1 General beliefs scales: toward the assessment of the Weltanschauung Item Type text; Thesis-Reproduction (electronic) Authors Hanson, Richard W., Publisher The University of Arizona. Rights Copyright is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author. Download date 23/02/ :58:24 Link to Item
2 GENERAL BELIEFS SCALES; TOWARD.THE ASSESSMENT OF THE WELTANSCHAUUNG by Richard W. Hanson A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS ' In the Graduate College THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA
3 STATEMENT BY AUTHOR This thesis has been submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for an advanced degree at The University of Arizona and is deposited in the University Library to be made available to borrowers under rules of the Library. Brief quotations from this thesis are allowable without special permission, provided that accurate acknowledgment of source is made. Requests for permission for extended quotation from or reproduction of this manuscript in whole or in part may be granted by the head of the major department or the Dean of the Graduate College when in his judgment the proposed use of the material is in the interests of scholarship. In all other instances, however, permission must be obtained from the author. SIGNED APPROVAL BY THESIS DIRECTOR This thesis has been approved on the date shown below: RICHARD W. CO AN Professor of Psychology <7 Dat(f
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgment is made to Dr. Richard Coan, Thesis Director, for stimulating the original idea of this project and for his innumerable contributions while it was being carried out. The author is also grateful to the other committee members, Dr. John Delk and Dr. Marvin Kahn, for their help during the preparation of the paper. Finally, thanks are due to the instructors who donated class time and their students who served as subjects for this research.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES... ' vi.a.33strac T o «««o o <* <» v n INTRODUCTION ITEM ANALYSIS I Method Questionnaire Construction Subjects Scoring and Analysis Results ITEM ANALYSIS II Method Questionnaire Construction Subjects Scoring and Analysis Results FACTOR ANALYSIS Method Questionnaire Construction Subjects Scoring and Analysis Results Discussion ANALYSIS OF DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES ^5 tin 1e.... e... e.. e e. e. Subjects Procedure Re S U 1 "ts e o e e e e e o.. *.... « Sex CT-.... o.. e o. o e o o a. o. e o 1 3 Major Type of Residence Religious Preference iv
6 v TABLE OF CONTENTS, Continued Page Frequency of Church Attendance Political Viewpoint Position on the Viet Nam War Summary and Conclusion APPENDIX A: APPENDIX B: APPENDIX C : APPENDIX D: GENERAL BELIEFS ITEMS USED IN THE ORIGINAL GOAN STUDY GENERAL BELIEFS ITEMS USED IN THE FIRST ITEM ANALYSIS GENERAL BELIEFS ITEMS USED IN THE SECOND ITEM ANALYSIS GENERAL BELIEFS ITEMS USED IN THE FACTOR ANALYSIS APPENDIX E: PERSONAL DATA SHEET APPENDIX F: FACTOR PATTERN MATRIX APPENDIX G: FACTOR STRUCTURE MATRIX REFERENCES V.
7 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1." INTERCORRELATIONS AMONG THE TWELVE EXTRACTED FACTORS MEAN SCALE SCORES FOR SEX OF SUBJECT PEARSON PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATIONS BETWEEN EACH SCALE AND AGE MEAN SCALE SCORES FOR MAJOR SUBJECT AREAS MEAN SCALE SCORES FOR TYPE OF RESIDENCE MEAN SCALE SCORES FOR RELIGIOUS PREFERENCE MEAN SCALE SCORES FOR FREQUENCY OF CHURCH ATTENDANCE MEAN SCALE SCORES FOR POLITICAL PREFERENCE.....' ' MEAN SCALE SCORES FOR POSITION ON THE VIET.NAM WAR ,52
8 ABSTRACT Little attempt has been made thus far to assess the Weltanschauung or world view of an individual. Richard'Coan, in an exploratory investigation, factor analyzed the results of a general beliefs questionnaire.which dealt with a wide range of attitudes about the world, man, life, etc. The current investigator attempted to develop six of the resulting factors by adding new items in order to form general beliefs scales. The factors dealt with the following variables: conventional theistic religious beliefs, future-productive vs. spontaneous-present orientation, detachment vs.. involvement, relativism vs. absolutism, scientism-determinism, and optimism vs. pessimism. Items were constructed on a rational a priori basis and administered to samples of college students. Two item analyses were conducted to assess the correlation of each item with the total scale score of which it was a part. This was followed by another factor analysis which served as a final check on the factor content and items.. The resulting 73.item questionnaire was further analyzed by comparing scale scores for such subject variables as sex, age, academic major, type of residence, political and religious affiliation, frequency of church attendance. vii
9 and position on the Viet Nam War. The results indicated number of significant effects.
