Testimony of Danielle Pletka, Vice President, Foreign and Defense Policy Studies, American Enterprise Institute. Before the

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Testimony of Danielle Pletka, Vice President, Foreign and Defense Policy Studies, American Enterprise Institute. Before the"

Transcription

1 Testimony of Danielle Pletka, Vice President, Foreign and Defense Policy Studies, American Enterprise Institute Before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Foreign Affairs on Israel s Right to Defend Itself: Implications on Regional Security and U.S. Interests Thursday, November 29, 2012

2 Madame Chairman, Members of the Committee, it is my pleasure to join you for this timely hearing on the regional and national security implications of the recent hostilities between Hamas and the State of Israel. Over the last decade, the Middle East has undergone a transformation as dramatic as the one that shaped the post-war independence era in the Arab world. While those changes are all familiar to the members of this Committee, it is worth reviewing them quickly if only to underscore their breadth and depth. Consider that a dictator has been ousted in Iraq and a new and democratically elected government has come to power. That from Tunisia to Libya to Yemen to Egypt, Bahrain and Syria, the people of the region have turned on their tormentors and where they are able -- voted in new leaders. That Iran has gone from nuclear ambitions to the threshold of a nuclear weapon. That Hezbollah now controls the government of Lebanon. That the Hashemite dynasty in Jordan is at risk. And that the Arab League has taken a position against not one but two of its own for the first time in history. And where is the United States in today s Middle Eastern maelstrom? Unfortunately, largely on the sidelines, wringing its hands, hoping to restore, if not the status quo ante, then at least the pseudo stability of the age of Arab dictators. What should we be doing? Let s step back for a moment and consider the question before this hearing: Israel s Right to Defend Itself. Israel s right to self-defense is not in doubt here in Washington. Elsewhere, increasingly, not only is Israel s right to self-defense, but its actual right to exist is in question. Indeed, those who arrayed themselves on the side of Hamas in the recent fighting pose a long term challenge, certainly for Israel, but also for the United States. To whom did Hamas look for moral, diplomatic, economic and military sustenance after it launched a barrage of attacks against Israel? To Egypt, Turkey, Qatar, Lebanon and Iran. Others may have mouthed support for Hamas, but it was this group of stalwarts that stood behind the terrorist group until the end. What are the implications for the United States? In the case of Iran, none that were not obvious before Gaza. We know Iran is a state sponsor of terrorism. Yes we should have a more proactive policy that addresses Iran s dangerous proliferation of missiles throughout the Middle East and looks more clearly at the implications of a proliferator to terrorists on the verge of having a nuclear weapon. But this is not a hearing about Iran. Similarly with respect to Qatar, we are well aware of that state s tendency to play all sides of the field, and find new sides that were never played before. But Qatar s lamentable lack of principle is not news. What of Turkey, Lebanon and Egypt? Should the United States sit on the sidelines and watch passively as a NATO ally and two recipients of U.S. assistance arrange themselves on the side of terrorists?

3 Indeed, we might ask the same regarding the Palestinian Authority in Ramallah. While many suppose that Hamas motivation in attacking Israel was to gain parity with its Palestinian political rival, Fatah, and harness the wind of Islamist extremism emanating from the post-arab Spring Middle East, the Mahmoud Abbas government had an opportunity to look responsible in the eyes of its western donors by eschewing the violence. Instead, various PA figures have claimed that they too were a part of the great victory against Israel; and today, Abu Mazen will turn to the United Nations General Assembly to seek non-member state observer recognition, slapping all those who requested he not do so President Barack Obama included in the face. What can the United States do? Many in Washington have suggested that our leverage is limited, that the ructions of the Arab Spring are an internal affair that we need to do more behind the scenes. Others, predictably, resurrect the peace process as a panacea. The administration s position seems to be to coast ahead as if little of great moment has occurred, while turning our foreign policy focus to Asia. Indeed, there are plenty on both sides of the aisle, in the Executive Branch and in Congress, who suggest that the United States abdicate its traditional role in the Middle East and simply adapt to its drift into extremism. There are two styles of abdication recommended: The first, favored in certain quarters of the Congress, is the exhortation to end aid to those who displease us in the Middle East. That s very satisfying, has certain clarity to it, and saves taxpayer money to boot. Aid to Egypt and the Palestinians alone was more than $2 billion in FY A second type of abdication appears to be favored by the White House and involves occasional crisis management (during the Gaza crisis, the President made three calls to Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi in one 24 hour period, and six calls over the course of a week), but otherwise a complacent passivity. In this vision, Morsi is treated as the new Mubarak. What was aid last year? $1.55 billion. Let s keep it there and throw in some debt relief to boot. The attitude the administration conveys is that aid is an entitlement for the countries that receive it, a view shared in foreign capitals as well. It is not a source of leverage, and should not be considered one. The right approach is to recognize that we have a stake in the future of the Middle East, not just in peace between Israel and its neighbors, but in the course of the political and economic lives of these countries. They can develop in ways that are positive to their own and our interests, or the reverse. And we can influence that course a great deal, if we choose. How we choose to influence the region is a genuine challenge: We must walk a fine line. If we cut off all aid in anger, we lose some of our leverage. If we open the flood gates and allow aid to spill out willy nilly, we leave leverage on the table, unused. Take Egypt for starters. The numbers in question are breath-taking. $1.55 billion in U.S. aid ($1.3 billion to the military and $250 million in economic assistance), one billion more in debt relief, and $4.8 billion in promised IMF support. This is not chump change to Morsi, for whom economic success will be the barometer by which he is judged by the Egyptian people. Right now that aid is on hold, as it should be. Why is the hold right? Because the Congress must demand answers from the administration about how our aid and debt forgiveness is going to further American values and American priorities in Egypt. The fact that there has been little substantial change to the composition of our assistance package since the overthrow of Hosni Mubarak is a case in point.

