Stability properties of certain durum wheat genotypes for major quality characteristics

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1 Research Article Turk J Agric For 35 (20) TÜBİTAK oi:0.3906/tar Stability properties of certain urum wheat genotypes for major quality characteristics Mehmet Ali SAKİN, *, Oral DÜZDEMİR 2, Abulvahit SAYASLAN 3, Ferhat YÜKSEL 4 Department of Fiel Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Gaziosmanpaşa University, Tokat - TURKEY 2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Applie an Natural Sciences, Çankırı Karatekin University, Çankırı - TURKEY 3 Department of Foo Technology, Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey University, Karaman - TURKEY 4 Department of Foo Engineering, Gümüşhane University, Gümüşhane - TURKEY Receive: Abstract: Many ecological regions of Turkey are suitable for the prouction of urum wheat, an therefore the yiel an quality of this wheat shoul be improve. In this stuy, stability properties associate with the pasta quality of 25 urum wheat (Triticum urum Desf.) genotypes grown in 3 ifferent locations (Tokat-Kazova, Diyarbakır, an Sivas- Ulaş) for 2 years ( , ) were investigate. Durum wheat genotypes were compose of 2 registere varieties an 3 avance experimental lines. Fiel trials were conucte in a ranomize complete block esign with 3 replications. Protein content, gluten inex, seimentation an specific seimentation volumes, yellow pigment content, an lipoxygenase activity of the urum wheats were measure as major quality characteristics. The regression coefficient ( ) an mean square of eviation from regression (S 2 ) were employe as the stability parameters. Genotypes, growing environments, an their interactions were foun to be statistically significant (P < 0.0) for all investigate quality characteristics. No cultivars were etermine to be simultaneously stable for all of the quality characteristics, yet some of the genotypes prevaile for certain quality characteristics. The genotypes with the same origin took part in the same group as juge by the cluster analysis. Of the avance experimental urum wheat lines, Line -, Line - 7, Line - 20, an Gem - 2, which isplaye better quality characteristics than the overall means, can be use as breeing materials. Of the registere varieties, Ayın - 93, Çeşit - 252, an Giara were etermine to be stable by both parameters in certain quality characteristics. Key wors: Cluster analysis, genotype environment interaction, gluten inex, lipoxygenase activity, pasta, yellow pigment content Makarnalık buğay genotiplerinin temel kalite kriterleri bakımınan stabilite özellikleri Özet: Türkiye kaliteli makarnalık buğay üretimi yapılabilecek uygun ekolojik bölgelere sahip bir ülkeir. Ancak, ülkee makarnalık buğaya verim ve kaliteyi artırmanın gerekliliği söz konusuur. Bu çalışmaa, 3 farklı lokasyona (Tokat-Kazova, Diyarbakır, Sivas-Ulaş) 2 yıl ( , ) süreyle yetiştirilen 25 makarnalık buğay (Triticum urum Desf.) genotipinin temel kalite kriterleriyle ilgili stabilite özellikleri incelenmiştir. Makarnalık buğay * 343

2 Stability properties of certain urum wheat genotypes for major quality characteristics genotipleri 2 tane tescilli ve 3 tane ileri hattan oluşmuştur. Tarla enemeleri tesaüf blokları eneme esenine 3 tekerrürlü yürütülmüştür. Temel kalite özellikleri olarak makarnalık buğayların protein içeriği, gluten ineksi, seimentasyon ve spesifik seimentasyon hacimleri, sarı renkli pigment içeriği ve lipoksijenaz aktivitesi belirlenmiştir. Stabilite parametreleri olarak regresyon katsayısı ( ) ile regresyonan sapma kareler ortalaması ( ) kullanılmıştır. İncelenen tüm özellikler bakımınan genotip, çevre ve genotipxçevre interaksiyonları önemli (P < 0.0) bulunmuştur. Tüm kalite özellikleri bakımınan stabil bir genotip bulunamamış, bazı kalite özellikleri bakımınan birkaç genotip ön plana