect to analysis. In, significant steps were taken towards the implementation of the plan of approach, but the performance was still substandard (same level as previous month). On the other hand it does appear
8 Use of the for ITC Performance Management 13 that this deficiency is being tackled consistently and seriously. In that same month, progress was also made with respect to the audit items for levels 2 and 3. In the case of Change Management, the implementation of ITSM (support tool) is helping to accelerate the process. Progress is being made but close monitoring remains essential in view of occasionally unexpected tensions. At the current rate of improvement, CMM level 3 can be achieved by the end of Growth and learning People/staff Adequate staffing with the correct skills, training and motivation Some examples are customer satisfaction culture (change) level of knowledge and skills knowledge or information management Systems Staff must be able to access the information they need Some examples are flexibility ICT support ICT coverage real-time ICT availability Procedures Laying down how the organisation and its staff must carry out the activities Some examples are when was the procedure last reviewed? flexible reward structure Theory The central question in the growth and learning of the is: Is the ICT organisation capable of innovation and improvement?. Today, many organisations operate in a highly dynamic environment. The fourth of the contains objectives and monitoring criteria with which to improve the organisation s growth and learning process. These objectives usually concern the staff, the information systems and the internal procedures (see figure 11). This comprises the infrastructure that the organisation needs in order to attain the objectives in the other three Balanced Scorecard s. In many organisations the introduction of the Balanced Scorecard not only causes many changes for the management, it also marks the beginning of a process of radical change for the ICT staff. In order to realise the organisation s objectives contained in the internal processes and the customer, staff must be prepared to adjust and to take on completely new responsibilities. Front line employees should increasingly provide the ideas for improvement in customer service. After all, they are in direct contact with the customers. Intangible The staff gets to play a different role. The routine makes way for a more proactive and customer-focused approach. People look out for possible improvements. This means that managers and senior staff must be given optimal support and access to relevant up-todate information on customers and internal processes. But even if an organisation has proactive, well-trained personnel with access to relevant information, they will still be unable to contribute towards the organisation s success unless clear procedures have been laid down. These procedures should define the extent to which the employee is free to make decisions indepently. Where applicable, they must also make clear how the reward system is linked to the profitability of the organisation. The growth and learning is the most abstract of the four s. It nevertheless includes indicators relating to staff satisfaction, staff performance and their ability to learn and adjust. This also includes indicators that allow the organisation to adapt quickly to changing market circumstances. Some organisations will find that the flexibility of their ICT department plays a crucial role, while for others the ability to produce highly innovative ideas may prove vital. It does however not automatically follow that these aspects should immediately be converted into indicators for product development. Sometimes the internal processes may be a more appropriate place for them because the rigidity of procedures or the inability of staff to adjust to new circumstances may well turn out to be the most important bottlenecks. Practice In the of our case organisation, the management strategy within the growth and learning is aimed at reinforcing: core competences; staff satisfaction and their optimal development; the role of the organisation as catalyst for integration and synergy with the customer. Inflow/outflow internal staff (in #Employees/month, Norm = 8 inflow, 3 outflow) Inflow Outflow Growth Inflow/outflow external staff (in #Employees/month) Inflow Outflow Growth Figure 11. Key Growth and Learning elements. Figure 12. Sample report inflow/outflow ICT staff.
