FAULT LOCATION ESTIMATION FOR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM USING SIMULATED VOLTAGE SAGS DATA

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1 FAULT LOCATION ESTIMATION FOR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM USING SIMULATED VOLTAGE SAGS DATA H. Mokhlis (1), H.Y.Li (1) (1) The University of Mnchester ABSTRACT This pper presents new method for locting short-circuit fult in electricl distriution system. The method works y mtching the ctul voltge mgnitude nd phse ngle with the simulted ones from fult nlysis tht stored in dtse. The mtching will give the possile fulty section/sections. A mtching mesurement lgorithm is then pplied to quntify the mtching ccurcy nd to estimte fulty distnce from prticulr us on the section. In cse more thn one possile fulty section ville, rnking procedure is conducted to rnk down the sections ccording to the degree of mtching ccurcy. A simultion test of the proposed method showed stisfctory result. Keywords: Voltge Sgs, Dtse, Fult Loction, Distriution Networks. 1 INTRODUCTION Short-circuit fult in distriution system often cusing enormous losses to utility nd customer. Such losses cn e reduced if the loction of fult cn e locted s quickly s possile. A common technique to locte fult in distriution system (prticulrly in 11 kv systems) is using tril nd error technique. In this technique, the fult loction is serch y ptrolling long the feeder. The loction usully is guessed y n experience opertor efore sending the repiring crews. This technique is time consuming, costly, nd exposed the crew to dnger. Due to such prolems, vrious utomted fult loction techniques hve een proposed for distriution system. In generl, fult loction techniques cn e divided into three ctegories, which re impednce-sed method, knowledge-sed method nd trvelling wve method. The impednce-sed method estimtes the distnce of fult from the primry distriution us to the fult loction. This method requires voltge nd current vlues mesured t one end or two ends of the line. This method used mthemticl eqution to estimte the fult loction. Most of the method work for rdil system only nd require other informtion such s fult current wveforms, circuit reker sttus, nd fult indictor sttus for non-rdil system [1, ]. However, limited sttus informtion ville on distriution networks, in prticulr on 11kV networks, mkes this pproch very difficult, if not impossile, to estlish relile sttisticl estimtes. Some of this method lso time consuming due to itertive process nd need to know the fult type efore specific eqution cn e pplied. The second ctegory is knowledge-sed method for exmples Artificil Neurl network (ANN), Fuzzy Logic (FL), Expert System (ES) nd Genetic Algorithm (GA) [3] [6]. The ccurcy of the result using this method is highly depending to the given set of informtion such s short-circuit current nd informtion from fult detection devices t the min feeders. Unfortuntely, some of the informtion is not ville in mny distriution systems since mesurement is usully locted t the primry distriution us. This method such s ANN lso requires trining process tht consumes time nd need to e repeted whenever there re chnges in the system. Another type of knowledge-sed technique is y mtching mesured dt with historicl fult dt [6]. Whenever fult occurs in the distriution network, the wveform of voltge sgs mesured t the susttion is recorded into the dtse together with the known fult type nd loction. This dtse is updted whenever fult occurs in the system. When ctul fult occurs, the mesured voltge sgs wveforms t the susttion re compred to ll the voltge sgs wveforms in the dtse. The most mtching wveform in the dtse will give the type of fult nd the loction. The drwck of this method is tht it will not work if the ctul fult never hppens t prticulr loction, or not recorded in the dtse. The lst ctegory is using trvelling wve method to locte fult loction [7]. The principle of this method is sed on the reflection nd trnsmission of the fult generted trvelling wves on the fulted power network. Although this technique cn locte fult with high ccurcy, the implementtion is complex nd expensive. Tken into considertion the limittion of ville informtion in distriution system, the proposed method in this pper uses single mesurement t the primry distriution us to estimte fult loction. The mesured voltge sgs will e mtched with the voltge sg dt nd voltge eqution stored in the dtse. These dt re otined from fult nlysis. The mtch will give the UPEC 7-4