10 INTRODUCTION It has long been felt by observers of human behavior that there is a tendency for man to develop, as he grows older, an organized coherent view of the world. Thus people tend to develop particular ways of perceiving human nature, the physical world, institutions such as religion and politics, man's place in the world, and human events. This view of the world, or Weltanschauung, develops out of man's complex interaction with his social and physical environment and probably serves to lend a certain amount of stability and predictability to his life experiences. Most people do not view life as a meaningless, random flow of unconnected experiences but rather as fitting into some kind of pattern. Events do not just happen in a vacuum but because that is the way the world is. These basic beliefs about the world influence man's behavior as well as his perception of what happens in the world. It is a well known fact that several people can observe the same event and attribute entirely different meanings to it. Thus one may view an event as the result of divine decree which fits into some overall benevolent plan, another as cruel fate over which he has no control, and still another as logically determined by antecedent physical and social events. Another frequently observed phenomenon is the tendency for
11 people to ignore or deemphasize events and experiences which do not fit in with their basic outlook on life while placing greater stress on those experiences which do seem to confirm their outlook. For example, those with a pessimistic outlook may emphasize unfortunate events such as failures and disappointments and overlook the positive experiences while, the optimist may do just the opposite. Thus far there has been very little empirical investigation of the Weltanschauung in the area of personality and individual differences. There has been a great deal of social psychological research concerned with attitudes toward specific objects such as ethnic groups, political and social events, well known personalities, various ideologies, etc. Also there has been much investigation of personality variables such as authoritarianism and dogmatism. However, there is paucity of information regarding the assessment of an individual 1s global view of the world- One of the primary difficulties in studying the Weltanschauung is that -of determining what components warrant ) _ investigation since numerous ideas have been suggested as to what constitutes the world view. Furthermore, one might ask whether we should deal with a small number of broad dimensions or a much larger number of more specific belief variables. On the basis of economy, it is preferable to work with a limited number which at the same time covers a sufficiently
12 3 wide range of variation. But we are still, left with the problem of deciding what dimensions to include One solution to the problem would simply be to select on a rational a. priori basis a relatively small number of important variables. An example of this approach in the study of values is the work of Allport, Vernon and Lindzey (1960). In deciding what values should be measured they used the six categories suggested by Spranger (1928) which included the theoretical, economic, aesthetic, social, political, and religious realms. Spranger in turn arrived at these "types of men" on an intuitive, a. priori, theoretical basis. The only reason for including them in the Study of Values was that they seemed to be important to the investigators and seemed to cover a sufficiently wide range of human values. Another example, of this approach is provided by Morris (1956a) In this work, he distinguished three basic components of personality including the "Dionysian" or tendency to release and indulge existing desires, "Promethean" or tendency to manipulate and remake the world, and "Buddhistic" tendency involving the regulation of the self by holding in check its desires. These theoretically derived components were combined in various ways to produce seven philosophies or "ways to live." In a later work he (Morris, 1956b) added six more resulting in 13 value orientations. The "ways" were briefly character.ized as follows:
13 Way 1: preserve the best that man has attained Way 2: cultivate independence of persons and things Way 3; show sympathetic concern for others Way 4: experience festivity and solitude in alternation Way 5: act and enjoy life through group participation Way 6: constantly master changing conditions Way 7: integrate action, enjoyment, and contemplation Way 8: live with wholesome, carefree enjoyment Way 9% wait in quiet receptivity Way 10: control the self stoically Way 11: meditate on the inner life Way 12: chance adventuresome deeds. Way.13: obey the cosmic purposes These "ways to live," which include values advocated by several religious and ethical systems of mankind, were thus derived on a rational a. priori basis. A questionnaire containing paragraphs which described each of the "Ways" was then administered to groups of students in several cultures. The respondents were asked to rate their preference for each viewpoint on a 7-point Likert scale. This preference was not in terms of the kind of life the subjects were currently leading but rather the kind of life they would like to lead. In a later investigation (Osgood, Ware and Morris, 1961) the connotative meanings of the ways" were studied using the semantic differential scale. Factor analysis of the connotative meanings resulted in four factors: dynamism, control, socialization and venturousness. Three factors were also derived from an analysis of the semantic scale relations. These included successfulness, predictability, and kindness. Even though the rational a. priori method does contain a good deal of utility, considering our present state of ignorance, there are some very definite problems inherent in its