9 14 To: Subject: Indicators applied in this respect include: implemented competence management, implementation of an MDprogramme, staff satisfaction, giving useful advice five times per customer, and in/outflow. The KPI in/outflow per month over the past months is indicated in figure 12. Analysis Both the internal staff inflow and outflow were much lower in than in the previous month. Unfortunately, the net effect was a decline in the number of internal staff. The staff inflow prognosis for the coming months is positive. The recruitment campaign has had a favourable effect. External staff figures show an inflow of 29 and an outflow of 15. is the first month in which the number of external employees increased. Due to the external staff inflow, the strongest inflow/outflow effect can be seen at Exploitation & Management. The prognosis indicates a cumulative expansion with five internal employees after August. This is substantially lower than the budgeted number of 24 by. It is therefore unlikely that the targets for the year will be met. In the coming months a lot of attention will be given on the targeted recruitment of internal staff. ICT Value Proposition A final step in the identification of ICT performance indicators should include confirmation with Senior Management and ICT customers that the selected performance objectives and indicators, if achieved, will result in ICT having added value to the business. A useful technique for ensuring this communication and concurrence is the ICT Value Proposition document. This final deliverable of the development of the Balanced ICT Scorecard serves to document what will be measured, specifies the desired/planned performance levels to be achieved and results in a Service Level ICT Steering Committee ICT Management Team ICT Value Proposition This memo serves to document the decisions reached by the ICT Steering Committee and the ICT Management Team regarding strategic initiatives to be achieved that all agree will add value and contribute to the achievement of business goals. The following key technology initiatives were identified: Reduce cost per transaction Reduce Time-to-Market for all the new services Grow e-commerce business Retain ICT employees Attached to this memo are definitions of each of these Key Technology Initiatives, ICT s planned approach to each, and how progress wil be tracked. Figure 13. ICT Value Proposition. Definition of Strategic ICT Initiative Objective: Reduce cost per transaction Description of objective: Strategic importance: Resources: Interdependencies: Timeframe: Cost: Risk/complexity: Approach: Performance targets and Progress tracking system: Agreement contract between ICT and its customers. Figure 13 shows an example of an ICT Value Proposition. Maturity level and results of ICT organisations A can be used at different levels (organisation/business unit, department, group/ individual etc) and by various parties. In this instance the scorecard is customised; KPIs and CSFs are aligned with the other components and levels in the organisation. During this process, the number of KPIs generally falls as we move downward through the organisation levels because the degree to which indicators can be influenced also decreases. An important factor in the customisation of KPIs is the maturity level of the ICT organisation. To establish this, we use the growth phase model for an ICT organisation. In order to structure thinking about the growth of an ICT organisation, a model has been developed which shows the growth phases (see figure 14) of an ICT organisation and orders them in a logical way ([Boss99]). In addition, this model also shows the relationships between the various growth phases. It has become clear that the model provides an excellent instrument with which to show the current status of an ICT organisation in practice. It provides insight into what kind of step needs to be taken next, which hard and soft aspects require attention and what level of balance is required in order to provide, as a manager, maximum stimulation for the development of the ICT organisation. In an ICT organisation a distinction is made between the development, maintenance, control and exploitation of the automated information systems. For each of the processes, we distinguish between growth phases (see figure 14). What phase a process has reached, depends on the actual structuring of the ICT organisation. Here, the growth phases are typified in accordance with the maturity level of the ICT organisation. We distinguish between the following categories: technology-driven, controlled, serviceoriented, customer-oriented and business-oriented. The management of an ICT organisation should be on a par with the maturity level of the organisation. On the basis of the growth phases of the ICT organisation and by applying the, it is possible to customise performance management for the ICT organisation and ICT managers. The specific application of performance management for each growth phase is explained below. Phase 1: Technology-driven ICT specialists and managers provide minimal management The ICT organisation is an unstructured technical department in which ICT experts manage on the basis of technical indicators. An ICT budget is made available and expended on an annual basis.
10 Use of the for ITC Performance Management 15 Business-oriented -oriented Service-oriented Controlled Technology-driven Service management Helpdesk Change management System development Operations Figure 14. Growth phase model for ICT organisations [Boss99]. The relevant s are financial and internal processes with a fairly technical emphasis (see figure 15). (i.e. client and end user) satisfaction plays virtually no role and the ICT organisation is not yet actively involved in innovation. A few basic links can be established on the basis of the internal processes, such as the financial consequences of fewer in-house employees and more external employees. The main problems with regard to performance management in this growth phase are caused by the weak reporting functionality of the financial and personnel systems, as well as the technical nature of the management information, leading to limited usage by ICT managers. Often, all sorts of separate spreadsheets are created and staffing overviews are kept manually. Financial Total cost versus budget (NLG) Total assets (NLG) Total assets per employee (NLG) Internal Number of internal and external employees (figure) Average absenteeism (%) Availability systems (%) Mean Time