1 C02 Financial Accounting Fundamentals Control Accounts Let s consider a more detailed example: Tyrell proves the accuracy of its sales and purchase ledgers by preparing monthly control accounts. At 1 May 2012 the following balances existed in the company's accounting records, and the control accounts agreed: Debit edit $ $ Sales ledger control account 188,360 2,140 Purchase ledger control account ,410 The following are the totals of transactions which took place during May 2012, as extracted from the company's records. $ edit sales 101,260 edit purchases 68,420 Returns inwards 9,160 Returns outwards 4,280 Cash received from customers 91,270 Cash discounts allowed 1,430 Contra settlements 480 At 31 May 2012 the balances on the customers and supplier personal accounts were extracted and totalled as follows: Debit balances edit balances $ $ Sales ledger To be ascertained 2,680 Purchase ledger 90 To be ascertained An initial attempt to balance the two ledgers showed that neither of them agreed with their control accounts. The differences were found to be due to the following: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) A credit balance of $680 had been omitted when listing the sales ledger personal accounts, A contra settlement of $500 had not been included in the totals of transactions prepared for the control accounts, A new employee had mistakenly entered five sales invoices into the purchases day book as if they had been purchase invoices and entered the amounts to new supplier personal accounts. The total of these invoices was $1,360. A $20 cash refund to a customer was made, and has not been included in the summary of transactions given above. The $20 was entered to the customer s personal account as if it had been a cash receipt from the customer, and this resulted in a $40 credit balance on the account, which was still outstanding at 31 May When these errors had been corrected both control accounts agreed with the personal accounts.
2 Required: Calculate the closing debit balance on the sales ledger control account and the closing credit balance on the purchase ledger control account together with the balance at 1 May 2012 on the list of balances for each ledger. Start by setting up the pro-forma reconciliations Sales Ledger Control Account Balance b/d 188,360 Balance b/d 2,140 List of balances? Purchase Ledger Control Account Balance b/d 120 Balance b/d 89,410 List of balances? Next enter the transaction from the list for May 2012 edit sales 101,260 edit purchases 68,420 Returns inwards 9,160 Returns outwards 4,280 Cash received from customers 91,270 Cash discounts allowed 1,430 Contra settlements 480
3 Sales Ledger Control Account Balance b/d 188,360 Balance b/d 2,140 edit sales 101,260 Returns inwards 9,160 Cash received from customers 91,270 Cash discounts allowed 1,430 Contra with purchase ledger 480 Purchase Ledger Control Account Balance b/d 120 Balance b/d 89,410 Returns outwards 4,280 edit purchases 68,420 Contra with sales ledger 480 Now lets consider each one of the adjustments in turn (i) A credit balance of $680 had been omitted when listing the sales ledger personal accounts, This error will result in the total of credit balances on the personal accounts being lower than they should be. At present this balance was given to us at $2,680. We must now increase this amount by the missing $680 and revise the balance c/d for the control account. The closing balance is revised to $3,360 (ii) A contra settlement of $500 had not been included in the totals of transactions prepared for the control accounts, A contra is treated as a settlement in both control accounts so it must be adjusted in both the sales ledger control account and the purchase ledger control account. Notice that the list of balances is not mentioned and so we assume that they have already been recorded there.
4 (iii) A new employee had mistakenly entered five sales invoices into the purchases day book as if they had been purchase invoices and entered the amounts to new purchase ledger personal accounts. The total of these invoices was $1,360. As the employee has entered the sales invoices incorrectly in the purchase day book it means that both the control accounts and the list of balances will be affected. Individual invoices are recorded in the day books and the personal accounts at the same time so if an error is made in the day book it will be repeated in the personal accounts. The total of the day book is then taken to the control account so if the individual entries are incorrect, the total is incorrect and the control accounts need to be adjusted. In this case credit sales and the personal accounts of the customers balance must be increased and credit purchases and the personal accounts of the suppliers must be reduced. (iv) A $20 cash refund to a customer was made, and has not been included in the summary of transactions given above. The $20 was entered to the customer s personal account as if it had been a cash receipt from the customer this has resulted in a $40 credit balance on the account, which was still outstanding at 31 May This is a complex adjustment as it affects many things. To record a cash refund the journal would be: (Increase) Personal account $20 (Reduce) Cash $20 Instead they have recorded a cash receipt (Increase) Cash $20 (Reduce) Personal account $20 This has created a credit balance of $40 in a personal account that doesn t exist so it needs to be removed from the closing credit balances in the sales ledger control account. The revised balance is now $3,320 (3,360-40). The cash refund also needs to be included in our sales ledger control account as we have not yet recorded it due to its omission from the transactions list given in the question above. The figure to be adjusted is the original $20.
