AXIAL LOAD TESTS ON BORED PILES AND PILE GROUPS

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1 AXIAL LOAD TESTS ON BORED PILES AND PILE GROUPS IN CEMENTED SANDS By Nabil F. Ismael, 1 Member, ASCE ABSTRACT: The behavior of bored pile groups in cemented sands was examined by a field testing program at a site in South Surra, Kuwait. The program consisted of axial load tests on single bored piles in tension and compression and compression tests on two pile groups each consisting of five piles. The spacing of the piles in the groups was two- and three-pile diameters. Soil exploration included standard penetration tests, dynamic cone tests, and pressure meter tests. Laboratory tests included basic properties and drained triaxial compression tests. Test results on single piles indicated that 70% of the ultimate load was transmitted in side friction that was uniform along the pile shafts. The calculated pile group efficiencies were 1.22 and 1.93 for a pile spacing of two- and three-pile diameters, respectively. Since settlement usually controls the design of pile groups in sand, the group factor defined herein as the ratio of the settlement of the group to the settlement of a single pile at comparable loads in the elastic range was determined from test results. A comparison between the measured values and calculated values based on a simplified formula was made. INTRODUCTION The behavior of single piles under axial loading was examined in detail by many investigators, and their findings were outlined in several publications (Meyerhof 1976; Vesic 1977; Das 1999). The behavior of pile groups, however, is more complex and has not been adequately examined or understood. While many model tests were carried out in loose and medium dense sands (Singh and Prakash 1973), the few field tests available, particularly with regard to bored pile groups, are either not well documented (Liu et al. 1985) or deal with special conditions such as underreamed pile groups (Garg 1979). Other investigations employing full-size piles in sand indicate group efficiencies greater than unity (Feagin 1948; Kishida 1967; Vesic 1969). Since piles are usually installed in groups, it is important to know the behavior of pile groups under axial loading. This includes the ultimate bearing capacity and the settlement under working loads. Settlement considerations usually control the design of pile groups in sand, and it is important to know the settlement of pile groups compared to the settlement of single piles at the same load per pile. With the absence of any field test data on bored pile groups in cemented sands, a program of field tests on instrumented bored piles was carried out at a site in South Surra, Kuwait. The program involved compression tests on two pile groups, each consisting of five piles, installed at a pile spacing of two- and three-pile diameters. Two single piles were tested in compression, and two single piles were tested in tension. All tests were carried out to failure. Soil exploration was carried out by in situ field tests and by laboratory tests on the soil samples. This paper presents and analyzes test results. Emphasis is placed on the ultimate bearing capacity and the settlement at working loads for the pile groups as compared to single piles. The measured axial load transfer along the piles is compared with analytical predictions and with previous measurements on tension piles in Kuwait (Ismael et al. 1994). SITE CHARACTERIZATION A test site was selected in South Surra, Kuwait, where the ground is flat and cemented sands exist from the ground sur- 1 Prof., Civ. Engrg. Dept., Kuwait Univ., P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060, Kuwait. Note. Discussion open until February 1, To extend the closing date one month, a written request must be filed with the ASCE Manager of Journals. The manuscript for this paper was submitted for review and possible publication on January 5, 2001; revised May 7, This paper is part of the Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 127, No. 9, September, ASCE, ISSN / 01/ /$8.00 $.50 per page. Paper No face down. These cemented sands are coastal plain deposits (Khalaf et al. 1984), which are a heterogeneous mixture of gravel, sand, silt, clay, and authigenic minerals (carbonates and sulfates). Greater Kuwait City is located on these deposits, locally known as gatch. The same site was previously employed for tension tests on single piles (Ismael et al. 1994) and for lateral load tests (Ismael 1990). One auger boring was drilled at the test site to a depth of 6.5 m. Sampling and standard penetration tests (SPTs) were carried out at 1 m intervals. Dynamic cone penetration tests (CPTs) were performed in the vicinity of the borehole (BH) to give a continuous record of the soil resistance with depth. Pressure meter tests, using the Texam model (Rocktest Canada Ltd.), were carried out at depths of 0.5, 2, 3, 4, and 6 m. These tests were performed 2 m away from the BH in an augered hole in accordance with ASTM D (ASTM 1987). Fig. 1 is a summary of the soil conditions. Indicated from left to right is the soil description, moisture contents, bulk unit weights, SPT-N values, dynamic CPT results, pressure meter modulus E, and the ratio E/N. Also shown are the extent of the piles and pile groups tested in this program. The soil profile consists of medium dense weakly cemented silty sand layer to a depth of 4.5 m. This is underlain by very dense silty sand with cemented lumps to the bottom of the BH. Groundwater was not encountered within the depth of the boreholes. The soil strength parameters were determined by drained triaxial compression tests. Undisturbed samples were trimmed from block samples taken from the cemented sand deposit for testing. The peak strength parameters c and were 20 kpa and 35, respectively, for the upper layer. Fig. 2 shows the stress-strain curves and the failure envelope as determined from triaxial test results on cemented samples at a depth of 2 m. The residual strength parameters were 0 and 34, indicating loss of cohesion and a slight change in the angle of shearing resistance. Liner samples were taken from the lower layer for testing. The strength parameters of this layer were 0 and 43, indicating no cohesion and very dense conditions. Chemical analysis on the soil samples in the upper layer indicated that the samples consist mainly of quartz but contain approximately 10% of carbonates and sulfates. PILE INSTALLATION AND INSTRUMENTATION A layout plan of the test piles and pile groups is shown in Fig. 3. Piles 1 and 2 were tested in compression. Pile groups 3 and 4 each consisting of five piles and, capped with a rigid cap resting on the ground, were tested in compression. The piles were spaced at two-pile diameters in group 3 and at three-pile diameters in group 4. Piles 1 and 2 and the piles of 766 / JOURNAL OF GEOTECHNICAL AND GEOENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING / SEPTEMBER 2001

2 FIG. 1. Soil Conditions at Test Site South Surra FIG. 2. Stress-Strain Curves and Failure Envelope from Drained Triaxial Tests on Cemented Sand [after Ismael (1990)] the two groups were 0.1 m (4 in.) in diameter and 2.25 m deep with L/D ratio of 22. Piles 5 and 6 were 0.2 m (8 in.) in diameter and 2.65 m long and were tested in tension. To carry out these tests, eight 0.4-m-diameter reaction piles were installed. These piles were 5 m deep and had reinforcing cages 0.30 m in diameter consisting of six No. 22-mm reinforcing bars. All reaction piles protruded 0.4 m above ground level, and a central 36-mm-diameter reinforcing bar was positioned in every pile. This rod, having a length of 3 m, was welded to a 0.5-m-long threaded ready-made section of the same diameter. Of the total length, 2.7 m was embedded in the piles, and 0.8 m, including the threaded section, projected above the top of the pile. The central pulling rods were placed in the reaction piles so that they could be used to provide reaction for the test piles and the pile groups. The reaction piles were installed in a square pattern with a span of 4 m. Details of the pile spacing in the groups, dimensions of the pile caps, and sections through the pile groups and single piles are shown in Fig. 4. To install the compression piles and the pile groups, a pit was first excavated to a depth of 0.4 m. The piles were augered to a depth of 2.25 m and protruded 0.1 m above excavation level. A 0.4-m-thick rigid reinforced concrete cap was subsequently poured on the pile groups, and a seating block m was poured on the single piles. All piles tested in compression had a central 20-mm reinforcing steel bar installed with a yield strength F y 350 MPa. Tension piles 5 and 6, having a length of 2.65 m, were installed from the ground surface to the same level of the tip of the compression piles and the pile groups, and a central 36- mm-diameter reinforcing bar welded to a 0.5-m-long threaded section was positioned in it. The installation of all piles was carried out under favorable ground conditions. The holes were dry upon augering, and no groundwater was encountered. No casing was needed, since no caving or collapse occurred within a depth of 5 m. For the reaction piles, the steel reinforcing cage was lowered into position after completion of the hole. Concrete was poured by free fall to the level of the tip of the central rod