14 use. First of all, it is obvious that the investigator may ignore some important dimensions because they did not occur to him. The Osgood, et al. (1961) study demonstrated, for example, that not all of the connotative meaning factors were represented adequately by a "way to live" suggesting the need for more ways. Furthermore, it is possible that some of the rationally selected variables which are dealt with may not in fact be significant. As Coan (1967) points out, "too often the early whim becomes an object of devotion, and much valuable research time is wasted on a variable that we assume possesses a certain functional coherence that it does not in fact possess." Rather than totally reject the rational a. priori approach, a wiser strategy would be to combine this method with that of factor analysis. Thus instead of arbitrarily selecting a handful of seemingly important dimensions, we might select on a rational basis a large number of statements representing many variables in the domain which we wish to measure. After collecting data on these items, we can factor analyze the intercorrelations and reduce it to a manageable set of coherent dimensions. It should be pointed out that Morris (1956b) did reduce his 13 "ways" to five orthogonal dimensions using factor analysis. The factors were described as follows: social restraint and self control, enjoyment and progress in action, withdrawal and self-sufficiency, receptivity arid
15 sympathetic concern, and finally self-indulgence or sensuous enjoyment. The problem with this analysis was that Morris started off with variables which were too complex and too few in number. In a more adequate'exploratory investigation using the combined approach, Coan (in press) constructed a number of items designed to represent a wide range of beliefs and attitudes toward life. These statements were developed on a rational _a priori basis without precommitment to any particular belief dimensions. After an initial screening, the 130 remaining items (Appendix A) were administered to 556 subjects using a Likerf response scale. The responses were then intercorrelated and subjected to factor analysis. Seventeen principle axis factors were extracted and rotated to the best approximation to oblique simple structure. The seventeen factors were briefly described by Coan as follows: Factor 1: conventional theistic religion vs. nontheistic viewpoint Factor. 2: productiveness vs. spontaneity Factor 3: detachment vs. involvement Factor 4: relativism vs. absolutism Factor 5: physical determinism Factor 6: idealism Factor 7: adventurous optimism vs. resignation Factor 8: orientation to immediate experience vs. ultimate goals Factor 9: human nature viewed as basically good vs. needing restraint Factor 10; possibility of self-mastery Factor 11: potential human supremacy vs. human limitations Factor 12: acceptance of benign fate vs. emphasis on human creativity Factor 13: perilous world situation Factor 14: life viewed as incomprehensible and. unpredictable
16 Factor 15: Factor 16: Factor 17: mechanism personal responsibility individualism vs. group adherence or social responsibility In the present investigation, it was decided to further develop some of the more clear factors in the Coan study. Those selected included factors one through five and seven. The basic plan called for the construction of more items that seemed to measure each of the six factors in order to form b e lief scales. Items would then be validated by giving the resulting questionnaire to a sample of subjects and determining their correlations with the total scale scores. Following this item analysis a factor analysis would be made to serve as a final check on the stability of the factor content and utility of the scale items. It was also decided to gather additional data on the subjects including such variables as age, sex, major subject, religious and political preference, and type of residence. These variables would then be examined with regard to the subjects' scale scores. Before describing the current study, we might note that the use of questionnaires has received a great deal of criticism in recent years (Mischel, 1968). The major problem usually centers around the fact that there is often an incongruity between an individual's responses on a questionnaire and his overt behavior. This criticism is undoubtedly valid in some instances when the purpose of the test is to determine or predict overt behavior. However, it must be recognized
17 that overt behavior does not constitute the only legitimate subject matter of psychological investigation even though it is clearly the most accessible to such research. Another area which is probably equally important and which has received much less attention is the phenomenological experiential realm. Since it is obviously impossible to directly observe another individual's mode and content of experience it is necessary to rely on introspective or self report methods. However, just because such indirect methods must be resorted to this does not mean that experiential variables should not be investigated. Thus in studying such variables it is clear that one of the most efficient and economical assessment techniques is the questionnaire. Since the study of how an individual perceives the world in which he lives is one important aspect of human experience, the questionnaire method will be used in the current investigation.