4 And here s another question: We are providing $1.3 billion to the Egyptian military, presumably in part to bolster its ability to ensure security on the border with Israel, in part to ensure there is a balance of power within Egypt. But al Qaeda is now operating in the Sinai. And in Cairo, the military appears uninterested in playing any domestic role, consistent with Egyptian democracy, including that of guarantor of civil freedoms. So what is that aid for again? What is it buying? More troubling still is that all of the conditionality that Congress has rightly put on economic assistance to Egypt including certifications regarding rule of law, democratic transition, civil freedoms and treatment of Coptic Christians have been ignored by the administration. Rather, the President and his delegates have chosen to exercise waiver authorities, a clear admission that Egypt is not on track to meet the conditions laid out in law. Those waivers must either be tightened or removed altogether. Similarly, we might question the aid we provide to Lebanon. Since the 2007 Hezbollah war with Israel, the United States has provided more than $1 billion in assistance to Lebanon, much of it security oriented assistance to theoretically support the authority of the Lebanese Armed Forces. Yes, the same LAF that has watched as Hezbollah has rearmed itself with tens of thousands of missiles from Iran. Is it not appropriate to ask at a certain moment whether that money is doing anything at all to moderate Hezbollah s behavior? Should American taxpayers truly be subsidizing the Hezbollah-dominated Lebanese government? What message is being sent by continuing to do so even as Hezbollah supports and fights alongside Bashar al-assad in Syria? We can run through a similar litany for the Palestinians. Aid is authorized and appropriated by the Congress, but the conditions placed upon assistance are more often waived or disregarded than not. If Egypt doesn t want democratization assistance, surely it should not receive investment seed money. If Lebanon doesn t wish to disarm Hezbollah, then what is the purpose of arming and training the LAF? In short, aid provides us leverage if it is used wisely, monitored constantly, and adjusted regularly. Cutting off aid deals us, at least in part, out of the game of the Middle East. It may ultimately be the only course available, but it should not the first choice. Our challenge in facing Turkey s transition away from the Ataturk tradition of secularism and tolerance is much greater. Turkey is at once an ally, a serious economy, a democracy and a growing powerhouse in the broader Middle East. On the other hand, Turkey has paid little price for its support for terrorism in the region, its violation of Iran sanctions or its growing domestic abuses. Clearly we cannot thwart the will of the Turkish people; nor should we remain silent in the face of a government that has the dubious honor of the highest rate of imprisonment for journalists in the world. Should the U.S. continue to work with the Ankara government on issues of common concern like Syria? Yes. Should our relationship remain the same in light of other serious problems? No. And in that vein, constantly underscoring the close personal friendship between Barack Obama and Recep Tayyip Erdogan is highly inappropriate. Think of it this way; we, the United States, have enormous political, economic and military power. Much of that power resides in the hands of the President, who has chosen not to use it to support U.S. ideals and principles. Rather, he is pouring both political and economic resources into governments that are working directly against U.S. interests. Congress has an opportunity to lead, but is being stymied. Results? Egypt supports Hamas, and only belatedly acts as a constructive force to end the violence begun by its friends in Gaza. Lebanon supports Assad. Qatar and Turkey pour oil on the flames.

5 Perhaps the ongoing human catastrophe in Syria is the clearest symbol of our uninterest. Before that conflict is done and Assad is dead or in exile, the civil war in Syria will spill over to Iraq, Turkey, Lebanon, Israel and Jordan. But the United States is hanging back, doing little where it must and nothing when it can. It is possible that we will not be able to steer the Middle East down a more moderate path; indeed, it is possible that with the best of intentions and the cleverest use of America s power, we will fail. Right now, however, we are sitting on the sidelines and watching as the region transitions from secular autocracy to Islamist autocracy. That is a dangerous mistake.

Option 1: Use the U.S. Military in Syria

Option 1: Use the U.S. Military in Syria 1 Option 1: Use the U.S. Military in Syria The Syrian Civil War has been raging for five years. Nearly four hundred thousand people have died and more than one million have been injured. More than half

More information

Option 1: Use the Might of the U.S. Military to End the Assad Regime

Option 1: Use the Might of the U.S. Military to End the Assad Regime 1 Option 1: Use the Might of the U.S. Military to End the Assad Regime The Syrian dictatorship s use of chemical weapons against its own people was terrible. But we must not let it overshadow the larger

More information

UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL

UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL UNITED HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL The United Nations Human Rights Council was created in March, 2006 and is the successor to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, which was often criticized for the

More information

Terrorism Finance in Turkey: A Growing Concern

Terrorism Finance in Turkey: A Growing Concern FOUNDATION FOR DEFENSE OF DEMOCRACIES Terrorism Finance in Turkey: A Growing Concern Jonathan Schanzer February 2014 Terrorism Finance in Turkey: A Growing Concern Jonathan Schanzer February 2014 FDD PRESS

More information

Is there a change in the strategic. priorities of the Obama administration?

