1 Emission inventory system in Latvia Agita Gancone Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre September, Ankara
2 Content Some information about Latvia, Legal background; Roles; Resources; Practical examples (key categories, uncertainties); Trends; Projections.
3 Some facts about Latvia Total area: 64,589 km 2 Population: 2.3 million Capital: Rīga (population 0.8 million with district) EU Candidate Country1997 EU Member State since 2004
4 Legal background Nationally approved Regulations: Action program on total air emission reduction (2007); No 419 Total national emission ceilings for air (on 31 May 2011) previously No 507, on 9 September 2003; No 157 Greenhouse gas emission inventory national system (on 17 February 2009).
5 Regulations define: the institutions that are responsible for air and GHG inventory preparation; the designation of an institutions controlling the QA/QC procedures; reporting process.
6 National Inventory System for 2011 submission Submissions under: MEPRD* (General coordination and approving) NEC; CLRTAP; UNFCCC; EC Monitoring Mechanism GHG inventory Approving by: Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) Ministry of Transport (MoT) Ministry of Health GHG inventory Quality assurance Independent experts LEGMC ** GHG, NEC, CLRTAP inventories coordination, compilation, uploading in EIONET CDR, emission calculation for Energy, Industrial Processes, Solvent and Other Product Use, Agriculture and Waste sectors. Latvian State Forest Research Institute "Silava" in collaboration with Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) Emission and removal calculations for the LULUCF sector Institute of Physical Energetics (according to agreement with MEPRD) Calculates emissions for Transport sector The main data suppliers: -) Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia; -) State Firefighting & Rescue Service, -) State Agency of Medicine; -) Road Traffic Safety Department; -) Operators (inter alia, information collected in databases 2-AIR, 3- Waste, 2- Water ; Register of Chemical Substances/Chemical Products) -) EC ETS Data Researches by local experts a/s Latvijas Gāze Calculations of natural gas (methane) fugitive emissions *Ministry of the Environmental Protection and Regional Development **Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre GHG Inventory Control for Quality Assurance Air and GHG Inventory Control for Quality Assurance Process of Inventory Preparation NEC, CLRTAP, GHG inventory submission
7 Responsibility of Institutions  The Latvian Ministry of the Environmental Protection and Regional Development is responsible for: Informing the inventory compilers about the requirements of the national system; Formal agreements with inventory experts regarding Transport sector and for experts that evaluate quality assurance process; Final checking and approving the inventory before official submission to the EC, CLRTAP and UNFCCC.
8 Responsibility of Institutions  Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre: prepares final Air Pollutant Inventory and Greenhouse Gas Inventories; coordinates the overall inventory preparation process together with MEPRD; collects an activity data - activity data are mainly collected from other institutions and LEGMC uses it to calculate emissions; prepares the emission estimates for the Energy, Industrial Processes, Agriculture, Waste; prepares sectoral parts of the IIR and NIR and compiles the final IIR and NIR; fills in the sectoral data to the NFR and CRF Reporter (for relevant sectors); prepares QC procedures; documents and archives the prepared inventories.
9 Responsibility of Institutions  Central Statistical Bureau (CSB) is the main data supplier for the Latvian Air and GHG emission inventories. Latvian State Forest Research Institute "Silava in collaboration with Ministry of the Agriculture are responsible for emission calculations for the LULUCF sector. Institute of Physical Energetic (FEI) calculates emissions for Transport sector according to agreement with MEPRD.
10 Deadlines and process of inventory Reporting under CLRTAP - IIR preparation  Reporting under NEC NFR + short IIR Reporting under CLRTAP - NFR March-April-May June-July-August September- October November- December January- February Collection of data from Statistics (Energy balance, number of livestock etc.) Documentation, archiving Comments/Answers on submitted inventory (EC, CLRTAP) Inventory compilation: Consideration of methodological changes; Emission calculation QA/QC Collection of enterprises data in national databases regarding used water amounts and emissions, wastes amounts and emissions in air Preparation of IIR NEC: LEGMC till 15 December send to the MEPRD data in NFR and short information (IIR) for approval; After approving of data LEGMC uploaded information in the EIONET CDR MEPRD till 31 December electronically send notification to EC about uploading of NEC data as well as informed EC through the Permanent Representation. CLRTAP: LEGMC compiles NFR (till 5 of February), IIR (till 28 of February) and send to the MEPRD for approving. After approving LEGMC send to CLRTAP secretariat, EC NFR tables and IIR. LEGMC uploaded NFR tables, IIR in the EIONET CDR. If information regarding NEC changed MEPRD electronically sent to EC notification about uploaded corrected data.