to Repair (figure) Mean Time between Failures (fig.) A structural and periodical planning & control cycle, operated by the ICT managers, is almost entirely missing. The controller or business accounting department monitors the financial situation and the ICT managers acquire insight into staff functioning and the technical situation through their direct supervision. In this growth phase, the available monitoring criteria are generally inadequate to make complete control of the ICT organisation possible. Phase 2: Controlled Process managers & ICT department managers set up basic management In order to establish control over ICT, process-based working methods such as ITIL 3 for operations and CMM for system development are introduced. These include the process and quality managers. The emphasis is on operational indicators with which the quality of the processes is monitored. In addition to the financial and internal processes s, the learning and growth becomes more important (see figure 16). This latter primarily expresses the long-term process improvements and human resource aspects. Monitoring in this growth phase mainly concerns the extent to which norms and standards are applied. The financial indicators are primarily used to establish a picture of development, maintenance and operational Figure 15. Template for an ICT organisation in the technologydriven growth phase. 3) ITIL: IT Infrastructure Library
11 16 Figure 16. Template for an ICT organisation in the controlled growth phase. Figure 17. Template for an ICT organisation in the service-oriented growth phase. Number customers (figure, income or number per employee) Cover service catalogue (%) Meeting SLA levels (%) Number compliants (figure) s lost (figure or %) Financial Total cost per department or cost centre versus budget (NLG) Total assets (NLG) Total assets per employee (NLG) Changes made (figure) Training employees (%) R&D expenditure (NLG) R&D expenditure/total exp. (%) R&D hours spent (figure) R&D hours/total hours (%) Internal Effectiveness of processes according to ITIL/CMM (%) Number of internal and external employees (figure) Use of employee time e.g. absenteeism and productivity (%) costs. The expectations and perceptions of the client with respect to ICT service provision hardly play any prominent role in the ICT organisation. A number of cause and effect relationships can be identified between the learning and growth on the one hand and the operational internal processes on the other. For example: trained staff improve the effectiveness of the processes. In addition, internal performance is still the primary determinant for financial results. For instance: the implementation of incident management has an influence on helpdesk costs. The main opportunities for improvement in performance management concern the effectiveness of the ICT processes. The manual updating of status is impractical, given the number of activities and interdependencies. A variety of sources can be consulted for example man-hours or invoices for the updating of training performance. The direction of the ICT organisation is based on a profusion of process indicators with limited depth. Process managers establish the fundaments of the planning and control cycle. Only in this way can they demonstrate their added value. The ICT managers Financial Income (new) products & services (NLG) Income per employee (NLG) Income/Total assets (%) Cover margin (% or NLG per employee) Changes made outside release system (%) Level of cover annual plans employees (%) Expenditure on competence development per employee (NLG) Improvement suggestions per employee (figure) Internal New building meets management acceptance criteria (%) Number of internal and external employees (figure) Use of employee time e.g. absence and productivity (%) Number applicants (figure) make a limited contribution to the fixing of the ICT budget. Reports on the implementation of the budget are made by the controller or business accounting department. ICT management does lay down the basis for the control of human resource management aspects. These are becoming more important for the recruitment and retention of internal staff. Phase 3: Service-oriented Controllers and ICT managers provide the organisation with structural management A new dimension is added to the processes: the supply of products and services to customers. A service catalogue and service level agreements describe which services should be provided, at what quality level (service levels) and at what costs. The financial, internal processes, learning and growth and customer s are included in the control process (see figure 17). The influence of the learning and growth on the internal processes increases continually. Examples are: working on a software release basis and meeting customer acceptance criteria. The customer acts as a mirror for the internal processes, for example to determine whether the processes meet the generic service levels. This explains the introduction of the arrow that connects these two s. Finally, allocation models for products and services make the financial relationship with the internal business processes more transparent. Challenges for performance management lie in the source systems for the indicators for the customer. Are customer satisfaction surveys conducted periodically? What agreements in fixed SLAs are met and what agreements are not? What should be done if the customer considers 99.9% availability to be unsatisfactory because of a single major malfunction? On the basis of controlling, the emphasis is placed firmly on financial process management. ICT managers increasingly pay attention to customer indicators. Planning and control are structuralised in terms of business plans and monthly reports. During this growth phase, performance is assesed in such a way as to allow ICT managers to steer organisational performance. Phase 4: -oriented ICT managers are supported by controllers and receive input from line managers -based service differentiation ( customisation ) becomes increasingly crucial. For the processes, it can only be achieved by establishing complete control over generic areas and active management based upon the differentiated service elements, for example rapid processing of malfunctions, longer opening hours for the helpdesk and the continuous availability of applications. Pricing becomes an issue for the services, and ICT managers will start managing on the basis of profit margins for each service line and customer group.