çıkmıştır. Benzer kökenli bazı genotipler kluster analizine göre belirlenen aynı kümeler içerisine yer almışlarır. Islah hatları arasına, Hat -, Hat - 7, Hat - 20 ve Gem - 2 hatları genel ortalamanın üstüne iyi kalite özellikleri göstermeleri neeniyle ıslah materyalleri olarak kullanılabilirler. Tescilli çeşitler arasına Ayın - 93, Çeşit ve Giara nın her iki parametreye göre belli kalite özelliklerine stabil olukları belirlenmiştir. Anahtar sözcükler: Kluster analizi, genotip çevre interaksiyonu, gluten ineksi, lipoksijenaz aktivitesi, makarna, sarı renk pigment içeriği Introuction Durum wheats (Triticum urum Desf.) are better suite for pasta or macaroni proucts than brea wheats (Triticum aestivum L.) ue to certain superior quality characteristics (Bushuk 998; Troccoli et al. 2000). A proper raw material, i.e. urum wheat, along with an appropriate processing technology, is quite essential for the prouction of high quality pasta proucts (Hoseney 994). The pasta quality of urum wheats is influence mainly by the physical an biochemical properties of wheat kernels, which are in turn etermine by genotype, environment, an their interactions. For the most part, kernel vitreousness, protein content an quality, yellow pigment content, an lipoxygenase (LOX) activity are among the well ocumente urum wheat quality characteristics (Fares et al. 997; Clarke et al. 998; Troccoli et al. 2000). In aition to genotype, the impact of climate an soil properties on pasta quality is of great importance in the evelopment of new urum wheat cultivars (Mariani et al. 995; Bushuk 998; Ames et al. 999; Rharrabti et al. 2003). For instance, Rharrabti et al. (2003) reporte that yiel an quality of urum wheat was strongly influence by the environmental factors in the Meiterranean countries. In general, stability parameters are employe to figure out the aaptation behavior of genotypes in iverse environmental conitions. Stability is efine as the earlier preiction of influences of environmental conitions on performances of genotypes (Kafa an Kırtok 99). Most of the moels use in the stability stuies rely heavily on the assumption that a positive linear correlation exists between the improve growing conitions an performances of genotypes. Many researchers thus acknowlege that regression coefficients coul be use as stability parameters for genotypes (Finlay an Wilkinson 963; Eberhart an Russell 966). Finlay an Wilkinson (963) use the regression coefficient ( ), whereas Eberhart an Russell (966) preferre the mean square of eviation from regression (S 2 ) as the stability parameters. Keser et al. (999) suggeste that other stability parameters also be inclue in the stability stuies. In line with this proposal, Dönmez (2002) reporte that yiel stability of wheats varie by 6 ifferent parameters employe in his stuy an that no genotype coul be juge concomitantly stable by all 6 parameters. Although most stability stuies on urum wheat have focuse on grain yiel, several stability trials also inclue grain quality characteristics (Atlı 987; Rharrabti et al. 2003; Korkut et al. 2007; Letta et al. 2008). Wheat farmers in Turkey are quite reluctant to appreciate new wheat varieties ue to the assumption that new varieties are more vulnerable to the environmental changes. Furthermore, price ifferences between high an low quality wheats are rather narrow, which irects the farmers to favor the high yieling varieties over the high quality ones. As a result, urum wheat processors continue facing setbacks in acquiring stanar an high quality raw materials. The purpose of this stuy was therefore to etermine the pasta quality associate stability characteristics of certain registere varieties an avance lines of urum wheats grown in ifferent locations for 2 years. 344