18 ITEM ANALYSIS I As pointed out above, the primary goal of this study was to take six factors obtained by Goan and develop them into individual scales. Factor one concerns conventional the- istic religion vs. non-theistic beliefs, Factor two contrasts a future-productive orientation and a spontaneous-present one. Factor three deals with detachment vs. involvement. Factor four concerns relativism and absolutism in regard to values and beliefs. Factor five deals with a scientific-deterministic vs. a non-scientific orientation. And finally, factor six contrasts optimism and pessimism. Since each factor involves a bipolar construct, it was decided to develop questionnaire items which reflected both ends of each dimension. For example, on factor three some items were constructed which reflected a detached view of life, while others emphasized the value of involvement. In addition to providing greater balance, this tactic serves as a protection against an acquiescence response set on the part of the subject. Thus the aim was to develop scales which can be represented by a single score that reflects the tendency to endorse items at one end, e.g., detachment, minus the. tendency to agree with items on the other end, e.g., involvement. The arbitrary goal established was that of twenty items per scale, 9
19 10 including ten items representing one end and ten representing the other end of each factor. Method Questionnaire Construction Approximately 50 items were selected from Coan's original questionnaire by inspecting the factor pattern matrix. To avoid contamination, only those items which loaded high with one factor and low on the others were used. Additional items were then constructed on a rational basis resulting in approximately 30 items for each scale. The questionnaire (Appendix B), 183 items, used.a Likert response scale as in the original form. Subjects The questionnaire was administered to 141 subjects drawn from introductory psychology classes at The University of Arizona and consisting mainly of freshmen and sophomores. Since the purpose of this administration was an analysis of the items, it was not necessary to obtain a representative sample of subjects. Scoring and Analysis Each response was converted to a positive number. Therefore, strongly agree became four, agree became three, disagree became one, and strongly disagree was scored as zero. A two was scored for items which were not answered and for
20 items in which the subject responded by circling both agree 11 and disagree. Six scale scores were obtained for each subject by totaling the converted scores on the positive end and subtracting the total score on the negative end for each factor. Since some of the scale scores were negative, a constant of 50 was added to each one making them all positive. Each converted item score and each converted scale score was fed into a computer for item analysis. This consisted of obtaining intercorrelations among all items and scale scores and then inspecting the correlations between each item and each scale. Thus it was hoped that there would be a relatively high correlation between each item and the scale score of which it was a part and a low correlation between each item and the scales of which it was not a part. Since each item score contributed to its own scale score, the resulting correlation was spuriously high. Therefore /-'"'a correction formula, suggested by Nunnally (1967) was used to remove.the spurious element. Results The items retained for further analysis included those which correlated sufficiently high (.20 after correction) with their scale scores. Furthermore, these item-scale correlations had to be at least.05 higher than the correlation between the item and other scales. The following items and corrected correlations were retained;
21 12 Factor 1, Positive; lo The universe is governed by a divine Being who possesses infinite power, infinite knowledge, and infinite love. (.65) 2. Every man's basic duty is to serve God. (.74) 3. The really important life is the life after death. (.68) 4. Mankind cannot survive without faith in God. (.71) 5. The world is ultimately governed by spiritual forces. (.59) 6. Underlying everything, there is a divine order that people can never understand completely. (.63) 7. There seems to be a divine purpose in everything that happens, even if some things that happen to us are hard to understand at the time. (.52) 8. Eventually everyone will be rewarded for good and will suffer for wrong-doing. (.45) 9. Religion is the best source for peace of mind. (.64) 10. Most people can know God through direct contact. (.36) Factor 1, Negative; 1. Men working and thinking together can build a just society without supernatural help. (-.48) 2. The individual life stops completely when the body dies. (-.41) 3. It makes more sense to think of God as an idea or principle than to think there is a divine Being with human characteristics. (-.57)
22 13 4. Religion is unnecessary if one has a code of ethics. (-.47). 5. The existence of God cannot be proved or disproved. (-.45) 6. God is only a symbol of man's ideals. (-.58) 7. Humans are better off without religion. (-.51) 8. When one considers all of the suffering and misery in the world today, it is almost impossible to believe in a just and loving God. (-.50) 9. It is better for man to stand on his own and rely on him-.self rather than use crutches like belief in God. (-.58) 10. Belief in God as an explanation for events in nature is just plain superstition. (-.57) Factor 2, Positive; 1. Time is very precious, and one should spend most of it doing something constructive. (.32) 2. To make progress, men must learn to hold back and control some of their most basic tendencies. (.27) 3. A person's life is meaningless unless he works hard to accomplish something. (.34) 4. Life is a serious matter. Anyone who acts carefree most of the time is just not facing reality. (.44) 5. One should spend most of his time working toward future goals. (.35) 6. Success is obtained only by working hard toward some goal. (.48)
