CHANGE DETECTION IN SEDIMENTS OF A RIVER AFFECTED BY ACID MINE DRAINAGE USING AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL HYMAP DATA (RIVER ODIEL, SW SPAIN)

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1 CHANGE DETECTION IN SEDIMENTS OF A RIVER AFFECTED BY ACID MINE DRAINAGE USING AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL HYMAP DATA (RIVER ODIEL, SW SPAIN) BUZZI, J. 1 ; RIAZA, A. 1 ; GARCÍA-MELÉNDEZ, E. 2 ; HOLZWARZ, S. 3 1 IGME (Instituto Geológico y Minero de España), La Calera 1, Tres Cantos, Madrid, Spain. 2 Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales, Universidad de León, Campus de Vegazana s/n, León, Spain. 3 German Aerospace Research Centre, German Remote Sensing Data Center, Imaging Spectroscopy Group, P.O. Box 1116, Wessling, Germany. PNI CGL , CGL /CLI y CGL /CLI 4 th EARSeL Workshop on Remote Sensing and Geology, Mykonos (Greece), 24 th - 25 th April 2012

2 FeS 2(aq) + 15/4 O 2(g) + 7/2 H 2 O (l) Fe(OH) 3(s) + 2 H 2 SO 4(aq) Nordstrom, D.K.; Alpers, C.N.; Ptacek, C.J. and Blowes, D.W., Negative ph and Extremely Acidic Mine Waters from Iron Mountain, California. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2000, 34 (2), pp

3 january 05 february march april may june july august september october november december Precipitation (mm) winter spring summer autumn winter spring summer autumn ( T P 100,00 80, winter 60,00 spring summer authumn winter spring summer authumn 40,00 T 20,00 0,00 ( P winter spring summer authumn winter spring summer authumn ( T P AEMET (Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, Spain), Resumen Anual Climatológico del año 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 y

4 Hematite Fe 2 O 3 Goethite FeO(OH) Ferrihydryte Fe 3+ 2 O3 0.5(H 2 O) PYRITE WEATHERING PRODUCTS Jarosite KFe 3 (SO 4 ) 2 (OH) 6 Alunite KAl 3 (SO 4 ) 2 (OH) 6 Gypsum CaSO 4 2H 2 O Fibroferrite Fe 3+ (SO 4 )(OH) 5(H 2 O) Epsomite MgSO 4 7H 2 O Schwertmannite Fe O 16 (OH) 12 (SO 4) 2 Halotrichite Fe 2+ Al 2 (SO 4 ) 4 22(H 2 O) Rhomboclase HFe 3+ (SO 4 ) 2 4(H 2 O) Pickeringite MgAl 2 (SO 4 ) 4 22(H 2 O) Paracoquimbite Fe 3+ 2 (SO 4 ) 3 9(H 2 O) Copiapite Fe 2+ Fe 3+ 4 (SO 4) 6 (OH) 2 20(H 2 O) Ferricopiapite Fe Fe3+ 4 (SO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 20(H 2 O) Szmolnokite Fe(SO 4 ) H 2 O Rozenite Fe 2+ (SO 4 ) 4(H 2 O) Melanterite Fe 2+ (SO 4 ) 7(H 2 O) CROWLEY, J.K., WILLIAMS, D.E., HAMMARSTROM, J.M., PIATAK, N., CHOU, I-M., MARS, J.C., 2003, Spectral reflectance properties ( µm) of secondary Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulphate-hydrate minerals associated with sulphide-bearing mine wastes. Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis, 3-3, (10).

5 Hymap MNF PPI Masking Flow path Water River sediments n-dv Statistically significant populations of endmembers SAM Spectral library Reference spectral library MAP Diagnosis A. RIAZA, J. BUZZI, E. GARCÍA-MELÉNDEZ, V. CARRÈRE, A. SARMIENTO and A. MÜLLER, 2012, River acid mine drainge: sediment and water mapping through hyperspectral Hymap data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 33:19,

6

7 Boulders Sands Water A. RIAZA, J. BUZZI, E. GARCÍA-MELÉNDEZ, V. CARRÈRE, A. SARMIENTO and A. MÜLLER, 2012, River acid mine drainge: sediment and water mapping through hyperspectral Hymap data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 33:19, Fine sands Mud