3 Materials an methos In this stuy, a total of 25 urum wheat genotypes (2 registere variety an 3 avance experimental lines) were inclue (Table ). Wheats were grown in 3 ifferent environmental locations, namely Tokat- Kazova (altitue 640 m, latitue 40 3ʹN, longitue 36 ʹE), Diyarbakır (altitue 660 m, latitue 37 30ʹN, longitue 40 37ʹE) an Sivas-Ulaş (altitue 385 m; latitue 39 49ʹN, longitue 37 03ʹE), uring the an growing seasons. Fiel trials were conucte using a ranomize complete block esign with 3 replications (Düzgüneş et al. 987). The average monthly temperatures in the first an secon trial year were 0.8 C an. C in Tokat, respectively, whereas it was higher in the first trial year in other locations. The average monthly temperatures in the first an secon year were 3.7 C an 2.2 C in Diyarbakır, 8.2 C an 6.9 C in Sivas-Ulaş. The total rainfall in trial years was mm an 32.0 mm in Tokat, mm an mm in Diyarbakır, an mm an mm in Sivas-Ulaş. Table. Durum wheat genotypes use in the stuy. Number Genotype Source / Breeing institution Aghrass - 2 (Line - 4) Avance experimental line - ICARDA 2 Lagamarb - (Line - ) Avance experimental line - ICARDA 3 Rutucha - (Line - 24) Avance experimental line - ICARDA 4 Mrb3 / Albit - (Line - ) Avance experimental line - ICARDA 5 Line Breeing material - Dicle University 6 Zna - // Dra2 / Bcr (Line - 7) Avance experimental line - ICARDA 7 Gby / 4 / Quaalete // Erp / Mal / 3 / Unk (Line - 9) Avance experimental line - ICARDA 8 Line Breeing material - Dicle University 9 Stj3 / 4 / Stn // Hui / Sorno / 3 / Yav / Fg // Roh (Line - 20) Avance experimental line - ICARDA 0 Terbol97 - (Line - 5) Avance experimental line - ICARDA Geiz - 75 Registere variety - Southeast Agric. Res. Inst. 2 Ayın - 93 Registere variety - Southeast Agric. Res. Inst. 3 Zenith Registere variety - TASACO 4 Fırat - 93 Registere variety - Southeast Agric. Res. Inst. 5 Harran - 95 Registere variety - Southeast Agric. Res. Inst. 6 Altıntoprak Registere variety - Fiel Crops Central Res. Inst. 7 Cham Registere variety - ICARDA 8 Waha Registere variety - ICARDA 9 Giara Registere variety - ICARDA 20 Gem Mutant line - Gaziosmanpaşa University 2 Gem - 2 Mutant line - Gaziosmanpaşa University 22 Gem - 2 Mutant line - Gaziosmanpaşa University 23 Kızıltan - 9 Registere variety - Fiel Crops Central Res. Inst. 24 Mirzabey Registere variety - Fiel Crops Central Res. Inst. 25 Çeşit Registere variety - Fiel Crops Central Res. Inst. 345

4 Stability properties of certain urum wheat genotypes for major quality characteristics Wheat was sown in the autumn to attain 450 plants m -2. Each plot consiste of 6 rows that were 5 m each in length. Sowing was performe by machine in the first an secon year in Tokat, on October 28, 2005, an November 7, 2006; in Sivas, on October 27, 2005, an November 0, 2006; an in Diyarbakır, on November, 2005, an October 25, 2006, respectively. All of the P fertilizer (50-60 kg P 2 O 5 ha - ) an half of the N fertilizer (50-60 kg N ha - ) were applie uring sowing, while the other half of the N fertilizer (50-60 kg N ha - ) was applie at the Zaok s growth stage of 25. All quality measurements were carrie out using mille wheat samples. Wheat samples were mille on a laboratory mill to pass through a.0 mm screen. Moisture contents of the samples were etermine by oven rying at 30 C for h by the AACC metho 44-5A (AACC 2000) an all analytical results were correcte to 4% moisture basis. Protein contents of the samples were assaye through the Kjelahl metho (N 5.7) by the AACC metho Gluten inex values of the samples were etermine using the Glutomatic system by the AACC metho 38-2A. Soium oecyl sulfate (SDS) seimentation volumes of the samples were measure by the AACC metho Specific seimentation volumes were calculate by iviing the SDS seimentation volumes of the samples by their respective protein contents. Yellow colore pigment (mainly carotenois) contents of the samples were etermine using water-saturate