23 7. It is best to be cautious and consider all alternatives before making any new decisions. (.38) 8. In the end, what really counts is what you've achieved in life rather than how many good times you've had. (.30) 9. Most people waste too much time on idle chatter when they could be working on something constructive. (.33) 10. In order to accomplish anything really important, you have to make a lot of personal sacrifices. (.45) 11. One should never put off until tomorrow what he can do today. (.31) 12. It is better to spend money only on what you actually need and put the rest into savings. (.33) 13. Each day one should make out a schedule Of activities and obligations to be met to insure his time will be wisely used. (.23) 14. There does not seem to be enough time to do all the important things in life. (.24) Factor 2, Negative: 1. Most of the time, it is best to go ahead and do whatever you feel like doing, instead of spending a lot of time thinking about it first. (-.38) 2, It is better to accomplish little and enjoy yourself than to accomplish much by sacrificing many of life's plea- sures. (-.40)
24 3. It is foolish to save a lot of money for the future since you could he enjoying it right now. (-.31) 4. Since it is impossible to predict the future, one should live only for the present. (-.33) 5. One should only accept those jobs which he really enjoys doing. (-.21) 6. It doesn't matter too much how you live your life, since life has no purpose except the one you choose to live by. (-. 31) Factor 3, Positive; 1. The best way to live is not to get too emotionally involved or react too strongly to things. (.40) 2. You can best get along with people if you try to analyze them and understand them instead of getting too close to them. (.25) 3. It is a good idea not to tell your friends a lot about yourself since you may later regret it.. (.29) 4. People who do not get very emotional are better adjusted and stronger than those who easily become emotional. (.26) 5. People who cry easily are usually weak individuals. (.20) 6. Most people would be better off if they would stick to their own affairs and mind their own business. (.29) 7. Whenever you come across someone in the act of committing a crime, it is often safest and wisest to mind your own business and not get involved. (.32)
25 16 Factor 3, Negative: 1. To live a complete life, one has to get emotionally involved in things and commit himself to certain people and certain ideals. (-.33) 2. One should try to affect political decisions by writing letters to his Congressman and expressing his views. (-.28) 3. Whenever you come upon an accident, you should, if possible, try to give some kind of aid to the victims. (-.28) 4. It is best to form close relationships even if you sometimes get deeply hurt. (-.42) 5. Whenever you see some form of injustice, it is your duty to speak out against it. (-.27) Factor 4, Positive: 1. The more a person knows, the more he is bound to feel that he cannot be completely certain about anything. (.20) 2. Since people differ in their needs, we should not expect everyone to live by the same moral code. (.24) 3. We never quite see the world around us as it really is. What we perceive depends on what we believe and what we want to perceive. (.24) Factor 4, Negative; 1. In almost every war, one side is clearly at fault. (-.28)
26 17 Factor 5, Positive: 1. All events follow natural laws; therefore, we could predict everything that happens if we had enough information. (.29)' 2. All human problems will eventually be solved by scientific and technological advances. (.26) 3. The process of thinking is nothing more than electrical and chemical activities in the brain. (.41) 4. The only way to attain knowledge and truth is through the scientific method. (.47) 5. If one could completely control a person's environment, we could completely control his behavior and personality. (.28) 6. The study of man should be approached mainly from an objective philosophical standpoint. (. 4 5 ) 7. Throughout man's history, the most important discoveries have been of a scientific nature. (.31) 8. Some day scientists will probably be able to program a computer which will match human thinking in every respect. (.32) 9. The world is wholly governed by physical forces such as those of gravitation and chemical changes. (.29) Factor 5, Negative; 1. Man can never be fully understood from an objective scientific standpoint. (-.43)
27 18 2. One can gain a better understanding of man by studying great works of literature and art than by studying man from an objective scientific approach. (-.28) 3. One weakness of science is that it can deal only with observable phenomena. (-.24) 4. A scientific understanding of man is severely limited since each person is a unique individual. (-.35) 5. Life is full of unpredictable events for which there does not seem to be any apparent cause. (-.31) 6. It is impossible to study many aspects of human experience using a scientific approach. (-.32).. \ Factor 6, Positive; 1. Life is an exciting adventure most of the time. (.22) 2. Despite occasional periods of war and other troubles, life on the whole seems to get gradually better and better. (.47) 3. We are currently living in what is probably the most exciting time in history. (.26) 4. With a little positive thinking, one can usually turn disappointments and setbacks into something constructive and beneficial. (.27) ' ' 5. It is very easy to find a considerable amount of beauty in nature. (.23) 6. The social changes occurring in our country today will most likely.lead to a better society. (.35)
28 19 Factor 6, Negative: 1. In many ways, our civilization seems to be deteriorating. (-.37) 2. Just like ancient Rome, this country is decaying from within. (-.39) 3. The way the world is going, it is likely that some day human civilization will be destroyed by nuclear war. (-.35) 4. Unless this country returns to the faith of its forefathers, it will become completely morally corrupt. (-.27) 5. The problems of the. world today are so complex that it looks as if no one will be able to solve them. (-.20) *. 6. In modern city life, most people are m o r e concerned about themselves and care less about their fellow man than they use to. (-.24) 7. For most people, life contains a good deal of disappointment, frustration, and unhappiness. (-.20)