Is there a change in the strategic. priorities of the Obama administration? Position Paper Is there a change in the strategic priorities of the Obama administration? Al Jazeera Centre for Studies Tel: +974-44663454 jcforstudies@aljazeera.net http://studies.aljazeera.net Al Jazeera

More information

The Refugee Crisis in Syria

The Refugee Crisis in Syria The Refugee Crisis in Syria Syria has become the most dangerous crisis for global peace and security since the Second World War. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, António Guterres The ongoing

More information

History Of the Middle East

History Of the Middle East History Of the Middle East Mesopotamia 3500 BC Mesopotamia- Between the rivers Region along the Tigris and Euphrates River where a very successful civilization lived. Center of farming and trade Developed

More information

Dear Delegates, It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2016 Montessori Model United Nations Conference.

Dear Delegates, It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2016 Montessori Model United Nations Conference. Dear Delegates, It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2016 Montessori Model United Nations Conference. The following pages intend to guide you in the research of the topics that will be debated at MMUN

More information

Syria: Humanitarian Disaster and Security Threat

Syria: Humanitarian Disaster and Security Threat Page 1 of 5 Syria: Humanitarian Disaster and Security Threat Author: Elliott Abrams, Senior Fellow for Middle Eastern Studies June 13, 2014 The facts about the humanitarian situation in Syria are well-known:

More information

The Path to a Successful Economic Transition in Egypt

The Path to a Successful Economic Transition in Egypt WORKING FOR SHARED PROSPERITY THE ASSOCIATED PRESS/Ben Curtis The Path to a Successful Economic Transition in Egypt What the United States Can Do to Help Sabina Dewan, James Hairston, and Jordan Bernhardt

More information

Conflicts Middle East

Conflicts Middle East Conflicts Middle East Video Clip-Conflicts- Middle East Persian Gulf War Arab-Israeli War- Israel s War for Independence Sequence of Events Activity First, find a partner Second, empty the contents and

More information

Iranian Parliament. Topic C: Syrian Conflict Response

Iranian Parliament. Topic C: Syrian Conflict Response Iranian Parliament Topic C: Syrian Conflict Response Chair: Andrew Abtahi Moderator: Siddarth Daftary Vice Chairs: Nida Bajwa and Daniel Toubman Crisis Staffers: Coretta Lemaitre, Thomas Key April 10 13,

More information

THE WHITE HOUSE Office of the Press Secretary. Annex to U.S. - Gulf Cooperation Council Camp David Joint Statement

THE WHITE HOUSE Office of the Press Secretary. Annex to U.S. - Gulf Cooperation Council Camp David Joint Statement THE WHITE HOUSE Office of the Press Secretary FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE May 14, 2015 Annex to U.S. - Gulf Cooperation Council Camp David Joint Statement President Obama and Heads of Delegations of the Gulf

More information

RE: No US certification of Egypt government on human rights

RE: No US certification of Egypt government on human rights 14 March 2012 RE: No US certification of Egypt government on human rights The Honorable Hillary Rodham Clinton Secretary of State 2201 C Street NW Washington, DC 20520 Dear Secretary Clinton, Amnesty International

More information

TODAY S MIDDLE EAST Pressures & Challenges

TODAY S MIDDLE EAST Pressures & Challenges research services, llc TODAY S MIDDLE EAST Pressures & Challenges Prepared for the Sir Bani Yas Forum November 2014 Zogby Research Services, LLC Dr. James Zogby Elizabeth Zogby Sarah Hope Zogby 2014 Contents

More information

A New Middle East: Thoughts on a Deterrence Regime against a Nuclear Iran

A New Middle East: Thoughts on a Deterrence Regime against a Nuclear Iran A New Middle East: Thoughts on a Deterrence Regime against a Nuclear Iran Avner Golov Israel s primary concern regarding the interim deal signed between the world powers and Iran is that it has damaged

More information

Results of Palestinian Public Opinion Poll No 25 22-24 January 2006

Results of Palestinian Public Opinion Poll No 25 22-24 January 2006 An-Najah National University Center for Opinion Polls and Survey Studies Tel: (972) (9) 2345113 Fax: (972)(9) 2345982 Nablus Palestinian: P.O.Box 7, 707 Email: Polls@najah.edu hussein596@yahoo.com Results

More information

REPUBLICAN NATIONAL COMMITTEE

REPUBLICAN NATIONAL COMMITTEE REPUBLICAN NATIONAL COMMITTEE CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT CENSUS NATIONAL RESULTS SECTION I - POLITICAL PROFILE Certified April 2015 1. Do you generally identify yourself as a: n Conservative Republican Moderate

More information

Course Description BA Program Political Science Department

Course Description BA Program Political Science Department Course Description BA Program Political Science Department Principles of Political Science 2308101 This course discuss the different definitions of the political science, also it discuss the different

More information

Lecture Outline. Middle East & North Africa. History of Islam. Facts of Islam (p.175-6) More Facts of Islam

Lecture Outline. Middle East & North Africa. History of Islam. Facts of Islam (p.175-6) More Facts of Islam Lecture Outline Middle East & North Africa May 13, 2010 GEOG 1982 Islam History & Facts Distribution Veiling Political Islam Middle East 20 th century history Arab Israeli Conflict Northern Africa History

More information

Palestinian Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI): A Teacher s Guide

Palestinian Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI): A Teacher s Guide Palestinian Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI): A Teacher s Guide By Moshe Abelesz, The Lookstein Center I. Background Information, 1937-1949 In the Middle East there are two peoples struggling

More information

The Military Campaign against the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant: Arab Public Opinion

The Military Campaign against the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant: Arab Public Opinion The Military Campaign against the Islamic State in and the Levant: Arab Public Opinion A coalition of 0 countries led by the United States began air strikes against the group known as the Islamic State

More information

Egypt s Regional Security Policy after the January 25 Revolution

Egypt s Regional Security Policy after the January 25 Revolution PERSPECTIVE FES NEW YORK Egypt s Regional Security Policy after the January 25 Revolution ABDUL-MONEM AL-MASHAT July 2012 After the ousting of the regime of President Mubarak, Egypt s position in the region

More information

Ch. 29 Conflict in the Middle East. Section 2, The Arab-Israeli Conflict

Ch. 29 Conflict in the Middle East. Section 2, The Arab-Israeli Conflict Ch. 29 Conflict in the Middle East Section 2, The Arab-Israeli Conflict Learning Target 7: I can identify and explain at least two (2) causes and at least three (3) effects of the Arab-Israeli conflict.