n-butanol extracts of the samples with spectroscopic measurements at nm by the AACC metho Lipoxygenase (LOX) activities of the samples were etermine through spectroscopic measurement of the conjugate iene formation upon reaction of the extracts with a linoleic aci substrate as escribe by Rani et al. (200) an Aalami et al. (2007). A unit of LOX enzyme activity (EU) is escribe as the unit min - change in the absorbance uner the assay conitions an reporte as EU g - of mille sample. The collecte ata were subjecte to the analysis of variance using the MSTATC software upon combining the growing years by respective locations (Düzgüneş et al. 987). Stability analyses were performe whenever the genotype environment interactions were etermine to be statistically significant (P < 0.0). The regression coefficient ( ) (Finlay an Wilkinson 963) an mean square of eviation from regression (S 2 ) (Eberhart an Russell 966) values were use as the stability parameters. A wheat genotype emonstrating a higher quality value than the overall mean with a value of or close to an an S 2 value of 0 or close to 0 was juge as a stable genotype. Aitionally, graphical aaptation classifications, evelope by Finlay an Wilkinson (963) using the overall mean an value, were employe for the assessment of stability parameters for the quality characteristics of wheat genotypes. Overall mean an confience intervals for the regression line (b = ) were calculate by the following formula: Confience interval = X + t S X. Cluster analysis proceure was carrie out to establish enrograms using the War s metho as an amalgamation rule an square Eucliean istance as a measure of proximity between the genotypes (Özemir 2002). The computations were performe using the SPSS software (Version.5). Results The effects of genotype, environment, an their interactions were foun to be statistically significant (P < 0.0) for all quality associate attributes investigate in this stuy, namely protein content, gluten inex, SDS seimentation an specific seimentation volumes, yellow pigment content, an lipoxygenase activity (Table 2). Due to the significant interactions observe in this stuy, stability analyses were also performe for all of the quality attributes. The stability parameters, etermine by Finlay an Wilkinson (963) an Eberhart an Russell (966), are presente in Tables 3-5, whereas the aaptation classifications, etermine by Finlay an Wilkinson (963), are presente in Figures -6. Protein content an quality are among the well known urum wheat quality criteria for pasta proucts with al ente cooking properties (Feillet et al. 989; Bushuk 998; Troccoli et al. 2000). The genotypes numbere with 2, 3, 4, 5, an 7 can be consiere stable for protein content as juge by their values (Table 3) an aaptation classifications (Figure ). When juge by the S 2 values (Table 3), however, the genotype 4 (Line - ) emerge as the stable genotype. It is thus apparent that Line - is a stable genotype for 346

5 Table 2. Variance analysis results for selecte quality characteristics of urum wheat genotypes grown in 3 ifferent locations with 3 replications in 2 growing seasons. Variation source f Protein content (%) Gluten inex Seimentation volume (ml) Specific seimentation volume Pigment content (mg kg - ) LOX activity (EU g - ) Year (Y) 00.6 ** 79.5 ** 29.0 ** ** 37.7 ** 6.4 * Location (L) ** **.0 ** 9. ** ** ** Y L ** 47.8 ** 8. ** ** 42.5 ** 6.9 ** Genotype (G) ** 98. ** 83.5 ** 66.2 ** 534. ** 75.8 ** G L ** 5.5 ** 5.9 ** 3. ** 5.2 ** 7.3 ** G Y ** 0.3 ** 7.9 ** 3.6 **.5 ** 7.7 ** G Y L ** 8.2 ** 8.3 ** 5.0 **.5 ** 4.2 ** Error 288 *: P < 0.05, **: P < 0.0 Table 3. Stability parameters an mean values for protein content an gluten inex of urum wheat genotypes grown in 3 ifferent locations with 3 replications in 2 growing seasons. Number Genotype Protein content (%) Gluten inex Mean Mean Line Line Line Line Line Line Line Line Line Line Geiz Ayın Zenith Fırat Harran Altıntoprak Cham Waha Giara Gem Gem Gem Kızıltan Mirzabey Çeşit Mean Confience interval.00 ± ± ± ±

