1 Managing Stop-Go Capital Flows in EM Asia: So Far, So Good Andrew Filardo Bank for International Settlements Prepared for the Central Banks of Finland and Austria Joint Conference on European Economic Integration in Helsinki, November 2012 * The views are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of the Bank for International Settlements
2 Introduction EME capital flows in an increasingly integrated world represent a key challenge Today, I d like to highlight some lessons from EM Asia Recent experience point to both good luck and good policy The good luck no wall of liquidity The good policies stress-testing of policy tools generally considered a success But must be vigilant to tail risks, which are still serious
3 Outline Why is EM Asia more confident about ability to manage capital flows? Why do I remain worried about significant tail risks? What lessons can we draw at this early stage?
4 Capital Flows And Reality Dealing with EM capital flows Inherent instability in EMEs, ie damned if you do and damned if you don t Despite this, outcomes in EM Asia have been encouraging Search for yield has been selective, not broad based The good luck view
5 Stress-Testing Policy Frameworks Monetary policy accommodative and pre-emptive to possible spillovers The good policy view
6 Asymmetric Monetary Policy Response To The Crisis
7 EM Asia Response To QE Interpreting QE Impact on Asian Financial Markets Chen, Filardo, He and Zhu (2012) Endogenous Asian Central Bank MP Channel Activated
8 Preferred Exchange Rate Regime Monetary policy accommodative and pre-emptive to possible spillovers Resisted FX appreciation through FX reserve accumulation The good policy view
9 Resisting FX Appreciation
10 Other Measures To Manage The Flows Monetary policy accommodative and pre-emptive to possible spillovers Resist FX appreciation through FX reserve accumulation Developed a multilateral backstop Chiang Mai initiative Intensified surveillance and monitoring of capital flows Renaissance in use macroprudential/capital control tools The good policy view
11 Example: Hong Kong
12 Should We Revise Our View On Capital Flow Risks? Have we overestimated the risk of heavy capital flows to the region? Many have commented that the flows have been a challenge at times in past years but have been manageable But not so fast
13 US Hot Money Flows Not As Bad As We Thought?
14 Why? International Financial Crisis And Risk Aversion Research shows most of this driven by shifts in risk aversion, not the probability of default
15 CDS Spreads And Net Capital Flows In EM Asia
16 Capital Flows And Global Risk Aversion Why didn t this wall of liquidity show up on the shores of Asia? Were analysts expectations wrong in assessing this risk? Rather, it was not possible to expect the extent of the vicious circle arising from sovereign risk concerns, especially in Europe. These risks have multiplied and lingered far longer than expected. What happens when they truly abate? There is a need to understand this process better in EM Asia - and elsewhere.
17 Less Policy Space in EM Asia Going Forward The policy space appears to have shrunk Unwanted side-effects from past actions building - Domestic credit booms and asset prices - Offshore FX currency credit booms - CBBS and financial stability concerns
18 New Round Of Bubbles And Inflation In EM Asia?
19 Offshore USD Lending Boom A New Credit Channel? USD lending boom Little chg in USD liabilities
20 Limits From Soaring Central Bank Balance Sheets China EM Asia x CN
21 Asset Side: Foreign Reserve Accumulation
22 Activating A Financial Instability Channel? Foreign asset accumulation by sterilised intervention soaring So far, so good. Evidence of resisting appreciation Extensive use of central bank paper and reserve requirements Initial impact crowding out; but, lazy assets growing in the banking sector sowing seeds of the next crisis? CB FX assets FX pressure CB liabilities sterilise Lazy B assets Filardo/Grenville (2012): FX regimes with symmetric FX asset accumulation, ii) eventual reduction of CBBS called for; Filardo/Yetman (2012) on financial stability risks.
23 Lessons For Asia, destabilising capital flows remain an important concern now it is slow-go, not stop-go. Shifts in global risk aversion important. At the same time, excessive liquidity and Asian CB balance sheets are now an independent source of risk. EMEs can buy some breathing room with temporary measures to get one s fiscal, monetary and financial houses in order not a new idea but still important! Policy mix: ensure price stability, implement new international financial regulatory norms, strengthen fiscal positions & limit reliance on 1-sided FX intervention!
24 Thank you
25 Selective References BIS (2010): The international financial crisis and policy challenges in Asia and the Pacific, BIS Papers no 52, July. Chen, Qianying, Andrew Filardo, Dong He and Feng Zhu (2012) "The impact of central bank balance sheet policies on the emerging economies." BIS Papers no 66, October. Filardo, Andrew (2012): Ensuring price stability in post-crisis Asia: lessons from the recovery, BIS Working Paper no 378, April. Filardo, Andrew and Stephen Grenville (2012) Central bank balance sheets and foreign exchange rate regimes: understanding the nexus in Asia, BIS Papers no 66, October. Filardo, Andrew and James Yetman (2012) Key facts on central bank balance sheets in Asia and the Pacific, BIS Papers no 66, October.
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