29 ITEM ANALYSIS II Since an "insufficient number of items was obtained in the first item analysis, it was decided to repeat the procedure using the acceptable items in the first analysis and adding new ones. Method Questionnaire Construction In addition to the 89 items retained in the first item analysis, 81 new items were constructed resulting in a questionnaire of 170 items (Appendix C ) Also, a personal data sheet was added at the end of the form (Appendix E)«Information requested included such variables as age, sex, major subject, type of residence, religious preference, frequency Of church attendance, political viewpoint, and position on the Viet Nam War. Subjects The revised questionnaire was given in the same form as the previous one to a new sample of 143 subjects drawn from introductory psychology classes. Scoring and Analysis The same procedure was used in scoring and analysis as in the prior form. 20
30 Results The same criterion for acceptance was used as in the former questionnaire. A few of the acceptable items in the. first analysis were dropped. These included the following; Items 2,.12, and 14 from' factor two, positive; 5 and 6 from factor two, negative; 4 from factor three, positive; 3 from factor five, negative; 4 and 5 from factor six, positive; and 4 and 5 from factor six, negative. New items passing the criterion and their corrected correlations included the following; Factor 2, Positive; 1. One can avoid a lot of problems if he makes a habit of analyzing his motives and does not do anything without knowing why. (.21) Factor 2, Negative; 1. When facing two alternatives, one is usually better off choosing the one he feels like at the moment instead of spending a lot of time analyzing the situation. (-.30) 2. When a job becomes tedious and boring, it is usually better to quit and do something more enjoyable than trying to finish it first. (.29) 3. Whenever one runs across some interesting item in a store which.he would like to own, it is often a good idea to go ahead and buy it if he has the money rather than trying to analyze whether he really needs it. (-.26)
31 22 Factor 3, Positive; 1. It is a good idea not to argue too strongly for a particular position or idea since one may later discover he was wrong. (.26) 2. Since there will always be much poverty in the world, it is foolish to spend a lot of money trying to eliminate it. (.52) 3. - It is better not to get too emotionally attached to someone of the opposite sex since it prevents him from seeing the other.person realistically. (.36) 4. When one is blocked from reaching some goal, it is usually better to choose another goal which is easier to attain than to try to. overcome the obstacle. (.32) Factor 3, Negative: 1. One can never really be happy unless he has at least one.close friend with whom he can share his secret thoughts and desires. (-.25) 2. We should all actively work toward eliminating social problems such as poverty even though the task often seems hopeless. (-.44) 3. One should always be involved in helping other people who are less fortunate. (-.38) 4. One should only select vocations to which he can fully dedicate himself rather than choose- a job primarily as a means of making money. (-.20)
32 23 5. Perhaps one of the most noble things anyone can do is to devote his life to some great cause or ideal. (-.38) 6. The only way to really understand:someone is to be emotionally involved with him. (-.37) Factor 4> Positive; 1. There is no such thing as good and bad music. The only important thing is whether or not you enjoy it. (.36) 2. What one calls beautiful poetry is just a matter of personal taste. What is beautiful for one person may not be beautiful for another. (.30) 3. No activity is really a waste Of time if you enjoy doing it. (.36) 4. It is possible for a certain type of government - say Communism - to be a good thing for one country but not for another country. (.52) 5. Religious truth is a matter of what the individual person feels. What is true for one person may not be true for another. (.52) 6. We have no right to criticize people who choose to reject some of the basic values of our society as long as they do not harm others. (.37) 7. There are some cases in which breaking the law may be justified. (.29) Factor 4, Negative: 1. There is no excuse for going against the standard way of dressing in our society. (-.41)
33 24 Factor 5, Positive; 1. Whatever a person does can be completely explained by his heredity and past environment. (.20) 2. Some day scientists will be able to determine in advance a person's basic abilities by manipulating his genetic structure. (.27) Factor 5, Negative;, 1. There have been several unusual events throughout man's history which have defied all scientific explanations. (-.37) 2. A human being is more than just a combination of physical matter. (-.38) 3. There are many truths in life which science cannot explain and which must be just accepted. (-.44) 4. There is currently too much emphasis placed upon science in our educational system. (-.22) 5. Some of the m o s t.important insights in life can only be grasped intuitively- and cannot be explained in an objective scientific manner. (-.48) 6. Even if one knew everything that has happened to a particular individual, one would still be unable to predict his future behavior. (-.26) 7. The trouble with science is that it is too concerned with discovering a lot of cold isolated facts rather than dealing with human problems. (-.26)
34 . 25 Factor 6, Positive: 1. There are so many things to be happy about in life that people have little excuse for becoming depressed. (.20) 2. Most of the problems and difficulties in life usually work themselves out if one just has enough patience. (.20) 3. In spite of the fact that there are many tensions among nations today, it is likely that some day there will be peace over the entire world. (.40) Factor 6, Negative; 1. The way things look for the future, it sometimes seems unfair to bring children into the world. (-.39) 2. The way things are going, it is likely that this nation is headed for economic ruin. (-.35) 3. The rapid growth in technology such as the development of complex computers is stifling the human spirit. (-.35) 4. When one considers problems such as water and air pollution and the;population explosion, it is very difficult to see how the human race can survive another century. (-.40) 5. It seems that the more public funds are spent trying to correct social problems, the worse things get. (-.31)