6 Stability properties of certain urum wheat genotypes for major quality characteristics Table 4. Stability parameters an mean values for seimentation an specific seimentation volumes of urum wheat genotypes grown in 3 ifferent locations with 3 replications in 2 growing seasons. Number Genotype Seimentation volume (ml) Specific seimentation volume (ml) Mean Mean Line Line Line Line Line Line Line Line Line Line Geiz Ayın Zenith Fırat Harran Altıntoprak Cham Waha Giara Gem Gem Gem Kızıltan Mirzabey Çeşit Mean Confience interval.00 ± ± ± ±

7 Table 5. Stability parameters an mean values for pigment content an lipoxygenase (LOX) activity of urum wheat genotypes grown in 3 ifferent locations with 3 replications in 2 growing seasons. Number Genotype Pigment content (mg kg - ) LOX activity (EU g - ) Mean Mean Line Line Line Line Line Line Line Line Line Line Geiz Ayın Zenith Fırat Harran Altıntoprak Cham Waha Giara Gem Gem Gem Kızıltan Mirzabey Çeşit Mean Confience interval.00 ± ± ± ±.9 349

8 Stability properties of certain urum wheat genotypes for major quality characteristics Figure. Aaptation classification of genotypes by protein content Figure 2. Aaptation classification of genotypes by gluten inex Figure 3. Aaptation classification of genotypes by seimentation volume Figure 4. Aaptation classification of genotypes by specific seimentation volume Figure 5. Aaptation classification of genotypes by pigment content Figure 6. Aaptation classification of genotypes by lipoxygenase (LOX) activity. 350

9 protein content. In terms of gluten inex values, as an inicator of protein quality, the genotypes 3, 4, 4, 8, 9, an 20 can be eeme stable by their values (Table 3) an aaptation classifications (Figure 2), whereas only genotype 20 can be consiere stable by the S 2 value (Table 3). The genotype 20 (Gem -2 -) is therefore a stable genotype for gluten inex by both stability parameters. As with gluten inex, SDS seimentation an specific seimentation tests provie valuable information on protein quality of urum wheats (Pena 2000; Cubaa et al. 2007; Ewars et al. 2007). The genotypes 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 2, 5, 22, an 23 were etermine to be stable for the seimentation volumes by their values (Table 4) an aaptation classifications (Figure 3). In terms of S 2 values, however, the genotypes 5 (Line - 286) an 6 (Line - 7) were juge stable, which were also foun stable by their values (Table 4). With respect to the specific seimentation volumes, the genotypes 2, 3, 5, 7, 2, 20, an 22 appeare to be stable (Table 4, Figure 4). Only 2 genotypes, namely 2 (Ayın - 93) an 20 (Gem -2 -), were stable by both stability parameters for specific seimentation volumes. A bright yellow color is a major quality criterion for high quality pasta proucts, which is preominantly influence by the yellow pigment contents an LOX activities of urum wheats (Fortmann an Joiner 978; Kruger an Ree 988; Troccoli et al. 2000; Aalami et al. 2007). Regaring the pigment contents, the genotypes, 4, 5, 9, 0, 8, an 25 emerge as the meium level stable genotypes in all locations as juge by their values (Table 5) an aaptation classifications (Figure 5), whereas only 2 genotypes, namely 0 (Line - 5) an 25 (Çeşit -252), were foun to be stable by S 2 values (Table 5). In terms of LOX activities, the enzyme associate with oxiative bleaching of yellow colore carotenoi pigments (Borrelli et al. 999; Troccoli et al. 2000; Aalami et al. 2007), the genotypes 0 (Line - 5), Waha an Giara were establishe to be stable by their values, whereas only Giara cultivar was stable by the value (Table 5, Figure 6). In other wors, Giara is the only stable genotype for the LOX activity