More information

UNITED NATIONS INTERNATIONAL MEETING IN SUPPORT OF ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN PEACE

UNITED NATIONS INTERNATIONAL MEETING IN SUPPORT OF ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN PEACE UNITED NATIONS INTERNATIONAL MEETING IN SUPPORT OF ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN PEACE The two-state solution: a key prerequisite for achieving peace and stability in the Middle East Moscow, 1 and 2 July 2015 CHECK

More information

Thank you, Ted, for your kind introduction and thanks to our friends at Brookings for inviting me to speak today.

Thank you, Ted, for your kind introduction and thanks to our friends at Brookings for inviting me to speak today. Remarks as Delivered by Ambassador Anne W. Patterson U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern Affairs U.S. Islamic World Forum Doha, Qatar Monday, June 9, 2014 Thank you, Ted, for your kind introduction

More information

Leading the UK Government s strategic response to the Arab Spring The Arab Partnership

Leading the UK Government s strategic response to the Arab Spring The Arab Partnership Leading the UK Government s strategic response to the Arab Spring The Arab Partnership >> The UK s response must reflect the scale and enormity of the changes underway. We must support people of the region

More information

Arab revolutions: Why West was caught off-guard

Arab revolutions: Why West was caught off-guard Arab revolutions: Why West was caught off-guard In early November, Mondial interviewed Ziad Abdel Samad, Executive Director of the Arab NGO Network for Development (ANND, based in Beirut). ANND is a regional

More information

Greater New York WorldQuest 2014. Study Guide. This year s categories focus on the Six Top National Security Issues for the President in 2014, voted

Greater New York WorldQuest 2014. Study Guide. This year s categories focus on the Six Top National Security Issues for the President in 2014, voted Greater New York WorldQuest 2014 Study Guide This year s categories focus on the Six Top National Security Issues for the President in 2014, voted The on and resources chosen listed by the below leaders

More information

Democracy and its Characteristics

Democracy and its Characteristics Transcript Democracy and its Characteristics Democracy and Human Rights Events Series Dr Shirin Ebadi Human Rights Activist and Nobel Laureate (2003) Chair: Christopher Rundle Research Analyst, Foreign

More information

The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria. Idean Salehyan University of North Texas

The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria. Idean Salehyan University of North Texas The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria Idean Salehyan University of North Texas The Caliphate Successors to the Prophet Mohammad Merging of religious and political authority 632-1924 (1292 years!) Ottoman

More information

Leveraging U.S. Power in the Middle East. A Blueprint for Strengthening Regional Partnerships. By the CAP Middle East Team W W W.AMERICANPROGRESS.

Leveraging U.S. Power in the Middle East. A Blueprint for Strengthening Regional Partnerships. By the CAP Middle East Team W W W.AMERICANPROGRESS. NASA Leveraging U.S. Power in the Middle East A Blueprint for Strengthening Regional Partnerships By the CAP Middle East Team October 2016 W W W.AMERICANPROGRESS.ORG Introduction and summary The geopolitical

More information

Teaching Notes Crisis Guide: The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

Teaching Notes Crisis Guide: The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Teaching Notes Crisis Guide: The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict CFR.org s award-winning multimedia Crisis Guide series aims to provide a detailed, tailored resource for the exploration of the world s most

More information

A Six-Day War: Its Aftermath in American Public Opinion

A Six-Day War: Its Aftermath in American Public Opinion A Six-Day War: Its Aftermath in American Public Opinion For 40 years, public opinion has consistently favored Israel over the Palestinians by Robert Ruby, Senior Editor, Pew Forum on Religion & Public

More information

by NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg at the 60th Plenary Session of the NATO Parliamentary Assembly in The Hague

by NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg at the 60th Plenary Session of the NATO Parliamentary Assembly in The Hague NATO''s Parlamentariske Forsamling 2014-15 NPA Alm.del Bilag 4 Offentligt Keynote address by NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg at the 60th Plenary Session of the NATO Parliamentary Assembly in The

More information

Seeking stability: Israel s approach to Middle East and North África - Analysis

Seeking stability: Israel s approach to Middle East and North África - Analysis Seeking stability: Israel s approach to Middle East and North África - Analysis 19.03.2015 Benedetta Berti/ FRIDE- Eurasia Review/ US In its approach to the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region,

More information

Does NATO s Article V Genuinely Protect Its Members?