that was then positioned in place, after which the concrete pouring was continued to the top of the piles. For the test piles the central reinforcing rod was positioned along the full length of the pile before the start of concreting by free fall from ground level. For pile 1 and for the central and one corner pile of group 4 (Fig. 3), eight electrical resistance strain gauges were attached to the central reinforcing bar. Two gauges were placed diametrically at each of four levels at a depth of 0.2, 0.9, 1.5, and 2.1 m as shown in Fig. 4. The strain gauge wires, extending to ground level, were connected to a strain indicator and read before and after the application of each load increment during the test. The instrumentation was carried out to determine the axial load transfer along the piles during the tests. TESTING PROGRAM Six axial load tests were carried out. Two compression tests were performed on single piles 1 and 2 (Fig. 3). This was JOURNAL OF GEOTECHNICAL AND GEOENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING / SEPTEMBER 2001 / 767

3 FIG. 3. Layout Plan of Test Piles and Pile Groups FIG. 4. Details of Pile Cap Dimensions, Pile Reinforcement, and Instrumentation 768 / JOURNAL OF GEOTECHNICAL AND GEOENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING / SEPTEMBER 2001

4 followed by compression tests on pile groups 3 and 4. Piles 5 and 6 were finally tested in tension. The purpose of carrying out two identical tests on single piles in tension and in compression was to examine the uniformity and the scatter of data for similar piles. Testing was carried out in April 2000, 7 weeks after pile installation. EQUIPMENT AND PROCEDURE OF FIELD TESTING The test arrangement for the pile groups is shown in Fig. 5. Fig. 5(a) shows the test setup for pile group 3. Figs. 5(b and c) show the test arrangement for pile group 4. The vertical force was applied using a 110-ton Holmatro hydraulic jack having a stroke of 150 mm. The jack, which is manufactured by B. V. Holmatro, Holland, was connected to a hand-operated pump equipped with a calibrated pressure gauge that read to an accuracy of 2 tons. The jack exerted its force on reaction beams seated on top of the reaction piles. Two I-beams, 0.4 m high and 4 m long, were employed for group 3. Two similar I-beams, 5.5 m long, were employed for testing group 4. The beams were tied to the reaction piles using steel plates, nuts, and washers as shown in Fig. 5. As evident from Fig. 5, the protruding part of the reaction piles had a square section measuring m high for proper seating of the beams on the top of the piles. The testing arrangement for the single piles in compression is shown in Fig. 6(a). It is similar to that of the pile groups except that a 50-ton Holmatro hydraulic jack having a stroke of 250 mm was employed. For the tension piles, the test setup is shown clearly in Figs. 6(b and c). As shown, after placing the two I-beam on the reaction piles, the central reinforcing rod with its threaded section passed through a hollow plate on top of the beams and through a 45-ton Holmatro hollow ram jack. The jack having a 150 mm stroke was tied to the beams using nuts and washer plates. The vertical displacements of each pile or pile cap were measured by three dial gauges having a range of 51 mm. The gauges were attached from reference beams installed behind each pile or pile cap. The beams were anchored well away from the piles. To carry out a test, the load was applied in cumulative equal increments of 2 tons for the single piles and 10 tons for the FIG. 5. (a) Test Setup for Pile Group 3; (b) Strain Gauge Reading during Test on Pile Group 4; (c) Close-Up View of Pile Cap for Group 4 FIG. 6. (a) Test Setup for Pile 1; (b) Tension Test Setup for Pile 6; (c) After Failure View of Tension Pile 6 JOURNAL OF GEOTECHNICAL AND GEOENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING / SEPTEMBER 2001 / 769

5 pile groups. Each load increment was maintained for a time interval of not less than 15 min and until all displacements had ceased. At each increment, dial gauge and strain gauge readings of instrumented piles were taken. For the single piles, in tension and compression, the load was applied until continuous vertical displacement occurred at a slight or no increase in load. At that point failure was clearly visible as shown in Fig 6(c) for the tension pile, and the test was discontinued. However, for the pile groups, failure was progressive in nature, and the test was continued past the failure load and was terminated when the applied load reached the maximum capacity of the jack. ANALYSIS OF TEST RESULTS Test results for the tension piles are plotted in Fig. 7 for