by both stability parameters. A summary of the stability parameters for the investigate quality characteristics of urum wheat genotypes is given in Table 6. It is obvious that there are no genotypes concomitantly stable for all quality characteristics an that a small number of genotypes are simultaneously stable for only a few quality traits by both stability parameters. Table 7 an Figure 7 show the classifications by cluster analysis. It is obvious that the genotypes forme 2 main clusters with 4 groups. Groups, 2, an 3 are locate in the first cluster, whereas group 4 is in the secon cluster. The majority of the genotypes are locate in the first cluster. In this stuy, it is apparent that the genotypes locate in the first cluster were of meium level of performances for the investigate quality characteristics. The genotypes locate in the secon cluster (8, 9,, 3, 5, 6, 24, an 25), however, exhibite superior quality performances. As the genotypes in the secon cluster isplaye likewise larger S 2 values, they fell into the same cluster. Discussion Determination of the quality performances of genotypes, as influence by the environmental conitions, is of great importance in the reliability of urum wheat breeing programs. It is inee verifie by several researchers (Rharrabti et al. 2003; Letta et al. 2008) that variations take place in the quality characteristics of urum wheat as a result of varying environmental conitions. In the present stuy, it was etermine that urum wheat genotype, growing environment, an their interactions were of significant influence on the investigate quality characteristics. These results were in line with the previous finings (Mariani et al. 995; Bushuk 998; Ames et al. 999; Troccoli et al. 2000) that environmental conitions, along with genotype, are of great significance in urum wheat quality. It was ifficult to etermine the quality performances of the genotypes in this stuy as the genotype environment interactions were statistically significant. Stability analyses were thus performe to better unerstan the performances of the genotypes. There were no genotypes simultaneously stable by the employe stability parameters ( an S 2 ) for protein content, gluten inex, an seimentation volumes, which are prominent pasta cooking quality inicators. However, the following genotypes were etermine to be stable by both parameters in certain 35

10 Stability properties of certain urum wheat genotypes for major quality characteristics Table 6. Summary of stability parameters for selecte quality characteristics of urum wheat genotypes grown in 3 ifferent locations with 3 replications in 2 growing seasons. Number Genotype Protein content (%) Gluten inex Seimentation volume (ml) Specific seimentation volume (ml) Pigment content (mg kg - ) LOX activity (EU g - ) Line Line Line Line - + x Line x Line x 7 Line Line Line Line x + Geiz Ayın x 3 Zenith 4 Fırat Harran Altıntoprak 7 Cham + 8 Waha Giara + + x 20 Gem x + x 2 Gem Gem Kızıltan Mirzabey 25 Çeşit x 352

11 Table 7. Cluster analysis classification by selecte quality characteristics of urum wheat genotypes grown in 3 ifferent locations with 3 replications in 2 growing seasons. Group Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 () Line - 4 (3) Line - 24 (7) Cham (9) Line - 20 (0) Line - 5 (20) Giara (8) Waha (3) Zenith (2) Line - (9) Gem (2) Giara (5) Harran - 95 (4) Line - (22) Gem - 2 (24) Mirzabey (7) Line - 9 (5) Line (6) Altıntoprak (4) Fırat - 93 (23) Kızıltan - 9 (25) Çeşit (6) Line - 7 (2) Gem - 2 () Geiz - 75 (8) Line Denrogram using War Metho Rescale Distance Cluster Combine CASE Label Num Figure 7. Cluster analysis classification of urum wheat genotypes by quality characterics. quality characteristics: Line - for protein, Gem -2 - for gluten inex, Line - 7 an Line for seimentation volumes, an Ayın - 93 an Gem for specific seimentation volumes (Figures -4). Such an outcome stems somewhat from the fact that genetic factors influencing the genotype environment interactions vary by the quality characteristics (Rharrabti et al. 2003, Letta et al. 2008). 353