2 loction of the fult in term of distnce from prticulr us in the section. Since the method depends on the simulted dtse, ny chnges such s lod vrition in the system cn e ddressed y updting the dtse. The method lso not costly for implementtion since it requires only single mesurement t the min susttion BACKGROUND OF THE METHOD Consider 11 kv distriution system with mesurement point is locted t us s depicted in Figure 1. identity of the person. The sme concept is pplied in the proposed method, ut with different pproch of mtching process 3 DESCRIPTION OF THE METHOD 3.1 Simulted Dt Two types of dtses re developed nd used for this method. The first type is to store voltge mgnitude nd phse ngle monitored t the mesured us when fult is simulted t ll uses. The stored voltge mgnitude is the lowest mgnitude mong the three phses. The second type is to store generl eqution of voltge mgnitude nd phse ngle s function of distnce. The equtions re considering the voltge mgnitude nd phse ngle s mesured t the monitored us. Different type of fult hs different dtses. (i) Simulted Voltge Sgs t Buses The dt for this type of dtse is rrnged s depicted in Figure. The first column is the fulted us, second column is the voltge mgnitude nd the third column is the corresponding phse ngle. M M M x Figure 1 Study cse Typicl 11 kv distriution system If the ove system experienced short-circuit fult t ny loction in the system, the mesured us will experience voltge chnges. The chnges cuse voltge mgnitude t us to drop nd chnge the corresponding phse ngle, which is referred s voltge sg phenomen. The severity of the sg depends on the distnce of fult occurrence from us. The nerest the fult to us the severe the sg will e experienced t us. Different type of fult lso produce different sg chrcteristic t the monitored us. Bsed on this chrcteristic, fult loction cn e estimted y compring the mesured voltge t the monitored us with voltge sg dt nd its known loction where it occurred. The dt cn e collection of prcticl mesurement or from simultion nlysis. However, it is lmost impossile to otin complete set of dt from prcticl experience since short-circuit not lwys occurs nd the loction my vry nd not necessry cover the whole system. Due to this prolem, simulted voltge sgs dt re used in this study to estimte the fulty loction. The sic ide of the proposed method comes from finger print identifiction concept. In this technique, n unknown finger print is mtch with finger prints tht hve een stored in dtse. The mtch will give the Figure Dt rrngement for fult t uses (ii) Simulted Sgs Equtions From the preliminry study, it ws found out tht there re three different types of chnges for voltge mgnitude nd phse ngle over distnce. The types re liner, non-liner nd constnt. Ech section hs its own eqution nd the type of chnges my differ depends on the vlue of the section impednce. The lrger the impednce, the more non-liner the chnges will e. On the other hnd, smll impednce will produce liner nd lmost constnts chnges if the impednce is too smll. In this study, the eqution is ssumed to e polynomil type with the degree of two. The generl equtions re s follow: V i = d + d + (1) where, V i d,, 1,, 1 1 = d + d + i 1 () voltge mgnitude phse shift section where the eqution cn e pplied distnce coefficients of the voltge mgnitude eqution coefficients of the phse ngle eqution The existing of the coefficient will depend on the type of the eqution s follows: UPEC 7-43

3 ) Non-liner type - ll the coefficients hve vlue ) Liner type - nd is zero nd the rest hs vlue c) Constnt type only nd hs vlue, the rest is zero The following is the rrngement of the dt for second type of the dtse. Figure 3 Dt rrngement for voltge mgnitude nd phse ngle equtions The first column nd second column of the dtse re two djcent uses. The third, forth nd fifth column is the coefficient of the eqution s shown in equtions (1) nd () 3. Mtching Algorithm The serch of the est mtching dt using the developed dtses is sed on the following steps: possiility of overlpping oundry. The overlpping will cuse more thn one section selected s possile fulty section. The region cn e lso presented in the form of equtions s follows: V < V < V etween us nd us (3) fult fult < < etween us nd us (4) V fult V < α nd fult < α t us (5) V fult V < α nd fult < α t us (6) Where α is the specified threshold to determine the mtching etween the ctul nd the simulted one. The threshold is required ecuse it is not possile to otin exctly the sme vlue of oth the simultion nd ctul mesurement. (ii) Mtching mesurement The mtching mesurement is sed on the mismtch etween the distnce otined from voltge mgnitude eqution nd distnce otined from phse ngle eqution. Figure 6 shows how the distnce is otined using oth types of equtions. In the figure, the function ( V, d) represents n eqution of voltge mgnitude f V over distnce nd the function f (, d) represents phse ngle over distnce. Both functions re representing voltge sg profile long the two djcent uses, which is us nd us. The eqution cn e ny type s discussed in section A nd not necessry nonliner s presented in Figure 6. Figure 4 Flow chrt showing the generl steps of the proposed method (i) Glol Serch The im of glol serch is to find ll the section tht ounds the mesured voltge V, ). This section is ( f f considered s the possile fulty section. The oundry cn e presented in the form of grph s follows: d V d Figure 6 Equtions of voltge mgnitude nd phse ngle for section - Figure 5 Fulty region for section - The region represents the oundry of voltge mgnitude nd phse ngle vlues when fult occurs t ny loction on section -. A given voltge mgnitude nd its corresponding phse ngle tht fll inside this region will e considered cused y fult t this section. Ech section hs its own oundry ut there is lso The mtching vlue is given y the following eqution: σ = d V d (7) where, σ mtching vlue or the mismtch of the distnce d distnce otined from voltge mgnitude eqution V d distnce otined from phse ngle eqution UPEC 7-44