11 Process of inventory preparation  Example: Annual Governmental statistical report 2-Air (emissions from stationary sources) - for NEC, CLRTAP and GHG data only from biggest facilities is used as data quality is low! Data reporting The operator of facility of pollution who has a pollution permit have to report on the activities related to pollution of the ambient air: Once a year; Web-based reporting system FIBU (air emission data system for the stationary sources https://arcims.lvgma.gov.lv:8081/gaiss/code/index.php Data about operator and 6 tables: facility characteristics; limited and actual emissions, exhaust gases removal efficiency in the treatment plants, fuel use, and working duration.
12 Process of inventory preparation  Example: Annual Governmental statistical report 2 - Air 1. submit once a year 2-Air On - line reporting system FIBU 3.import Operator (installations) 2. review Public (Operators which have pollution permits, are filling the Reports forms No 2 Air ) State environmental service Regional environmental board
13 Process of inventory preparation  Inventory activities include: Planning; Preparation; Management. In the first stage (October) specific responsibilities are defined and allocated, for example: how data will be filed in the NFR (Experts enter data in the NFR by sending each other - in a circle to avoid copying errors); In the second stage (October, November, December) the inventory compilation process.
14 Process of inventory preparation  Latvia s emissions inventory is based on the EMEP/EEA 2009, IPCC 1996 and IPCC GPG 2000 methodologies. NFR format is used for emission and data reporting. To calculate emissions, supplemental locally developed database in Excel format was used for all sectors except Road Transport. A special Computer Programme for Road Transportation (COPERT IV) was used. National researches (average N excretions per head of animal, distribution different manure management systems, etc) are used.
15 Key source  The Key source analysis for 1990 and 2009 years was done by LEGMC according to EMEP/EEA 2009 Level and Trend assessment. The lists of the Key source analysis emission sources that contributed to 95 % of the total national emissions are reported. The Key source analysis was performed for each reported pollutant separately in the Excel format with the links to actual data files.
16 Key source  Example of calculation of NOx key sources
17 Uncertainties The calculation of uncertainty estimates was made according to the Tier 1 method presented by the EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2009 (EMEP/EEA 2009) in Excel format with the links to actual data files; The Tier 1 method is based on emission estimates and uncertainty coefficients for activity data and emission factors; Uncertainty coefficients have been assigned based on expert judgement or on default uncertainty estimates according to EMEP/EEA 2009 Table 3-1 Indicative error ranges for uncertainty analysis (http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-emission-inventory-guidebook- 2009/part-a-general-guidance-chapters/5-uncertainties-tfeip-endorsed-draft.pdf); For each source, the uncertainty for activity data and emission factors was estimated and given in per cent; Uncertainties are estimated only for main pollutants - NOx, CO, NMVOC, SOx and NH 3; The overall uncertainty for NOx is 75%, for CO 104%, for NMVOC 90%, for SOx 67.7% and for NH %. The trend uncertainty is calculated for NOx 39%, for CO 84%, for NMVOC 80%, for SOx 12.8% and for NH %; Uncertainties for these pollutants are high basically due to use default emission factors.
18 Example of calculation of NOx uncertainties
19 Quality Assurance/Quality Control  Quality Control (QC) - is a system of routine technical activities, to measure and control the quality of the inventory as it is being developed. The QC system is designed to: Provide routine and consistent checks to ensure data correctness and completeness; Identify and address errors and omissions; Document and archive inventory material. QC activities include general methods such as accuracy checks on data acquisition and calculations and the use of approved standardized procedures for emission calculations, measurements, estimating uncertainties, archiving information and reporting. These activities are implemented by sector experts and national inventory compiler. Before submitting data to CEIP/EEA NFR formats have to been checked with RepDab and compared with GHG inventory.