Does NATO s Article V Genuinely Protect Its Members? Does NATO s Article V Genuinely Protect Its Members? NATO has been the most successful alliance of history. We repeat this truth quite frequently, especially now that we celebrate 60 years of its successful

More information

Summary of 10/4/11 Meeting Middle East Realignment Topic Leader: Tyler Beebe

Summary of 10/4/11 Meeting Middle East Realignment Topic Leader: Tyler Beebe October 10, 2011 To: Katonah Great Decisions Participants From: Fred Piker Discussion Leader Re: Summary of 10/4/11 Meeting Middle East Realignment Topic Leader: Tyler Beebe KICKOFF Welcome and Introduction

More information

A PERFORMANCE-BASED ROADMAP TO A PERMANENT TWO-STATE SOLUTION TO THE ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN CONFLICT

A PERFORMANCE-BASED ROADMAP TO A PERMANENT TWO-STATE SOLUTION TO THE ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN CONFLICT A PERFORMANCE-BASED ROADMAP TO A PERMANENT TWO-STATE SOLUTION TO THE ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN CONFLICT The following is a performance-based and goal-driven roadmap, with clear phases, timelines, target dates,

More information

Speech by Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru in the United Nations General Assembly, New York, December 20, 1956.

Speech by Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru in the United Nations General Assembly, New York, December 20, 1956. Speech by Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru in the United Nations General Assembly, New York, December 20, 1956. Towards A World Community The United Nations has grown in the eleven years of its existence.

More information

Arab Public Opinion and US Presidential Elections 2016

Arab Public Opinion and US Presidential Elections 2016 Arab Public Opinion and US Presidential Elections 2016 November 1, 2016 Arab Center Washington DC (ACW) conducted a public opinion survey in the Arab world in cooperation with the Arab Center for Research

More information

Arab-Israeli Conflict and its Transformation. Dennis Stevens

Arab-Israeli Conflict and its Transformation. Dennis Stevens Arab-Israeli Conflict and its Transformation Dennis Stevens This conflict started with Jewish immigration into Palestine in early 20 th century. It intensified after the establishment of state of Israel

More information

Russia: Speaker of the House Threatens to Destroy the World with Secret "Tsunami-WMD"

Russia: Speaker of the House Threatens to Destroy the World with Secret Tsunami-WMD http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ahfzbqyr2fs Russia: Speaker of the House Threatens to Destroy the World with Secret "Tsunami-WMD" This is an interview that Speaker Zhyrinovsky gave to TV station in Georgia.

More information

THE DEMOCRATIZATION PROCESS IN IRAQ

THE DEMOCRATIZATION PROCESS IN IRAQ THE DEMOCRATIZATION PROCESS IN IRAQ Decades of tyranny, wars and oppression have left the Iraqi society divided, lacking initiative and vulnerable to various sensitivities. Describing the challenges faced

More information

The Plight of Christians in the Middle East. Supporting Religious Freedom, Pluralism, and Tolerance During a Time of Turmoil

The Plight of Christians in the Middle East. Supporting Religious Freedom, Pluralism, and Tolerance During a Time of Turmoil AP PHOTO/HUSSEIN MALLA The Plight of Christians in the Middle East Supporting Religious Freedom, Pluralism, and Tolerance During a Time of Turmoil By Brian Katulis, Rudy deleon, and John Craig March 2015

More information

Timeline Date Title Summary. European External Action Service enters into operation

Timeline Date Title Summary. European External Action Service enters into operation Timeline 01 January 04 January 09-15 January 14 January 25 January 05 February 11 February 16 February 26 February European External Action Service enters into operation Arab Spring begins South Sudan

More information

INTERVIEW WITH ANDERS FOGH RASMUSSEN *

INTERVIEW WITH ANDERS FOGH RASMUSSEN * INTERVIEW WITH ANDERS FOGH RASMUSSEN * In this exclusive interview with TPQ, the Honorable Secretary General provides an overview of the major developments of the past two years in Turkey s neighborhood,

More information

Unit 6. The Cold War ( )

Unit 6. The Cold War ( ) Unit 6. The Cold War (1945-1991) Learning Target 23 Summarize how atomic weapons have changed the nature of war, altered the balance of power and started the nuclear age. Following World War II, the United

More information

U.S. Policy in Afghanistan

U.S. Policy in Afghanistan U.S. Policy in Afghanistan Teaching with the News Online Resource 1 Introduction U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Chad Runge, October 2009. Why are U.S. and NATO forces in Afghanistan?

More information

TUNISIA. United Nations General Assembly. 6o th Session. Speech by Mr. Abdelwaheb Abdallah, Minister of Foreign Affairs. (New York September 19, 2005)

TUNISIA. United Nations General Assembly. 6o th Session. Speech by Mr. Abdelwaheb Abdallah, Minister of Foreign Affairs. (New York September 19, 2005) TUNISIA United Nations General Assembly 6o th Session Speech by Mr. Abdelwaheb Abdallah, Minister of Foreign Affairs CHECK AGAINST DELIVERY (New York September 19, 2005) PERMANENT MISSION OF TUNISIA TO

More information

Arab-Israeli Conflict Map Analysis Activity

Arab-Israeli Conflict Map Analysis Activity Arab-Israeli Conflict Map Analysis Activity Look at the maps of Israel and Palestine from 1517 to 2003. What can we learn about history from looking at these maps? What questions do you have as a result

More information

Israel Today: Realizing the Dream Page 29 Lesson 3 & 4: In Pursuit of Part 1

Israel Today: Realizing the Dream Page 29 Lesson 3 & 4: In Pursuit of Part 1 Core Concept: Israel is in conflict with some of its neighboring states and entities over where it can exist, and with others over whether it should exist at all. Israelis disagree on what steps should

More information

Israeli Strategic Challenges and Opportunities in the New Year

Israeli Strategic Challenges and Opportunities in the New Year Israeli Strategic Challenges and Opportunities in the New Year by Maj. Gen. (res.) Yaakov Amidror BESA Center Perspectives Paper No. 307, September 16, 2015 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Global upheavals are underway,