4 The mtching is considered 1 % mth if σ.. The lower the vlue of σ, the higher the mtching ccurcy will e. This mesurement lso provides n estimtion of the fulty distnce in the section from us in the section -, which is given y d nd d V. (iii) Rnking of the possile fulty section In the sitution if more thn one possile fulty section selected from glol serch, the sections need to e rnked ccording to its degree of mtching. The cndidte with the highest degree of similrity will e selected s the most likely fulty section. However, the other cndidtes re lso considered in cse the first choice is incorrect upon visul inspection. Due to this reson, rnking procedure is developed to ssign the section ccording to the priority for inspection. The process cn e simplified in the following steps: ) Find the minimum vlue from the clss group, σ min = min{ σ, σ L σ }, (1 < i < n) where n is 1 i the numer of sections selected from the glol serch. ) The section i corresponding to lowest vlue of σ is considered s the most mtching pir nd ssigned s the first possile section. c) The steps re repeted to find the next most mtching pir of dt. This step is repeted until ll the sections hve een rnked. The finl result is the list of possile fulty section/sections thn hs een rnked ccording to it degree of mtching. At the sme time, the lgorithm lso provides the estimtion of fult distnce in the section. 4 EVALUATION OF THE METHOD Due to the sence of rel mesurement, the proposed method is tested using simulted ones. A distriution networks in Figure 1 is used to study the ility of the proposed method to locte fult. The network consists of 33kV equivlent network source, 33/11kV trnsformer nd n 11kV feeder with 1 nodes i.e. 19 sections nd rnches. In this pper only Single Line to Ground Fult (SLGF) result will e presented. The short-circuit fult in this test is considered olted fult. 4.1 Dtse Development In this study, the dtse is estlished from the fult nlysis simultion s discussed in section 3. Tle 1 shows smple of dtse contins voltge mgnitude nd phse ngle of the lowest voltge mgnitude t the monitored us when SLGF is simulted t ll uses in the system. Tle 1: Simulted Voltge Sgs t Bus Fulted Bus Voltge Mgnitude (pu) Phse Angle (rdin) M M M Tle nd Tle 3 re the coefficient vlues of the voltge mgnitude versus distnce nd phse ngle versus distnce equtions respectively. Tle : Voltge Mgnitude s Function of distnce Coefficients Section M M M M Tle 3: Phse Angle s Function of distnce Coefficients Section M M M M The grphs in Figure 7 nd Figure 8 show two exmples of the eqution for section 3-4 nd section 4-5 of SLGF respectively. The equtions represent the vlue of voltge mgnitude nd phse ngle t monitored us when fult occur t ny loction etween the two djcent uses. The loction is considered from us 3 towrds us 4 nd us 4 towrds us 5 respectively. For oth section, it cn e oserved tht the chnges of voltge mgnitude over distnce is lmost liner. However, the phse ngle for oth section re nonliner. In the Figure 7() nd Figure 8 (), the severity of voltge sg reduces s fult occur further wy from the monitored us. This cn e seen y compring the voltge mgnitude t us 4 nd us 5 in the grphs of Figure 7() nd Figure 8(). At us 4, the voltge mgnitude is round.7 pu nd t us 5 it is round.17 pu. This chrcteristic is inline with the chrcteristic of voltge sg where the nerer the fult to the mesured point, the more the drop of voltge mgnitude will e. Figure 7(): Eqution of voltge mgnitude versus distnce for section 3-4 UPEC 7-45