20 Quality Assurance/Quality Control  Quality assurance (QA) - activities include a planned system of review procedures conducted by personnel not directly involved in the inventory compilation/development process. In the inventory preparation process, general quality control procedures have been applied. Some specific quality control procedures related to check of activity data and emission factors was carried out. Before submitting data and IIR to CEIP/EEA they were approved by The Ministry of the Environmental Protection and Regional Development.
21 Quality Assurance/Quality Control  The following Quality control (QA/QC) activities were carried out in the inventory preparation process: Processing; Handling; Documentation; Recalculations; Cross checking. Each year inventory is archived and it is possible regenerate information.
22 Air pollutants emission trends The emission estimates of air pollutants in Latvia include following emissions sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, non-methane volatile organic compounds, ammonia, particulates (TSP, PM 10, PM 2.5 ), heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, chromium, copper, nickel, vanadium, zinc), PAHs, PCBs and DIOX. Judging from the present trends, Latvia can meet these international commitments without any additional options for SO x emissions. Latvia will be able to meet NO x international commitments for 2010 with currently projected development rate.
23 Gg NH3; CO Gg Emission trends  SO 2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH 3 emissions in (Gg) The large fluctuation is explained with sharp developmentt of 2A5 and 2A6 sectors road construction activities that were influenced by Latvia s orientation to join European Union and the fact 500 that Latvia became a Member state of European Union in the May of and financial resources of EU became available to Latvia NOx (as NO2) NMVOC SOx (as SO2) NH3 CO
24 Emission trends  SO 2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH 3 emissions in 2009 (Gg) Most of the SO2 emissions were from Cement production (2A1 43%), then Public electricity and heat production (1A1a 18%); The biggest part of NOx emissions come from Transport (1A3biii 25%; 1A3bi 12%); Agriculture is general source for NH3 emissions (4D1a-31%; 4B1a-22%); Residential sector is the main generator of NMVOC and CO 52% and 69% respectively, then Road paving with asphalt with 20%.
25 Mg Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Mg Emission trends  Emissions of heavy metals in (Mg) Cd Hg As Cr Se Cu Ni Pb Zn
26 Projections  Previously the data and emission projections are being prepared based on contract (MEPRD with certain institution). Now the institutions involved in preparation of projection as well as roles are determined according to new regulation (No 419, 2011 ).
27 Projections  For Energy - the MARKAL model, which describes the whole energy supply system is used. MARKAL is an optimization model, which usually describes development of a particular energy branch during a period of years on the national or regional model depending on the input data. Results obtained with MARKAL model depend on input parameters and algorithm of the model. The main paradigms of the model are the perfect market (competitive partial equilibrium) and visibility of development of technologies during a period of several decades.
28 Projections  The structure of the model is adapted, so that emissions can be calculated not only based upon the type of fuel, but also based upon the sector and corresponding technologies, which is important for NMVOC and NOx calculations. For the performance of diverse analysis the energy and environment system analysis tool has been created and is based upon the structure of the Latvian energy, possible future technologies, emissions reduction possibilities and energy development scenarios, taking into account the following: The environment factor - NOx, SO2, NMVOC, GHG emissions restrictions; Broader use of renewable and local resources - a bigger share of RES in the total national electricity demand; broader use of wood in district heating production; Emissions reduction possibilities by implementing energy efficiency measures; Security of electricity supply in the country - import of electricity; Regional trade possibilities - electricity and emissions markets; Uncertainty factor of emissions reduction goals.
29 Projections  For Transport - A set of models consisting of two individual models was used for projecting fuel consumption and emissions. For quantitative and qualitative projection of the fleet of vehicles dynamic model is applied. The results obtained from it then are used for projecting of fuel consumption and emissions. COPERT model is used for projections.
30 Projections  For industrial processes the combined method of time lines and impact of macroeconomic indices was applied. For agriculture the long-term macroeconomic projection and trends in relation to the projected amount of production in each individual sub-sector of agriculture was used. For waste disposal and composting, amounts from State planning documents are used. For wastewater management - on population and production projections are based.
31 Main problems One team for Air and GHG inventories a lot of work in small period; Restriction of financial resources for national researches.
32 Teşekkürler! Paldies! Thank you for your attention! A.Gancone LEGMC
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