5 The reconciliations will now be as follows: Sales Ledger Control Account Balance b/d 188,360 Balance b/d 2,140 edit sales 101,260 Returns inwards 9,160 edit sales (omitted invoices) (iii) 1,360 Cash received from customers 91,270 Cash(cash refund)(iv) 20 Cash discounts allowed 1,430 Contra with purchase ledger 480 Contra adjustment (ii) 500 Balance c/d (Insert from adj iv above) 3,320 Balance c/d (Balancing figure) 188, , ,320 Balance b/d 188,880 Balance b/d 3,320 $ List of balances At 1 May 2012? Omitted credit balance (680) Sales invoices omitted 1,360 Cash refund error 40 At 31 May 2012 (188,880-3,320) 185,560 Purchase Ledger Control Account Balance b/d 120 Balance b/d 89,410 Returns outwards 4,280 edit purchases 68,420 Contra with sales ledger 480 Contra adjustment (ii) 500 Sales invoices error (iii) 1,360 Balance c/d (Balancing figure) 78,460 Balance c/d (Insert from question) , ,920 Balance b/d 90 Balance b/d 78,460 $ List of balances At 1 May 2012?
6 Sales invoices error (1,360) At 31 May 2012 (78,460 90) 78,370 The final stage is to work backwards from the balance at 31 May 2012 to 1 May 2012 for each of the list of balances. From the last statement made in the question When these errors had been corrected both control accounts agreed with the personal accounts. This means that we can take the net balance from the control accounts and work backwards to the opening balances for the list of balances. Sales ledger list of balances $ Purchase ledger list of balances $ At 1 May ,840 At 1 May ,730 Omitted credit balance (680) Sales invoices error (1,360) Sales invoices omitted 1,360 Cash refund error 40 At 31 May 2012 (188,880-3,320) 185,560 At 31 May 2012 (78,460 90) 78,370 Now let s try some shorter questions closer to what you ll see in your exam. 1. A sales ledger control account had a closing balance of $8,500. It contained a contra to the purchase ledger of $400, but this had been entered on the wrong side of the sales ledger control account. The correct balance on the control account should be? The contra transaction should have been recorded as: Purchase ledger control account $400 Sales ledger control account $400 But has actually been recorded as Sales ledger control account $400 Purchase ledger control account $400 This means that total receivables has been over stated by 2 $400 ($800), and should therefore be $7,700 rather than $8,500.
7 2. In a sales ledger control account, which of the following lists consists ONLY of items that would be recorded on the credit side of the account? A B C D edit sales, cash refunds to customers, irrecoverable debts written off, discounts allowed. Cash received from customers, discounts allowed, interest charged on overdue accounts, irrecoverable written off. edit sales, cash refunds to customers, interest charged on overdue accounts, contras against amounts due to suppliers in the purchases ledger. Cash received from customers, returns inwards, irrecoverable debts written off, contras against amounts due to suppliers in the purchases ledger. Using the pro-forma above work though each combination eliminating incorrect answers until you have the right answer. Look at all four solutions before you make your decision A B C D edit sales are a debit wrong Interest charged is a debit SLCA Interest received wrong edit sales, cash refunds, interest charged all debits - wrong Cash received, returns inwards, irrecoverable debts and contras are all credits - CORRECT! 3. The sales day book has been overcast by $400 and the purchase day book has been under cast by $550. Purchase and sales ledger control accounts are maintained as part of the double entry bookkeeping system. Which of the following will be the effect of correcting these errors? A adjust control accounts, with no effect on profit B adjust control accounts, with a decrease in profit of $950 C adjust personal accounts of the individual customer and suppliers, with no effect on profit D adjust personal accounts of the individual customer and suppliers, with a decrease in profit of $950. Firstly let s think about the impact on profit. If the sales day book is over cast that means there are too many sales recorded and profit will need to be reduced. If the purchases day book is under cast that means there are too few purchases and so profit will be reduced again. This will reduce profit by a total of $950 so answers that say no impact on profit - A & C must be WRONG. The fact that it is the totals of the day books that are incorrect not the individual entries means that the personal accounts will be fine but the control accounts must be adjusted so the ANSWER is B.
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