12 Stability properties of certain urum wheat genotypes for major quality characteristics When juge by both stability parameters, Line - 5 an Çeşit were stable for pigment content an Giara for LOX activity, which are crucial for the bright yellow color of pasta proucts. As pointe out above, Line -, Line - 286, Waha, an Giara urum wheat genotypes were stable for pasta cooking characteristics. Rharrabti et al. (2003) reporte that the genotype Waha was stable for certain quality characteristics an coul be use for breeing material. Özcan et al. (2005) reporte that mean square of eviation from regression (S 2 ) is the major factor irecting the formation of clusters. It can be seen in Figure 7 that the genotypes juge as stable for various quality characteristics are all locate in the same clusters, except for Çeşit It is also evient by the cluster analysis that the genotypes with the same origin or peigree fell into the similar groups. The genotypes numbere with, 2, 4, 6, 7, an 0, which were obtaine from ICARDA, were in Group, whereas Cham, Waha an Giara, which are internationally recognize cultivars, were in Group 3 (Table 7, Figure 7). The results of this work inicate that there are no cultivars stable for all quality characteristics in chorus. Comparable results were reporte by other researchers (Rharbati et al. 2003, Korkut et al. 2007; Letta et al. 2008). In a similar stuy by Rharrabti et al. (2003), only the genotype Waha was foun to be stable for 5 out of the 7 quality traits stuie. Conclusions The results of this stuy inicate that it is rather ifficult to fin a genotype that is simultaneously stable for all quality characteristics. It is therefore reasonable to choose the leaing genotypes in quality characteristics for a given environment. With respect to the leaing stability traits for quality characteristics, Line - prevails for protein content, Gem -2 - an Ayın - 93 for seimentation volume, Gem -2 - for gluten inex, Line - 5 an Çeşit for pigment content an Line - 5 an Giara for lipoxygenase activity. Of the genotypes, Line -, Line - 7, Line - 20, an Gem - 2, which isplaye better quality characteristics than the overall means, can be use as breeing materials. It is recommene that location-specific genotypes be selecte for each growth environment base on the performances of the genotypes. Acknowlegements This work was financially supporte by The Scientific an Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) (project number TOVAG- 07O644). References AACC (2000) AACC Approve Methos 0th e. American Association of Cereal Chemists International. St. Paul, MN. Aalami M, Leelavathi K, Rao UJSP (2007) Spaghetti making potential of Inian urum wheat varieties in relation to their protein, yellow pigment an enzyme contents. Foo Chemistry 00: Ames NP, Clarke JM, Marchylo BA, Dexter JE, Woos SM (999) Effect of environment an genotype on urum wheat gluten strength an pasta viscoelasticity. Cereal Chem 76: Atlı A (987) Kışlık tahıl üretim bölgelerimize yetiştirilen bazı ekmeklik ve makarnalık buğay çeşitlerinin kaliteleri ile kalite karakterlerinin stabilitesi üzerine araştırmalar. Türkiye Tahıl Simpozyumu, 6-9 Ekim, Bursa, pp Borrelli GM, Troccoli A, Di Fonzo N, Fares C (999) Durum wheat lipoxygenase activity an other quality parameters that affect pasta color. Cereal Chem 76: Bushuk W (998) Wheat breeing for en-prouct use. Euphytica 00: Clarke JM, Marchylo BA, Kovacs MIP, Noll JS, McCaig TN, Howes NK (998) Breeing urum wheat for pasta quality in Canaa. Wheat: Prospects for Global Improvement, (Es. H.J. Braun) Kluwer Acaemic Publishers, New York, pp Cubaa RE, Carcea M, Marconi