piles 5 and 6 in the form of load versus average displacement curve. The results for the two piles were similar with little scatter in the data. Since failure was well defined, the failure load was taken as the maximum load reached. This load is marked by a vertical arrow in Fig. 7 as 16 tons. The average skin friction along the pile shafts was calculated as FIG. 7. Qu W f s = (1) AL s Load versus Displacement for Single Piles in Tension FIG. 9. Axial Load Distribution during Compression Test on Single Pile in Cemented Sand where f s = average shaft resistance; Q u = ultimate uplift capacity; W = weight of the pile; A s = pile circumferential area; and L = pile embedment length. Inserting 16 tons (156.8 kn) for Q u, m for D, 2.65 m for L, and 0.25 D 2 L c for W (where D is pile diameter, and unit weight of concrete c =23kN/m 3 ), f s is calculated to be 91.5 kn/m 2. This is close to the 84 kn/m 2 previously obtained at this site from tension tests on 0.3-m-diameter piles (Ismael et al. 1994). The difference may be due to the change of pile diameter and depth through the upper, medium dense, cemented sand layer. Considering now the single piles in compression, the load settlement curves based on the average of two piles is given in Fig. 8. As shown, failure is not very well defined. The failure load was determined by the slope tangent method at the point of intersection of the initial and final tangents to the load settlement curve. This point is marked in Fig. 8 by a vertical arrow at a load of 9.5 tons. Assuming the same value of f s as for the tension pile and m for D and 2.25 m for L, the side resistance Q s is calculated as 6.7 tons (65.7 kn). The base resistance is therefore = 2.8 tons. This indicates that 70% of the capacity was transmitted by friction and 30% by base resistance. The validity of the above analysis was confirmed by the axial load distribution along pile 1 during the test (Fig. 9). The data points in Fig. 9 were determined from the average strain gauge readings at each level. The load was obtained from the strain readings employing Hooke s law and the transformedarea method. An examination of Fig. 9 reveals that at a load of 10 tons, which is very close to the failure load, the measured base capacity was 2.8 tons or 28% of the total load. This is very close to the calculated values. The assumption made in the calculations of uniform friction and linear axial load distribution along the pile shaft appears to be justified from the measurement shown in Fig. 9. These measurements show nearly linear axial load distribution along the pile shaft. One interesting finding that should be point out, based on the above measurements and analysis, is that the observed friction in compression and tension were very similar. This is in contrast with the commonly used practice of assuming a lower value for friction in uplift. FIG. 8. Load versus Settlement for Single Piles in Compression Pile Groups The load settlement curves for pile groups 3 and 4 are shown in Figs. 10 and 11, respectively. The failure loads, as determined by the slope tangent method, were 58 tons or (11.6 tons/pile) and 92 tons (18.4 tons/pile) for pile groups 3 and 4, 770 / JOURNAL OF GEOTECHNICAL AND GEOENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING / SEPTEMBER 2001

6 FIG. 10. Load-Settlement Curve for Pile Group 3 FIG. 11. Load versus Settlement for Pile Group 4 respectively. This indicates group efficiencies of 1.22 for group 3 and 1.93 for group 4. Table 1 is a summary of the pile load test data. Indicated from left to right are the type of test, pile diameter, ultimate or failure load, ultimate load per pile, settlement at failure, pile group efficiency, settlement at loads of 3, 4, and 5 tons/pile along with the group factor (settlement ratio) defined as the ratio of the settlement of the pile group to the settlement of a single pile at the same load in the elastic range. The load settlement curves for the single pile and the two groups are superimposed in Fig. 12. It is interesting to compare the settlement curves in the elastic range and at larger loads. Note that the group settlement is larger than the settlement of single piles in the initial elastic range. The elastic settlement increases with the width of the pile group B g, which is defined in Fig. 4. At larger loads, the settlement of the single pile exceeds that of the groups as it approaches failure at comparatively smaller loads. Since the design of pile groups in sand is usually controlled by settlement considerations, the group factor defined above is highly important in determining the settlement of pile groups at working loads if the settlement of single piles is