12 Use of the for ITC Performance Management 17 The financial, customer, internal processes and learning & growth s are all equally important and in balance (see figure 18). For this reason, a relationship is developed between the learning and growth and the customer. Satisfied and service-oriented employees will be better able to satisfy customers. And because satisfied customers tend to meet their financial obligations sooner, for example, the customer can be linked to the financial. Opportunities for improvement in performance management can be sought in the establishment of consistency between data from the various source systems while a range of cause and effect relationships between the indicators are recognised. Discrepancies between management accounting and financial accounting might be found. For example between management based on time spent versus actually generated income during a specific period of time. In planning and control, business managers from the user organisation get to play a more important role. They are now the customers who determine the demand for ICT services and who expect a certain level of quality. Phase 5: Business-oriented ICT managers and line managers jointly manage the ICT organisation As soon as the ICT organisation has reached the customer-oriented growth phase, attention can be paid to the added value of ICT products and services in the primary processes of the end user. The financial, internal processes, learning and growth, and customer s are all equally important and in balance (see figure 19). At the same time, Market share (%) satisfaction index (%) Meetings of differentiated service levels (%) Sale contracts/contacts (%) Account management (time or number of visits per customer) Financial Profits from (new) products & services (NLG) Profit margin (% or NLG per employee) Profit /Total assets (%) Added value per employee (NLG) Return on assets (%) Return on capital employed (%) Ratio new (< X years old) products /service catalogue (%) Non-product related expenditure per customer (NLG) Marketing expenditure per customer (NLG) Employee satisfaction (%) however, the relationship becomes clear between the customer/financial and, for example, the Business for the entire organisation and, more specifically, the entire business organisation. In this growth phase, the challenge in terms of performance management is to acquire data from the primary process and financial source systems of the business organisation in order to establish a clear picture of the added value of the ICT services. The ICT managers manage the ICT organisation in close collaboration with the business managers. The minimum time horizon used, varies from one to three years. Performance management in this growth phase provides a picture of the various differentiated products and services of the ICT organisation, and makes their added value explicit. Internal Quality planning-deployment of employees (%) Ratio temporary/permanent (internal/external) employees (%) Average years in employment per employee (figure) Ratio overhead/direct (%) Figure 18. Template for an ICT organisation in the customeroriented growth phase. Financial Business Balanced Scorecard Internal Time to Market products and services (figure) ICT service provision image index (%) Marketing expenditure (NLG) rating (%) ICT service provision expenditure per customer (NLG) Financial ICT gain on end products and services (%) Market value (NLG) Cash flow (NLG) Solvency (%) Internal Return on investment (%) Efficacy (new) ICT products and services (%) Average age employees (figure) Level of training employees (%) Investment in training per customer (NLG) Investment in research (NLG) Investment in productsupport and training (NLG) Investment in development new markets (NLG) Figure 19. Template for an ICT organisation in the businessoriented growth phase.
13 18 Technology-driven Controlled Service-oriented -oriented Business-oriented Financial Financial Financial Financial Financial Internal Internal Internal Internal Internal Figure 20. Overview of s and relationships in each growth phase of the ICT organisation. Table 2. Do s and don ts for ICT implementation. Conclusion Implementation Do s Is the in line with the organisation s strategy: Use the scorecard as a platform for implementation of the strategy (ensure alignment with ICT strategic and operational plans). Don t regard the tool as a management control instrument. The results must be directed at the future and not at the past. Secure sufficient commitment: All stakeholders must be involved in the design and implementation of the scorecard. An ICT conceived solely from the the ICT organisation s point of view will have only limited added value. The Balanced Scorecard should preferably be accepted by all stakeholders. In all events, senior management must fully endorse the implementation. Link the objectives and norms to the personal plans of managers. Adapt the to the maturity level of the organisation: Not every ICT organisation should seek to develop each of the four different s of the. To ensure successful application, the content of the must be in balance with the growth phase. Naturally, the costs of drawing up/ implementing the IC scorecard must also be weighed against the added value. The proves to be an excellent management tool in the implementation of performance management. It converts an organisation s vision and strategy into concrete ICT objectives, organised along the lines of the four different s: the financial, the customer, the of internal processes and the learning and growth. At the heart of this perception of performance management in ICT organisations lies the fact that successful management of ICT organisations in practice is based on a specific and limited set of indicators and s. The