More information

BRITAIN S SECURITY: LABOUR S DEFENCE POLICY REVIEW. Emily Thornberry MP, Shadow Secretary of State for Defence. January 2016

BRITAIN S SECURITY: LABOUR S DEFENCE POLICY REVIEW. Emily Thornberry MP, Shadow Secretary of State for Defence. January 2016 BRITAIN S SECURITY: LABOUR S DEFENCE POLICY REVIEW Emily Thornberry MP, Shadow Secretary of State for Defence. January 2016 Emily Thornberry, Labour s Shadow Defence Secretary, has been asked by Jeremy

More information

New York Review of Books Syria Michael Ignatieff July 2012

New York Review of Books Syria Michael Ignatieff July 2012 New York Review of Books Syria Michael Ignatieff July 2012 In sixteen months, the Syrian conflict has mutated from an uprising in a few outlying cities into a full- scale civil war. Now it has mutated

More information

U.S. Involvement In the Iran-Iraq War

U.S. Involvement In the Iran-Iraq War U.S. Involvement In the Iran-Iraq War War Background Hoping to take advantage of the chaos of the Iranian Revolution Iraq invaded Iran in Sept. 1980 under their leader Saddam Hussein Iraq was worried

More information

Tuomioja commenced the event by welcoming Mogherini and presenting the theme of the day: Europe and the construction of peace.

Tuomioja commenced the event by welcoming Mogherini and presenting the theme of the day: Europe and the construction of peace. EU as a peacebuilder? 5.3.2015 Eurooppasali, Helsinki Tuomioja commenced the event by welcoming Mogherini and presenting the theme of the day: Europe and the construction of peace. Scepticism about the

More information

Une nouvelle gouvernance mondiale pour le développement durable. The Exhaustion of Sovereignty: International Shaping of Domestic Authority Structures

Une nouvelle gouvernance mondiale pour le développement durable. The Exhaustion of Sovereignty: International Shaping of Domestic Authority Structures Une nouvelle gouvernance mondiale pour le développement durable Taking the Initiative on Global Governance and Sustainable Development Paris, 13-14 avril 2003. The Exhaustion of Sovereignty: International

More information

ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT

ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT THE ROUTLEDGE ATLAS OF THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT 8th Edition Martin Gilbert J Routledge j j j ^ ^ Taylor&.Francis Group LONDON AND NEW YORK Maps PART ONE: PRELUDE TO CONFLICT 1 The Jews of Palestine before

More information

Foreign Policy: War, Peace, and Everything In-between STEP BY STEP

Foreign Policy: War, Peace, and Everything In-between STEP BY STEP Teacher s Guide Foreign Policy: War, Peace, and Everything In-between Time Needed: One Class Period Materials Needed: Student worksheets Transparencies Copy Instructions: Voting Cards (single-sided, class

More information

Separating Facts from Myths. By: Christine Nguyen

Separating Facts from Myths. By: Christine Nguyen Separating Facts from Myths By: Christine Nguyen In the Middle East o The religions of Christianity, Judaism, and Islam were born TRUE! Three of the world's major religions -- the monotheist traditions

More information

Chapter 09 Federal Spending

Chapter 09 Federal Spending Chapter 09 Federal Spending Multiple Choice Questions 1. Federal Spending in 2006 was a. $2.0 billion b. $2.0 trillion c. $2.2 trillion D. $2.8 trillion 2. Federal Spending as a percentage of GDP peaked

More information

MR. WALDMANN: Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I. have a longer statement for the record which I'd like. My name is Ray Waldmann. I'm Vice

MR. WALDMANN: Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I. have a longer statement for the record which I'd like. My name is Ray Waldmann. I'm Vice MR. WALDMANN: Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I have a longer statement for the record which I'd like to submit to the Commission. My name is Ray Waldmann. I'm Vice President for International Affairs for Boeing

More information

SAUDI FOREIGN POLICY "THE POLICY OF PRINCIPLES"

SAUDI FOREIGN POLICY THE POLICY OF PRINCIPLES SAUDI FOREIGN POLICY "THE POLICY OF PRINCIPLES" The Kingdom s Profile Located in the South West of the Asian Continent, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia stretches more than two million Square Kilometers which

More information

Mr. President, Mr. Secretary General, Distinguished Delegates, Ladies and Gentlemen,

Mr. President, Mr. Secretary General, Distinguished Delegates, Ladies and Gentlemen, 1 Mr. Secretary General, Distinguished Delegates, Ladies and Gentlemen, I would like to congratulate His Excellency, the Foreign Minister of Gabon, upon his assumption of the Presidency of the General

More information

The Iraqi Conflict: Its Impact on the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

The Iraqi Conflict: Its Impact on the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict T The Iraqi Conflict: Its Impact on the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict by Eric Rouleau here is a widespread belief in the Arab world and in western pro- Palestinian circles that there is a strong Israeli

More information

Barack Obama surprised and humbled by Nobel Peace Prize

Barack Obama surprised and humbled by Nobel Peace Prize 1 Key words Fill the gaps in the sentences using these key words from the text. sceptical deadline escalate charity inspired breakthrough stable challenge confrontation disarmament 7. 8. 9. 10. 2 A is

More information

UK TRADE & INVESTMENT, DEFENCE & SECURITY ORGANISATION PERFORMANCE REPORT

UK TRADE & INVESTMENT, DEFENCE & SECURITY ORGANISATION PERFORMANCE REPORT UK TRADE & INVESTMENT, DEFENCE & SECURITY ORGANISATION PERFORMANCE REPORT CLOSE DOWN UKTI DSO OUR MISSION End the Uncivil Service The UKTI Defence & Security Organisation (UKTI DSO) is a government unit

More information

June 12-16, 2009 N= 895. All trends are from New York Times/CBS News polls unless otherwise noted. An asterisk indicates registered respondents only.