known. The settlement of single piles is usually determined from the results of pile load tests at the site. From the present test results shown in Table 1, the group factor was plotted versus the load per pile as shown in Fig. 13. It decreases somewhat linearly as the load increases, but this may be due to plastic deformations occurring in the single pile within the load range selected in Table 1. The simplified relationship for the group factor proposed by Vesic (1977) is given by Sg(e) Bg G F = = (2) S D where G F = group factor; S g(e) = elastic settlement of the pile group; S = elastic settlement of a single pile at comparable working load; and B g = width of the pile group (Fig. 4). The above relationship yields constant values for G F = 1.73 and 2 for pile groups 3 and 4, respectively, compared to the average measured values of 1.79 and 2.59 within the load range of 3 5 tons. Considering the simplicity of (2), its predictions are very good indeed. For pile groups in sand, Meyerhof (1976) suggested the following empirical relation for calculation of the elastic settlement: 2q B I S (in.) = (3) g(e) g N corr where q = Q g /L g B g (in U.S. ton/ft 2 ); N corr = average corrected standard penetration number within seat of settlement ( B g deep below the tip of piles); I = influence factor = 1 L/8B g 0.5; and L = length of piles. Applying (3) for the present pile groups at an arbitrary load of 5 tons/pile or 25 tons/group yielded settlement exceeding four times the measured values for both pile groups. Meyerhof (1976) indicated that the estimated settlement using (3) are generally somewhat larger than measured. However, the use of this equation, for the cemented sand of the present site yielded improper results. It appears that the N values are not a proper measure of the strength and compressibility of cemented sands. Accurate settlement predictions in cemented sands can be obtained using the pressure meter test, which yields accurate values of the soil modulus with depth. The soils within the stressed zone can be divided into several sublayers with different values of E, and an elastic analysis can be carried out to estimate the settlement under working loads. DISCUSSION The field tests carried out in this program revealed important information with respect to the behavior of bored pile groups in cemented sands. The very few tests reported so far apply to rectangular or square pile groups in uncemented sandy soils, and no tests on cemented sands were reported. One of the most important findings relates to the efficiency of pile groups. The TABLE 1. Summary of Pile Load Test Data Foundation Test Pile diameter (m) Q ult (ton) Q ult /pile S f (mm) Efficiency Q = 3 tons Q = 4 tons Q = 5 tons S (mm) G F S (mm) G F S (mm) G F Single pile Compression a 0.31 a 0.52 a 0.87 a Group 3, d = 2D Compression Group 4, d = 3D Compression Tension a a a a a a a a Not applicable. JOURNAL OF GEOTECHNICAL AND GEOENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING / SEPTEMBER 2001 / 771

7 FIG. 12. Groups Load versus Settlement Curves for Single Piles and Pile with small diameter bored piles, where conditions were ideal dry augering conditions, in relatively competent cemented sand that did not need the use of any casing. The bored pile diameters commonly used in Kuwait for multistory buildings and transmission towers range from 0.45 to 0.9 m, which are significantly larger than the present test piles. In drilled shafts of larger diameter, where the construction method and the quality of the procedures impact side friction and end bearing, where relaxation of earth pressure does occur, and where a water table may be present, then efficiency values less than those found herein may be obtained. In extreme situations such as loose and very loose sands and high water level, efficiency values of <1 may be obtained. To explain the high efficiency values in the present tests, it is noted that plate load tests on cemented sands at this site (Ismael and Al-Sanad 1993) and at other sites (Ismael 1996) revealed that failure occurred by punching shear. In this failure mode, the shear zone is confined to a limited area below the foundation level, and no heave or shear planes reach the ground level. On this basis, the point resistance of bored piles at close spacing of two- to three-pile diameters will not be affected by the presence of nearby piles, and no interference of the shear zones will occur. Thus, the base resistance of the pile group in cemented sands is expected to be equal to the sum of the base resistance of the individual piles in the group. As for the side friction, the installation of bored piles causes lateral displacement and larger