5 Figure 7() Eqution of phse ngle versus distnce for section 3-4 The result is given in Tle 5, where the first column of the tle is the test no, the second column shows the selected fulty section/section from the lgorithm. The third nd forth column re the estimted distnce from voltge eqution nd phse ngle eqution respectively. The fifth column is the degree of mtching nd finlly the lst column represents the rnk of the selected fulty section. Tle 5: Testing Result Test No Selected fulty section d (pu) V d (pu) σ Rnk Figure 8() Eqution of voltge mgnitude versus distnce for section Fult loction (pu) Figure 8() Eqution of phse ngle versus distnce for section Simultion Test Tle 4 shows some testing point where Single Line to Ground fult is simulted. Tle 4: Testing Loction -SLGF Test No Simulted fulty section 1 Section -3,.5 pu of distnce from us Section 3-4,.75 pu of distnce from us 3 3 Section 4-5,.3 pu of distnce from us 4 4 Section 5-6,.75 pu of distnce from us 5 5 Section 6-7,.5 pu of distnce from us 6 6 Section 7-8,.5 pu of distnce from us 7 7 Section 8-9,.75 pu of distnce from us 8 8 Section 9-1,.5 pu of distnce from us 9 9 Section 7-11,.5 pu of distnce from us 7 1 Section -1,.75 pu of distnce from us The result in the ove tle shows some importnt oservtions. Firstly is on the possile fulty section. It cn e seen tht from us to us 6, the lgorithm only selected one possile fulty section. Wheres, strting from us 6, more thn one section is selected s the possile fulty section. This occurred ecuse of the prllel sections strting from us 6. Tken test no 5 s n exmple of this sitution, two possile sections re selected i.e. section 6 7 nd section Both sections re prllel line. The sme goes to other prllel sections strting from us 6. For prllel lines, there is loction t ech of the lines where the occurrence of fult will produce the sme voltge sg chrcteristic. This hppen ecuse t this loction, the electricl distnce is the sme s seen from the monitored us. If the system is in rdil form without ny rnches, the lgorithm will get only one possile fulty section. UPEC 7-46

6 The second oservtion is on the rnking of the possile fulty sections. The sections hve een rnked ccording to the vlue of mtching ccurcy. The most lower is set s the first choice for visul inspection nd followed y the other sections. In the tle, the most likely fulty section is in the grey ox. For exmple, for test no 9, three possile sections hve een selected. The sections hve een rnked in sequence, where section 7-11 is the first possile fulty section, followed y section 7-8 nd finlly section The first section will e checked first nd if this choice is incorrect, the second section will e inspected nd if still incorrect the third one cn e checked. The possiility of hving more thn one section cnnot e voided using this method, unless the rnch where the fult occurrence cn e identified. This cn e done y plcing fult indictor t the end of ech rnch. The third oservtion is on the estimtion of the fult distnce. For exmple, for test no 1, the fulty loction is estimted occur t section -3 with estimtion of loction t.498 pu or.4989 pu from us. These fulty distnce estimtion would help the repiring crew to hve resonle estimtion where to look first insted of guessing the loction sed on previous experienced tht might e wrong 5 FUTURE WORKS In the future, the proposed method will e improved to consider the effect of fult resistnce. A thorough study will lso e conducted to study the performnce of the method due to mesurement error nd how to overcome such prolem. The method lso will e tested using other distriution networks. 6 CONCLUSIONS In this pper, new method to estimte fult loction for distriution system hs een presented. The test of the method shows promising result nd hence the method cn e further improved to ddress fult resistnce effect nd mesurement error. The method is simple nd inexpensive for implementtion since its only requires single mesurement t the monitored us. Any chnges such s lod vritions or network reconfigurtion cn e dpted y this method y updting the dtse.. E.C. Senger, G. Jr. Mnssero, C. Goldemerg, E.L. Pellini, Automted fult loction system for primry distriution networks, IEEE Trns on Power Delivery, Vol., No, pges , April Hong-Tzer Yng, Wen-Yeu Chng, Ching-Lien Hung, A new neurl networks pproch to on-line fult section estimtion using informtion of protective relys nd circuit rekers, IEEE Trns on Power Delivery, Vol. 9, No 1, pges -3, Jn P. Jrventust, P. Verho, J. Prtnen, Using fuzzy sets to model the uncertinty in the fult loction process of distriution networks, IEEE Trns on Power Delivery, Vol 9, No, pges , April Hsu Yun-Yih, Lu, F.-C., et. l, An expert system for locting distriution system fults, IEEE Trns. On Power Delivery, Vol. 6, Issue 1, pges , Jn M. Kezunovic, Y. Lio, Fult loction estimtion sed on mtching the simulted nd recorded wveforms using genetic lgorithms, Development in Power System Protection, Amsterdm, The Netherlnds, pges April Zeng Xingjun, Li, K.K., Liu Zhengyi, Yin Xinggen, Fult loction using trvelling wve for power networks, Industry Applictions Conference, Vol. 4, pges 46 49, 3-7 Oct. 4. AUTHOR'S ADDRESS The first uthor cn e contcted t School of Electricl & Electronic Engineering, University of Mnchester, A3, Ferrnti Building. Emil 7 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The first uthor grtefully cknowledges the studentship given y the University of Mly, Mlysi, for the PhD work in this re. 8 REFERENCES 1. Jun Zhu, D.L. Lukemn, A.A. Girgis, Automted fult loction nd dignosis on electric power distriution feeders, Trns on Power Delivery, Vol. 1, No, pges 81-88, April UPEC 7-47

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