35 FACTOR ANALYSIS As a final check on the utility of the items, it was decided to do a factor analysis. Thus intercorrelations among all the items were factor analyzed without regard to the scale scores which were considered in the prior item analyses. It was hoped that six factors would emerge which correspond in content with the six scales and that each item would have a high loading and correlation on only the factor of which it was supposed to be a part. Method Questionnaire Construction The items passed in the first item analysis, excluding those which were dropped, were added to the new items acceptable in the second analysis. Since some of the factors had an insufficient number of items, it was decided to provisionally retain some of the questions used in the second item analysis even though they did not quite meet the criterion. These included the following; Factor 2, Negative : 1. In most tasks, it is more important to enjoy it while doing it than accomplish a lot at the end. (Contaminated with factor 4, positive) : 26
36 2 A good piece of advice is "If it feels good, do it." (Contaminated with factor 1, negative) Factor 4, Negative; ' 1 1. There is something wrong with any person who changes his mind often about important matters like religion and politics. (Correlation too low) 2. The quality of popular art and music has declined considerably in the last few decades. (Correlation too low) 3. Most of the ideas people express nowadays about religion are definitely wrong. (Correlation too low) 4. Every person who breaks the law should be punished for his misdeed with no consideration given to his mental state at the time of the crime. (Contaminated with factor 3, positive) 5. We should not allow people to speak on our college campuses who advocate the overthrow of our nation's government. (Contaminated with factor 1, positive) 6. It is very unfortunate that so many people are questioning the value of our American way of life. (Contaminated with factor 2, positive) 7. There is one true moral code which all men should live by. (Contaminated with factor 1, positive)- Factor 6, Positive; 1. With a little effort and imagination one- can overcome almost any difficulty.. (Contaminated with factor 4, positive)
37 28 2. Most people would be better off if they would spend more time looking at all the good things in life instead of ' \ complaining about the few bad things. (Contaminated with factor 5, negative) 3. One can always find a bright side to anything that happens. (Contaminated with factor 5, negative) 4. Most people in our country today are much better off than they ever have been. (Contaminated with factor 4, negative) These items were then added to the other acceptable items making a questionnaire of 131 items (Appendix D). No new items were constructed in order to use the data from the second item analysis. Subjects In addition to the 143 subjects used in the second item analysis,.157 additional subjects were- given the test resulting in a total of 300. The additional subjects were drawn from an introductory psychology class and several upper division courses. The total sample included 140 females, 156 males, and 4 who did not identify their sex. Ages of the subjects ranged from 17 to 59 years with a mean of 22.8 years. Scoring and Analysis Only the 131 items retained for this administration were scored for the subjects who had taken the longer form used in the second item analysis. After each response was converted to a whole number, the data were subjected to factor
38 analysis. Twelve factors were extracted by the principle axis method. A Procrustes program was then used to provide an initial rotation containing approximations to the expected values on the first six factors. All factors were further rotated using mathematical criteria to the best approximation of oblique simple structure. It should be noted that rotation was not completely blind since some consideration was made of the items supposedly composing the first six factors with which the questionnaire was concerned. Results The intercorrelations among the twelve extracted factors are presented in Table 1. Among the first six factors with which we are interested, the most notable correlations are between one and two (.43) and between one and five (-.35). Following the. factor analysis individual items were selected for future use by examining the factor pattern (Appendix F) and factor structure (Appendix G) matrices. Only those items with sufficiently high factor loadings and correlations were accepted. It was also necessary for the loadings and correlations with the other factors to be relatively low in order to avoid contamination. The following 73 items along with their loadings on the factor pattern matrix (F ) and correlations on the factor - P. structure matrix (F ) were retained: s
39 TABLE 1 INTERCORRELATIONS AMONG THE TWELVE EXTRACTED FACTORS ' o
40 Factor 1, Positive; F P F s 1. The universe is governed by a divine Being who posseses infinite power, infinite knowledge and infinite love Every man's basic duty is to serve God The really important life is the life after death Mankind cannot survive without faith in God The world is ultimately governed by spiritual forces Underlying everything, there is a divine order that people can never understand completely There seems to be a divine purpose in everything that happens, even if some things that happen to us are hard to understand at the time..61 <y> CO 8. Eventually everyone will be rewarded for good and will suffer for wrong-doing Religion is the best source for peace of mine..53 CO Factor 1, Negative: 1. Men working and thinking together can build a just society without supernatural help The individual life stops completely when the body dies
41 3. It makes more sense to think of God as an idea or principle than to think there is a divine Being with human characteristics. 4. Religion is unnecessary if one has a code of ethics. 5. The existence of God cannot be proved or disproved. 6. God is only a symbol of man's ideals. 7. When one considers all of the suffering and misery in the world today, it is almost impossible to believe in a just and loving God. 8. It is better for man to stand on his own and rely on himself rather than use crutches like belief in God. 9. Belief in God as an explanation for events in nature is just plain superstition. Factor 2, Positive; 1. Time is very precious, and one should spend most of it doing something constructive. 2. A person's life is meaningless unless he works hard to accomplish something. 3. One should spend most of his time working toward future goals. 4. It is best to be cautious and consider all alternatives before making any new decisions.