maturity level of the ICT organisation, in accordance with the growth phase model, plays an important role in the determination of this set. As ICT organisations grow more mature, the number of s increases (see figure 20) and a better balance between the s is established. Don ts Do not try to achieve perfection: Not all aspects can be assessed quantitatively (not everything can be exactly calculated). Even when using the ICT Balanced Scorecard, interpretation and estimates are still necessary. Try to combine different quantification methods already available within the organisation, such as return on investment and historical comparisons. Integrate benchmark insights into the factors. Do not apply too many indicators: Restrict the scorecard to 16 to 20 relevant performance indicators. It is not difficult to think up a large number of performance indicators, but monitoring and interpreting a large number of indicators often proves to be a laborious and complex affair. Also avoid the situation in which, after several months utilisation of the scorecard, all attention is directed at the implementation of technical tools. Do not underestimate the efforts and costs. Therefore, make a cost/benefit analysis before collecting data. In addition, the relationship with the organisation as a whole becomes clear. The first growth phase (technology-driven) involves short-term performance management of technological processes and finances. In the controlled phase, more emphasis is placed on the internal processes and on long-term developments by means of indicators in the learning and growth. The various relationships between the three s also become tighter. The service-oriented growth phase contains an initial expansion of the customer which also acts as a reflection of the internal processes. In the customer-oriented ICT organisation, the scorecard is balanced. Cause and effect relationships have become a structural ingredient for management. Finally, a business-oriented ICT organisation also includes safeguards to ensure that the scorecard links up to the business scorecard (customer). Practice has shown that the maturity level of the ICT organisation is indeed a determining factor for the way in which performance management is shaped, and that performance management helps ICT managers to take well-considered decisions with which to achieve strategic objectives. To conclude this article, we would like to list a number of do s and don ts in the implementation of the ICT in table 2. Evidently, the design and implementation of a is not a one-off event. The must be genuinely used for performance management. reporting on a monthly basis, requires the allocation of several responsibilities and tasks. The tasks that underly the monthly preparation and use of the balance scorecard report are illustrated in figure 21. Often the challenge is not to design the Balanced Scorecard, but to structurally preserve an organisation that can prepare reports every month, use the results effectively for control purposes and modify the as requires and when necessary.
14 Use of the for ITC Performance Management 19 1 KPI supplier Deliver new figures and draft analysis per KPI in the template Literature 2 KPI controller week1&2 KPI controller Give KPI suppliers feedback on BSC discussion and new MT action points Type over new figures via work instruction and prepare draft analysis per KPI 9 KPI owner& 3 controller Discuss figures, analysis, progress and new actions, signal and text for top sheet per relevant KPI week4 BSC director& Chairman MT KPI controllers 8 Give KPI controllers feedback on BSC discussion and explain new MT action points &KPI owners 7 Discuss balanced scorecard in MT, explain signal per KPI and determine new actions for adjustments [Jong98] B. de Jong and D. Starre, ICT governance and management, Nolan, Norton & Co., [Kapl97] R. Kaplan and D. Norton, Op kop met de Balanced Scorecard, Uitgeverij Contact, [Keun96] D. Keuning and D.J. Eppink, Management & Organisatie, Educatieve Partners Nederland BV, [Leeu96] O.C. van Leeuwen, Managementinformatie voor periodieke besluitvorming, Samsom Bedrijfsinformatie, [Mast95] W. Mastenbroek, Er is geen nieuw type organisatie, Holland Management Review, No. 44, [Nola92] R.L. Nolan and W.J.D. Koot, Actualisering van de Nolan fasen-theorie, Report of Nolan, Norton & Co, [Saul00] Saul, The ICT A road to effective Governance of a Shared Services ICT Organisation, Information System Control Journal, Volume 2, [Teeu96] P. Teeuwen, Een beheersbaar verandertraject voor rekencentrummanagers, Compact, [Zee97] H.T.M. van der Zee, In search of the value of ICT, Tilburg University Press, BSC director& 4 KPI controllers Discuss process and contents of new balanced scorecard, quality controls and central issues for MT discussion week2&3 5 KPI controller Assemble, reproduce and distribute new balanced scorecards for MG Chairman MT &BSC director 6 Have a preliminary discussion regarding the balanced scorecard and content in outline and progress of MT process Figure 21. ICT scorecard preparation process. Jan de Boer is a manager at KPMG Information Risk Management where he works as ICT audit consultant. His specialisation lies in the field of ICT management. He is engaged on audit and support assignments for ICT organisations. Joachim Vandecasteele is a consultant at KPMG Management Consulting. He is involved in consultancy assignments in the fields of scanning, organisation and transformation of ICT organisations. Ken Rau is a director in KPMG s Information Risk Management practice where he works as a specialist in the areas of ICT management and planning. His specific areas of expertise include ICT assessment, planning, project management, performance measurement and governance.
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