lateral earth pressure on the adjacent piles within the pile group enclosure. This was evident during pile installation and resulted in larger frictional resistance along the pile shaft compared with single piles. The arrangement of the piles in the groups or the geometry of the groups may have contributed to the apparent increase in side friction compared with single piles. As a result, a group efficiency >1 was achieved. It should be noted that the two pile groups tested were resting on the ground. The contribution from the cap bearing on the ground outside the outer perimeter of the pile group was judged to be very small and was ignored in the analysis. The preceding interpretation of test results has been confirmed by strain gauge measurements along the center pile and one corner pile of group 4. These measurements show that the FIG. 13. Group Factor versus Load per Pile for Pile Groups group efficiency was equal to 1.22 when the pile spacing was two-pile diameters increasing to 1.93 for a spacing of threepile diameters. This implies that all efficiency formulas available in the literature that give an efficiency <1 are not valid or applicable for cemented sands. This is in agreement with the recent ASCE Committee on Deep Foundations report (ASCE 1984) on granular uncemented sands, which recommends not using group efficiency formulas as a description of group action. It suggests that friction piles in granular soils at the usual spacing of two- to three-pile diameters will have efficiencies >1. The pile practice survey by Focht and O Neill (1985) indicated that the recommendations of the ASCE Committee on Deep Foundations are being used. It is interesting to note, however, that most of these formulas are applicable for square or rectangular pile groups only. For a group of five, only the method of Feld (1943) can be applied. According to this method, the efficiency of a group of five friction piles in sand was calculated as 80%. Based on the present test results, the suggestion by Meyerhof (1976) to calculate the capacity of bored pile groups in sand as about two-thirds of the sum of the single pile capacities at customary pile spacing is not justified for cemented sands. It should be noted, however, that the current research dealt FIG. 14. Axial Load Distribution along Center Pile of Group / JOURNAL OF GEOTECHNICAL AND GEOENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING / SEPTEMBER 2001

8 load is equally shared by the center and corner piles. Moreover, the increased capacity of the piles in the groups is principally due to increased skin friction along the pile shafts. This is demonstrated in Fig. 14, which shows the axial load distribution along the center pile of group 4 at selected applied loads. To explain the difference in efficiency, or ultimate load capacity per pile, between groups 3 and 4, it is noted that the close pile spacing in group 3 results in interference of the shear zones along the pile shafts. This reduces the maximum frictional resistance of the piles in comparison with group 4. However, the side friction remains interestingly larger for group 3 compared to single piles, despite the interference of the shear zones, because of the influence of the large lateral earth pressure induced on the pile shafts due to construction of the pile groups. Since settlement considerations usually control the design of pile groups in sands and cemented sands, the question often asked is: what is the settlement of the pile group at a certain working load per pile? With reference to Fig. 12, the settlement of the groups is clearly larger than that of a single pile, and as the group increased in width, the settlement also increased. The group factor (settlement ratio) defined as the ratio of the settlement of the group to the settlement of single piles at the same working loads in the elastic range appears to be a good indication of the group action effect. Considering the simplicity of (2), suggested by Vesic (1977), and comparing its prediction of the group factor with the values obtained from the present field test results, it is evident that it yielded good to lower limit values for this factor. However, (3), suggested by Meyerhof (1976), overestimated the elastic settlement of the pile groups in cemented sands by at least four times. CONCLUSIONS A field testing program was carried out on bored piles and pile groups in medium dense, weakly cemented sands in South Surra, Kuwait. The program included single piles in tension and compression and two pile groups, each consisting of five piles, in compression. Based on the analysis of the field and laboratory test results, the following conclusions were reached: The soil deposit at the site consists of medium dense, weakly cemented sands with strength parameters c and = 20 kpa and 35, respectively, and a unit weight of 18 kn/m 3. The single piles in tension failed at an average frictional resistance of 91 kpa. The single piles in compression resisted 70% of the applied load at failure in side friction and 30% in base resistance. The axial load distribution along the piles in compression was nearly linear. This indicates uniform side friction along the pile shafts. The observed friction in compression and tension were very similar. For the two pile groups, each consisting of five piles installed at a pile spacing of two and three pile diameters, the group efficiency was 1.22 and 1.93, respectively. This is attributed to the increased side friction along the pile shafts of the groups. The group factor or settlement ratio, defined as the ratio of the settlement of the group to the settlement of single piles at comparable loads in the elastic range, is important in determining the settlement of pile groups. This factor is greater than unity and increases with the width of the pile group. It has been determined from the present test results and compared with the simplified formula proposed by Vesic. A group efficiency >1 is usually expected for bored piles in sand and cemented sand deposits. However, in loose sands and where high water level and soil relaxation occurs, efficiency values <1 may be obtained. Additional tests on bored pile groups, using large diameter piles, in different soils are recommended to provide more field test data on the efficiency and settlement of bored pile groups. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The study reported herein was supported by funding from the Kuwait University Research Administration under research project No. EV 120. Thanks to Hani Amin and Husain Irsan of the Civil Engineering Department, Kuwait University, for providing assistance in the field and laboratory tests of the research program. REFERENCES ASCE Committee on Deep Foundations. (1984). Practical guidelines for the selection, design, and installation of piles. Rep., ASCE, New York. ASTM Annual Book of Standards. (1987). Soil, Rock, Building Stones, Vol. 4.08, ASTM, West Conshohocken, Pa. Das Braja M. (1999). Principles of foundation engineering, 4th Ed., Brooks/Cole Publishing Co., Pacific Grove, Calif. Feagin, L. B. (1948). Performance of pile foundations of navigation locks and dams on the Upper Mississippi River. Proc., 2nd Int. Conf. Soil Mech. Found. Engrg., Vol. 4, Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Feld, J. (1943). Friction pile foundations. Trans. ASCE, 108. Focht, J. A., Jr., and O Neill, M. W. (1985). Piles and other deep foundations. Proc., 11th ICSMFE, Vol. 4, Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Garg, K. G. (1979). Bored pile groups under vertical load in sand. J. Geotech. Engrg. Div., ASCE, 105(8), Ismael, N. F. (1990). Behavior of laterally loaded bored piles in cemented sands. J. Geotech. Engrg., ASCE, 116(11), Ismael, N. F. (1996). Loading tests on circular and ring plates in very dense cemented sands. J. Geotech. Engrg., ASCE, 122(4), Ismael, N. F., and Al-Sanad, H. A. (1993). Plate loading tests on weakly cemented surface desert sands. Geotech. Engrg., J. Southeast Asian Geotech. Soc., Bangkok, Thailand, 24(2), Ismael, N. F., Al-Sanad, H. A., and Al-Otaibi, F. (1994). Tension tests on bored piles in cemented desert sands. Can. Geotech. J., Ottawa, 31(3), Khalaf, F. I., Gharib, I. M., and Al-Hashash, M. Z. (1984). Types of characteristics of the recent surface deposits of Kuwait, Arabian Gulf. J. Arid Envir., 7(2), Kishida, H. (1967). Ultimate bearing capacity of piles driven into loose sand. Soils and Found., Tokyo, VII(3), Liu, J. L., Yuan, Z. L., and Zhang, K. P. (1985). Cap-pile-soil interaction of bored pile groups. Proc., 11th Int. Conf. on Soil Mech. and Found. Engrg., Vol. 3, Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Meyerhof, G. G. (1976). Bearing capacity and settlement of pile foundations. J. Geotech. Engrg. Div., ASCE, 102(3), Singh, A., and Prakash, S. (1973). Axial reaction of model pile groups in sand. Indian Engrg. J., 53(March), Vesic, A. S. (1977). Design of pile foundations. Nat. Cooperative Hwy. Res. Program Synthesis of Pract. No. 42, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. Vesic, A. S. (1969). Experiments with instrumented pile groups in sand. Performance of deep foundations, ASTM Spec. Tech. Publ. No. 444, JOURNAL OF GEOTECHNICAL AND GEOENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING / SEPTEMBER 2001 / 773

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