E, Trivisonno MC (2007) Influence of protein content on urum wheat gluten strength etermine by the SDS seimentation test an by other methos. Cereal Foos Worl 52: Dönmez E (2002) Bazı ekmeklik buğay (Triticum aestivum L.) çeşitlerine genotip x çevre etkileşimleri ve stabilite analizleri üzerine bir araştırma. Doktora Tezi, Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, p. 52. Düzgüneş O, Kesici T, Kavuncu O, Gürbüz F (987) Araştırma ve Deneme Metotları (İstatistik Metotları II), Ankara Üniversitesi, Ziraat Fakültesi Yayınları, No: 02, Ankara. Eberhart SA, Russell WA (966) Stability parameters for comparing varieties. Crop Science 6:

13 Ewars NM, Gianibelli MC, McCaig TN, Clarke JM, Ames NP, Larroque OR, Dexter JE (2007) Relationship between ough strength, polymeric protein quantity an composition for iverse urum wheat genotypes. Journal of Cereal Science 45: Fares C, Novembre G, Di Fonzo N, Galterio G, Pogna NE (997) Relationship between storage protein composition an gluten quality in breeing lines of urum wheat (Triticum turgium spp. urum). Agriculture Meiterranea 27: Feillet R, Ait-Mouh O, Kobrehel K, Autran JC (989) The role of low molecular weight glutenin proteins in the etermination of cooking quality of pasta proucts: An overview. Cereal Chemistry 66: Finlay KW, Wilkinson GN (963) The analysis of aaptation in a plant breeing programme. Aust J Agric Res 4: Fortmann KL, Joiner RR (978) Wheat pigments an flour color. In: Wheat Chemistry an Technology 2n e. (E. Y. Pomeranz), American Association of Cereal Chemists. St. Paul, MN, pp Hoseney RC (994) Principles of Cereal Science an Technology 2n e. American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, MN. Kafa I, Kırtok Y (99) Çukurova koşullarına on yazlık buğay çeşiinin genotip x çevre etkileşimleri ve aaptasyon yetenekleri üzerine araştırmalar. Çukurova Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, Vol. 5 (2). Keser M, Bolat N, Altay F, Çetinel MT, Çolak N, Sever AL (999) Çeşit geliştirme çalışmalarına bazı stabilite parametrelerinin kullanımı. Hububat Sempozyumu 8- Haziran, Konya, pp Korkut KZ, Bilgin O, Başer İ, Sağlam N (2007) Stability of grain vitreousness in urum wheat (Triticum urum Desf.) genotypes in the North-Western Region of Turkey. Turk J Agric For 3: Kruger JE, Ree G (988) Enzymes an color. In: Wheat Chemistry an Technology 3 r e. Vol. (E. Y. Pomeranz), American Association of Cereal Chemists. St. Paul, MN, pp Letta T, D Egiio MG, Abinasa M (2008) Stability analysis of quality traits in urum wheat (Triticum urum Desf.) varieties uner south Eastern Ethiopian conitions. Worl Journal of Agricultural Sciences 4: Mariani BM, D Egiio MG, Novaro P (995) Durum wheat quality evaluation: influence of genotype an environment. Cereal Chem 72: Özcan H, Ayın N, Bayramoğlu HO (2005) Ekmeklik buğaya verim stabilitesi ve stabilite parametreleri arasınaki korelasyon. Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi : Özemir K (2002) Paket programlar ile istatistiksel veri analizi (Çok eğişkenli analizler). Kaan Kitapevi (4. baskı), Eskişehir. Pena RJ (2000) Durum wheat for pasta an brea-making: Comparison of methos use in breeing to etermine gluten quality-relate parameters. In: Durum Wheat Improvement in the Meiterranean Region: New Challenges (Es: C. Royo et al.) CIHEAM-IAMZ (No. 40), Zaragoza, pp Rani KU, Prasaa-Rao UJS, Leelavathi K, Harias-Rao P (200) Distribution of enzymes in wheat flour mill streams. Journal of Cereal Science 34: Rharrabti Y, Garcia el Moral LF, Villegas D, Royo C (2003) Durum wheat quality in Meiterranean environments III. Stability an comparative methos in analysing G x E interaction. Fiel Crops Research 80: Troccoli A, Borrelli GM, De Vita P, Fares C, Di Fonzo N (2000) Durum wheat quality: A multiisciplinary concept. Journal of Cereal Science 32:

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