8 Head of the river First intense contamination input Sotiel mine site Entrance to the estuary SARMIENTO, A.M., NIETO, J.M., OLÍAS, M., CÁNOVAS, C.R., 2009, Hydrochemical characteristics and seasonal influence on the pollution by acid mine drainage in the Odiel river Basin (SW Spain), Applied Geochemistry 24,

9 LOOKING FOR CRITICAL CONTAMINATION PARAMETERS WHICH ARE SPECTRALLY RELEVANT

10 HEAD OF THE RIVER AEMET (Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, Spain), Resumen Anual Climatológico del año 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 y

11 HEAD OF THE RIVER

12 FIRST INTENSE CONTAMINATION INPUT 2008 Hematite Fe 2 O 3 Goethite FeO(OH) Ferrihydrite Fe 3+ 2O 3 0.5(H 2 O) Jarosite KFe 3 (SO 4 ) 2 (OH) 6 Alunite KAl 3 (SO 4 ) 2 (OH) 6 Gypsum CaSO 4 2H 2 O Fibroferrite Fe 3+ (SO 4 )(OH) 5(H 2 O) Epsomite MgSO 4 7(H 2 O) Schwertmannite Fe 3+ 16O 16 (OH)12(SO 4 ) Halotrichite Fe 2+ Al 2 (SO 4 ) 4 22(H 2 O) Rhomboclase HFe 3+ (SO 4 ) 2 4(H 2 O) Pickeringite MgAl 2 (SO 4 ) 4 22(H 2 O) Paracoquimbite Fe 3+ 2(SO 4 ) 3 9(H 2 O) Copiapite Fe 2+ Fe 3+ 4(SO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 20(H 2 O) Ferricopiapite Fe Fe 3+ 4(SO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 20(H 2 O) Szmolnokite Fe(S0 4 ) H 2 0 Rozenite Fe 2+ (SO 4 ) 4(H 2 O) Melanterite Fe 2+ (SO 4 ) 7(H 2 O)

13 SOTIEL MINE SITE IN THE RIVER BANK

14 2008 ENTRANCE TO THE ESTUARY 2009 Hematite Fe 2 O 3 Goethite FeO(OH) Ferrihydrite Fe 3+ 2O 3 0.5(H 2 O) Jarosite KFe 3 (SO 4 ) 2 (OH) 6 Alunite KAl 3 (SO 4 ) 2 (OH) 6 Gypsum CaSO 4 2H 2 O Fibroferrite Fe 3+ (SO 4 )(OH) 5(H 2 O) Epsomite MgSO 4 7(H 2 O) Schwertmannite Fe 3+ 16O 16 (OH)12(SO 4 ) 2 Halotrichite Fe 2+ Al 2 (SO 4 ) 4 22(H 2 O) Rhomboclase HFe 3+ (SO 4 ) 2 4(H 2 O) Pickeringite MgAl 2 (SO 4 ) 4 22(H 2 O) Paracoquimbite Fe 3+ 2(SO 4 ) 3 9(H 2 O) Copiapite Fe 2+ Fe 3+ 4(SO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 20(H 2 O) Ferricopiapite Fe Fe 3+ 4(SO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 20(H 2 O) Szmolnokite Fe(S0 4 ) H 2 0 Rozenite Fe 2+ (SO 4 ) 4(H 2 O) Melanterite Fe 2+ (SO 4 ) 7(H 2 O)

15 CONCLUSIONS Mineralogical changes respond to climatic parameters, water dynamics, geomorphology and distance to the contamination source. Study of contamination products needs previous mapping of sediments, evaluation of minor topography and relationships with water dynamics. A sequence of mapping algorithms is established to produce a final map. Open questions: The spectral expression of iron hydrated sulphate in mud surfaces and the speed of change within the year. The stability of iron hydroxides and oxides on top of riverbars. The extent of the influence of sea tides on the precipitates over river sediments. The maps related to geomorphology and the influence of climate in the pattern of contaminating minerals precipitated over the river sediments are a solid basis to establish a routine for quantitative and qualitative monitoring of AMD in the river Odiel using hyperspectral Hymap data.

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