# Fixed vs Flexible Exchange Rate Regimes

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1 Fixed vs Flexible Exchange Rate Regimes Review fixed exchange rates and costs vs benefits to devaluations. Exchange rate crises. Flexible exchange rate regimes: Exchange rate volatility.

2 Fixed exchange rate regime: In the medium run, the real exchange rate is determined by the relative price of foreign to domestic goods, regardless of regime. With flexible exchange rates, the nominal exchange rate adjusts to bring the real exchange rate into line. With fixed exchange rates, the domestic price level adjusts to bring the real exchange rate into line.

3 AD with fixed E Aggregate demand: Y = C(Y-T) + I(Y,r) + G + NX(Y,Y*,e) where: r = i π e and e=ep*/p. Fixed exchange rate: E = E, i = i* So that: Y = C(Y-T) + I(Y, i* π e ) + G + NX(Y,Y*,EP*/P)

4 AD-AS With fixed exchange rates, AD curve implies a negative relationship between output and the price level: Y = Y(EP*/P,G,T) As P falls, real exchange rate depreciates and net-exports rise. This increase output. AS is unchanged by open economy considerations: P = P e (1+ m) F(1-Y/L,z)

5 Adjustment Suppose Y=Y n and we have a fiscal expansion: AD shifts out. Short-run: Output increases Price level increases. Exchange rate appreciates and net exports fall. Adjustment: Output above the natural rate (Y>Y n ) we have P> P e P e rises and AS curve shifts up. Price level continues to rise, real exchange rate appreciates further and net exports continue to fall. Medium run: Output unchanged. Price level has risen and exchange rate has fallen (appreciated). Real and nominal interest rates remain unchanged. Result: budget deficit leads to trade deficit rather than domestic crowding out.

6 A word of caution: Govt can t run a budget deficit forever. A country can t run a trade deficit forever. Plausible scenario: Increase in govt. spending through budget deficits today is offset by higher taxes in the future. Increased trade deficit today is offset by trade surpluses in the future.

7 Recessions and Devaluations: If output below natural rate, a country has an incentive to abandon the peg and devalue the currency. Expectations of devaluation make things worse in short-run. If country expected to devalue then the only way to maintain the peg is to raise short-term nominal interest rates. Output contracts even further making the devaluation more likely.

8 Currency misalignments and devaluations Suppose a country fixes its exchange rate. If inflation rates between countries differ then the real exchange rate may drift and the nominal exchange rate may be overvalued. Given enough time, prices and inflation rates should adjust. In the meantime, net exports are low however. An alternative is to devalue the currency.

9 Post WWI Britain and the Gold Standard Britain on gold standard equivalent to fixed exchange rate. Britain abandons gold standard during war to pay for war debts through money creation. Post war: prices have risen in Britain relative to other countries. Govt. insists on returning to gold standard at pre-war parity. This is a large real appreciation. Keynes s prediction: adverse economic effects owing to overvalued exchange rate ``money wages in Britain are too high at current exchange rate Result: Britain grew slower than rest of Europe during 1920 s.

10 Exchange rate crises: Suppose expectations of a devaluation rise. Two possibilities Raise interest rates enough that investors are willing to hold currency despite expected devaluation -- this may cause severe damage to the economy. Raise interest rates some but not all the way: in this case, holders of domestic currency still try sell the currency and central bank is forced to buy own currency by selling foreign reserves. Self-fulfilling crises: In either case, speculators may test govt. resolve and attack the currency. Even those not inclined to speculate may sell. If foreign reserves are low, peg can t be maintained and currency is devalued anyway. Result: Expectations of a devaluation may precipitate the devaluation This is the FX equivalent to a bank-run.

11 EMS crisis: Pre-crisis: European countries fixed exchange rates (with bands) in Realignments in first few years but only two from German reunification put pressure on exchange rates and precipitates a crisis. Sept 1992 crisis: Speculators sell currencies in anticipation of devaluation. Scandinavia pushes overnight rates up to 500% on annual basis to defend currency. Britain loses large amount of foreign reserves before abandoning. Results: Italy and Britain abandon EMU with exchange rates depreciations on the order of 15%. Other countries (France) maintain peg but suffer high interest rates and large losses in reserves.

12 Flexible exchange rates Exchange rate today determined by expected path of domestic and foreign nominal interest rates and expected future exchange rate. Small variations in interest rates today can lead to large fluctuations in exchange rates. Changes in expected future trade balances can also have a large effect on current exchange rates. Bottom line: under a flexible exchange rate system, exchange rates can be highly volatile and hard to predict.

13 Benefits to flexible rates: Monetary policy can be used to stabilize the economy. Given nominal price rigidities, flexible exchange rates help economy adjust more quickly. The cost is high volatility of exchange rate Note: import-export quantities not as volatile as prices however. In most situations, benefits outweigh costs and flexible rates are more desirable than fixed rates.

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