42 33 F R Fs 5. In the end, what really counts is what you've achieved in life rather than how many good times you've had One should never put off until tomorrow what he can do today Factor 2, Negative; 1. It is better to accomplish little and enjoy yourself than to accomplish much by sacrificing many of life's pleasures It is foolish to save a lot of money for the future since you could be enjoying it right now In most tasks, it is more important to enjoy it while doing it than accomplish a lot at the end A good piece of advice is "If it feels good, do it." Factor 3, Positive: 1. The best way to live is not to get too emotionally involved or react too strongly to things It is a good idea not to tell your friends a lot about yourself since you may later regret it
43 34 F & _ Fs 3. Most people would be better off if they would stick to their own affairs and mind their own business Whenever you come across someone in the act of committing a crime, it is often safest and wisest to mind your own business and not get involved It is a good idea not to argue too strongly for a particular position or idea since one may later discover he was wrong Since there will always be much poverty in the world, it is foolish to spend a lot of money trying to eliminate it It is better not to get too emotionally attached to someone of the opposite sex since it prevents him from seeing the other person realistically Factor 3, Negative: 1. One should try to affect political decisions by writing letters to his Congressman and expressing his views Whenever you come upon an accident, you should, if possible, try to give some kind of aid to the victims
44 35 F & F s 3. It is best to form close relationships even if you sometimes get deeply hurt One can never really be happy unless he has at least one close friend with whom he can share thoughts and desires We should all actively work toward eliminating social problems such as poverty even though the task often seems hopeless One should always be involved in helping other people who are less fortunate One should only select vocations to which he can fully dedicate himself rather than choose a job primarily as a means of making money Whenever you see some form of injustice, it is your duty to speak out against it Factor 4 # Positive; 1. The more a person knows, the more he is bound to feel that he cannot be completely certain about anything Since people differ in their needs, we should not expect everyone to live by the same moral code Truth is relative, and what is true for one person or time may not be true for another
45 4. There is no such thing as good and bad music. The only important thing is whether or not you enjoy it. 5. What one calls beautiful poetry is just a matter of personal taste. What is beautiful for one person may not be beautiful for another. 6. We have no right to criticize people who choose to reject some of the basic values of our society as long as they do not harm others. Factor 4, Negative; 1. There is one true moral code which all men should live by. 2. There is no excuse for going against the standard way of dressing in our society. 3. There is something wrong with any person who changes his mind often about important matters like religion and politics. 4. Every person who breaks the law should be punished for his misdeed, with no consideration given to his mental state at the time of the crime. Factor 5, Positive: 1. All events follow natural laws; therefore, we could predict everything that happens if we had enough information.
46 2. The process of thinking is nothing more than electrical and chemical activities in the brain. 3. The only way to attain knowledge and truth is through the scientific method. 4. If one could completely control a person's environment, we could completely control his behavior and personality. 5. Throughout man's history, the most important discoveries have been of a scientific nature. 6. Some day scientists will be able to determine in advance a person's basic abilities by manipulating his genetic structure. Factor 5, Negative: 1. Man can never be fully understood from an objective scientific standpoint. 2. A scientific understanding of man is severely limited since each person is a unique individual. 3. It is impossible to study many aspects of human experience using a scientific approach. 4. The trouble with science is that it is too concerned with discovering a lot of cold isolated facts rather than dealing with human problems.
47 38 F & F Factor 6, Positive; 1. Life is an exciting adventure most of the time Despite occasional periods of war and other troubles, life on the whole seems to get better and better Most people would be better off if they would spend more time looking at all the good things in life instead of complaining about the few bad things There are so many things to be happy about in life that people have little excuse for becoming depressed Factor 6, Negative; 1. The way the world is going, it is likely that some day human civilization will be destroyed by nuclear war When you consider all the problems in the world today, the future looks pretty dreary For most people, life contains a good deal of disappointment, frustration and unhappiness The way things look for the future, it sometimes seems unfair to bring children into the world
48 39 F F s 5. The rapid growth in technology such as the development of complex computers is stifling the human spirit When one considers problems such as water and air pollution and the population explosion, it is very difficult to see how the human race can survive another centry Discussion An examination of the remaining items indicates that the identity of the factors has remained the same. Factor one, which deals with conventional theistic religious beliefs, is obviously the clearest factor and came out better than the others in terms of the number of remaining items. The items on the positive end of factor two indicate a productive, goal oriented, cautious orientation. On the opposite end the items reflect a spontaneous, somewhat hedonistic, present outlook. Factor three clearly deals with detachment and involvement in both the inter-personal and political-social realms. The positive end of factor four reflects a tolerant and relativistic attitude in matters of value and truth while the negative end reflects the opposite, namely a more absolutist orientation. On factor five, the positive items express a scientific, deterministic, materialistic orientation while the opposite end seems to stress the limitations of science.