June 12-16, 2009 N= 895. All trends are from New York Times/CBS News polls unless otherwise noted. An asterisk indicates registered respondents only. z POLL June 12-16, 2009 N= 895 All trends are from New York Times/CBS News polls unless otherwise noted. An asterisk indicates registered respondents only. 1. Do you approve or disapprove of the way Barack

More information

Turkey's Era of Political and Economic Stability

Turkey's Era of Political and Economic Stability WWW.PILDAT.ORG Turkey's Era of Political and Economic Stability Pakistan Institute of Legislative Development And Transparency WWW.PILDAT.ORG Turkey's Era of Political and Economic Stability Pakistan Institute

More information

Nationalistic Movements in SW Asia/Middle East

Nationalistic Movements in SW Asia/Middle East Nationalistic Movements in SW Asia/Middle East Dates of Independence for Nations of SW Asia/Middle East Nationalistic issues of Palestinian Arabs remain unresolved Ottoman Empire Falls Ottoman empire begins

More information

In this interview with Rudaw, the leader of the Syrian National Council (SNC) Burhan Ghalioun says all Syrian parties

In this interview with Rudaw, the leader of the Syrian National Council (SNC) Burhan Ghalioun says all Syrian parties In this interview with Rudaw, the leader of the Syrian National Council (SNC) Burhan Ghalioun says all Syrian parties acknowledge that great injustice has been done to Kurds in Syria over the decades,

More information

US PRESIDENT GEORGE W BUSH S SPEECH IN ABU DHABI, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES 13 JANUARY 2008 (From the White House website)

US PRESIDENT GEORGE W BUSH S SPEECH IN ABU DHABI, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES 13 JANUARY 2008 (From the White House website) US PRESIDENT GEORGE W BUSH S SPEECH IN ABU DHABI, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES 13 JANUARY 2008 (From the White House website) Doctor Aida, thank you very much for the kind introduction. Ministers, members of the

More information

The IHFFC at 25 Reflecting on Our History and Moving Forward April 2016

The IHFFC at 25 Reflecting on Our History and Moving Forward April 2016 The IHFFC at 25 Reflecting on Our History and Moving Forward April 2016 Introduction: With the International Humanitarian Fact-Finding Commission (hereinafter IHFFC ) celebrating its 25 th anniversary,

More information

Passive Support for the Islamic State in the Middle East and North Africa: Evidence from a Survey Experiment

Passive Support for the Islamic State in the Middle East and North Africa: Evidence from a Survey Experiment Passive Support for the Islamic State in the Middle East and North Africa: Evidence from a Survey Experiment Michael Robbins 1 Amaney Jamal 2 Mark Tessler 3 1 Princeton University & University of Michigan

More information

Israel in the Wake of the Arab Spring: Seizing Opportunities, Overcoming Challenges

Israel in the Wake of the Arab Spring: Seizing Opportunities, Overcoming Challenges 1 Israel in the Wake of the Arab Spring: Seizing Opportunities, Overcoming Challenges Elie Podeh and Nimrod Goren May 2013 Introduction The Arab Spring a term referring to the recent revolutions in Tunisia,

More information

Global Arms Trade Treaty s first Conference of States Parties

Global Arms Trade Treaty s first Conference of States Parties AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS August 2015 Global Arms Trade Treaty s first Conference of States Parties After 20 years of determined lobbying and campaigning by Amnesty International and

More information

working group on foreign policy and grand strategy

working group on foreign policy and grand strategy A GRAND STRATEGY ESSAY Moral Hazard and the Obama Doctrine by James Fearon Working Group on Foreign Policy and Grand Strategy www.hoover.org/taskforces/foreign-policy Although his administration is commonly

More information

The Russian Approach to Middle East Conflicts and the Arab World

The Russian Approach to Middle East Conflicts and the Arab World IEMed. Mediterranean Yearbook 2016 28 The Russian Approach to Middle East Conflicts and the Arab World Mark N. Katz Professor of Government and Politics School of Policy, Government and International Affairs,

More information

United Nations Special Mission In Syria Background Guide

United Nations Special Mission In Syria Background Guide United Nations Special Mission In Syria Background Guide Letter From the Chairman Esteemed Delegates, As your president, I would like to welcome you to Alexmun 2016, and the United Nations Special Mission

More information

Educating for Peace on the Korean Peninsula

Educating for Peace on the Korean Peninsula Educating for Peace on the Korean Peninsula Wuna Reilly American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) Dalian, China Presented at the Conference: The Tasks of Peace Education in Asia and the Role of Religions

More information

The question whether democracy causes peace has been the focus of much

The question whether democracy causes peace has been the focus of much The question whether democracy causes peace has been the focus of much investigation in recent years. It has been observed that no democratic state has ever gone to war with another, and the expectation

More information

Obama Sets Plan for 'Leaner' Military

Obama Sets Plan for 'Leaner' Military VOA Special English (voaspecialenglish.com) is our daily news and information service for English learners. Read the story and then do the activities at the end. Obama Sets Plan for 'Leaner' Military Reuters

More information

Status of Foreign Fighters under international and national law

Status of Foreign Fighters under international and national law Status of Foreign Fighters under international and national law Foreign fighters and the question of structural shifts caused by current crises Role of the Security Council: Security council resolution

More information

Russia and the Monetary Fund

Russia and the Monetary Fund Carnegie Mellon University Research Showcase @ CMU Tepper School of Business 1984 Russia and the Monetary Fund Allan H. Meltzer Carnegie Mellon University, am05@andrew.cmu.edu Follow this and additional

More information

TITLE and AFFILIATION: EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT, TURKISH HERITAGE ORGANIZATION (THO)

TITLE and AFFILIATION: EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT, TURKISH HERITAGE ORGANIZATION (THO) NAME: ALI CINAR TITLE and AFFILIATION: EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT, TURKISH HERITAGE ORGANIZATION (THO) COMMITTEE: HOUSE COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN AFFAIRS, SUBCOMMITTEE ON EUROPE, EURASIA AND EMERGING THREATS

More information

FRIEDRICH EBERT STIFTUNG

FRIEDRICH EBERT STIFTUNG THE FRIEDRICH-EBERT-STIFTUNG IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA Dialogue between Societies and Promoting Social Democracy FRIEDRICH EBERT STIFTUNG Development policy is the peace policy of the 21st century.

More information

ANOTHER VIEWPOINT (AVP 18, February 1989) 3845 Buffalo Rd., Auburn, CA SECULARISM: A MISSING FORCE IN MIDDLE EASTERN AFFAIRS. Elias H.

ANOTHER VIEWPOINT (AVP 18, February 1989) 3845 Buffalo Rd., Auburn, CA SECULARISM: A MISSING FORCE IN MIDDLE EASTERN AFFAIRS. Elias H. ANOTHER VIEWPOINT (AVP 18, February 1989) 3845 Buffalo Rd., Auburn, CA 95602-7901 SECULARISM: A MISSING FORCE IN MIDDLE EASTERN AFFAIRS Elias H. Tuma The Middle East has been known for its religions, strong

More information

FOX News/Opinion Dynamics Poll 16 March 06

FOX News/Opinion Dynamics Poll 16 March 06 FOX News/Opinion Dynamics Poll 16 March 06 Polling was conducted by telephone March 14-15, 2006, in the evenings. The total sample is 900 registered voters nationwide with a margin of error of ±3 percentage

More information

Immanuel Kant and the Iraq war Roger Scruton 19-2 - 2004

Immanuel Kant and the Iraq war Roger Scruton 19-2 - 2004 Immanuel Kant and the Iraq war Roger Scruton 19-2 - 2004 The German philosopher Immanuel Kant developed his thought in the era of global conflict sparked by the American and French Revolutions. His response

More information

Number 34 January 2015. Reuters ISRAEL AND THE CHANGING MIDDLE EAST ITAMAR RABINOVICH

Number 34 January 2015. Reuters ISRAEL AND THE CHANGING MIDDLE EAST ITAMAR RABINOVICH Number 34 January 2015 Reuters ISRAEL AND THE CHANGING MIDDLE EAST ITAMAR RABINOVICH I N T R O D U C T I O N Itamar Rabinovich is a Distinguished Fellow at the Center for Middle East Policy at Brookings.

More information

American Issues. The American Presidency

American Issues. The American Presidency American Issues The American Presidency 1 Multiple choice test 1. The two major political parties in the USA are? a) The Republican Party and the American Party b) The Democratic Party and the Republican

More information

Erbil Declaration. Regional Women s Security Forum on Resolution UNSCR 1325

Erbil Declaration. Regional Women s Security Forum on Resolution UNSCR 1325 Erbil Declaration Regional Women s Security Forum on Resolution UNSCR 1325 The Women s Security Forum on Resolution No 1325 for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region concluded its work in Erbil

More information

After the fall of the Berlin wall, the American philosopher Francis Fukuyama concluded

After the fall of the Berlin wall, the American philosopher Francis Fukuyama concluded Liberals must embrace power politics to define the 21 st century. - says LI President Van Baalen After the fall of the Berlin wall, the American philosopher Francis Fukuyama concluded that the only remaining

More information

Costs of Major U.S. Wars

Costs of Major U.S. Wars Order Code RS22926 July 24, 2008 Costs of Major U.S. Wars Stephen Daggett Specialist in Defense Policy and Budgets Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division Summary This CRS report provides estimates

More information

"The European Union's Security Architecture and its role to strengthen Peace and Security"

The European Union's Security Architecture and its role to strengthen Peace and Security Chairman EU Military Committee General Patrick de Rousiers at the 29 th Asia Pacific Round Table in Kuala Lumpur 02 June 2015 "The European Union's Security Architecture and its role to strengthen Peace

More information

Terrorist or freedom fighter or..?

Terrorist or freedom fighter or..? Learning outcomes Students will practice arguing and understanding views which are not necessarily their own Students will gain an understanding of how history can judge events in a different way from

More information

THE FOREIGN POLICY OF MEXICO. Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador President For a Stronger and Better Mexico

THE FOREIGN POLICY OF MEXICO. Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador President For a Stronger and Better Mexico THE FOREIGN POLICY OF MEXICO Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador President For a Stronger and Better Mexico Lopez Obrador believes in the principles of self-determination, cooperation and international peace for

More information

Jason Conger on the Issues

Jason Conger on the Issues Jason Conger on the Issues BUDGET; TAXES; DEFICIT REDUCTION Spending Restraint/Deficit Reduction that ends preferential policy-making in Washington, D.C. Permanent moratorium on pork-barrel projects or

More information

U.S. Export Control Laws

U.S. Export Control Laws U.S. Export Control Laws Holland & Hart International Practice Group Trip Mackintosh July 31, 2001 I. General overview. U.S. export control laws apply to virtually every international transaction. In most

More information