The Andersons Research Grant Program Regular Competition

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1 2015_003_RC Proposal No. The Andersons Research Grant Program Regular Competition Project Title: Evaluating Sealing Quality of Grain Storage Bins Combined with Appropriate Phosphine Application Strategy to Minimize Insect Resistance in U.S. Principal Investigator(s) Name Institution/Agency/Other Carol Jones Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK Mark Casada USDA-ARS, CGAHR, Manhattan, KS Rumela Bhadra Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS Frank Arthur USDA-ARS, CGAHR, Manhattan, KS Ronaldo Maghirang Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS Brian Adam Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK Dirk Maier Iowa State University, Ames, IA Samuel Cook Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS (Attach an additional sheet if more space is needed.) Project Contact (list one person to act as the primary contact): Name: Carol Jones Address: Oklahoma State University 212 Ag Hall, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Stillwater, Oklahoma Phone: ; Fax: Period of Proposed Project Dates: Beginning: 01/01/2016 Ending: 12/31/2017 Amount Requested (maximum $25,000 per year for two years): Year 1: $25,000, Year 2: $25,000

2 Problem Identification and Related Research Phosphine is currently the most widely used fumigant for controlling insects in stored grain. Improving the safety, effectiveness, and economic return of phosphine fumigations is important to ensure its continued use. Fumigation safety is a concern to employees and neighbors of rural grain elevators, some of which are becoming urbanized. Conventional methods of phosphine fumigation put people in close proximity to danger. Ineffective fumigations, which are usually caused by inadequate grain bin sealing, increase grain losses and contribute extensively to the development of pesticide resistance in stored grain pests (Lorini et al., 2007). The overall goals of best fumigation management are to develop and deploy methods to improve safety and decrease the amount of fumigant required while ensuring the effectiveness of the fumigation. Some conventional phosphine fumigation methods are probe and tarp, automatic dispenser, and gravity fumigation (Kenkel et al., 1993; Noyes et al., 1995). Phosphine is usually applied to grain as aluminum or magnesium phosphide in pellet or tablet form. The pellets/tablets react with water vapor in the air to produce phosphine gas. Phosphine is also available in gaseous form mixed with carbon dioxide which can be directly injected into a grain storage bin. In the probe and tarp method, about three-quarters of the fumigant dosage is inserted with a probe one to five feet below the surface of the grain mass (Noyes et al., 1995). The remaining fumigant is placed in aeration ducts in the base of the structure. Tarps are applied to partially filled bins to limit the fumigated volume and minimize leakage. In probe and tarp fumigation, workers must enter the grain bin and are exposed to entrapment hazards and fumigants during the process. Labor expenses make up one-half to two-thirds of the total fumigation costs. Automatic dispensers are commonly used in concrete facilities to add phosphine in solid form to the grain as it is turned. During application, phosphide pellets/tablets may spill from buckets and release phosphine gas in unwanted areas. Electrical and labor costs required to turn the grain and the resulting grain shrinkage due to handling contribute to fumigation costs (Noyes et al., 1995). In gravity fumigation diffusion is count on to distribute phosphine gas throughout the grain mass. There is little or no control of where gas may go during fumigation. Each of these conventional methods offers increased risk of exposure during insertion of fumigant into the grain and the distribution of phosphine is often suboptimal. Leaks in the grain storage bin and foreign material in the grain can lead to regions of insufficient concentration of fumigant. Gaseous phosphine must be maintained at sufficient concentration and duration to ensure an effective treatment. The entomologically lethal phosphine dose varies for different pests, geography and conditions. A concentration of 200 ppmv for 100 hours is the guideline to kill common stored wheat pests in Oklahoma (Noyes and Phillips, 2004) and in Kansas. It is virtually impossible to completely seal existing grain storage bins so that some phosphine does not leak out over the course of the fumigation. When sufficient levels of phosphine are not maintained for the duration required to eradicate all life stages of insects, the surviving insects can then re-colonize the grain. Furthermore, the surviving insects are likely to be the most resistant members of the population. Incomplete fumigations are a significant cause of development of phosphine resistance that has been reported in stored grain pests (Benhalima et al., 2004; Lorini et al., 2007). Resistance to phosphine is a critical concern for grain storage managers because few alternative pesticides are available. A safer and more effective alternative to traditional fumigation practices is the use of closed loop fumigation (CLF) systems in sealed grain bins because of its uniform distribution of phosphine 1

3 throughout the bin (Jones et al., 2011). The first step to design a CLF bin system is ensure appropriate flow rate of the fumigant and air in the sealed bins. The typical CLF system uses a small fan and duct system to recirculate fumigant in the grain storage bin by drawing it out of the headspace and injecting it back into the bottom of the grain storage bin. The fumigant rises up through the grain until it enters the headspace where the cycle repeats. Jones et al. (2011) recommended CLF airflow rates between to CFM/bushel of grain and resulting air exchange times from 0.8 to 4.2 hours. These air flow rates are much lower than the typical rates recommendation for aeration cooling of grain, and these low air flow rates reduce pressure differentials across the grain levels, reducing leakage of the fumigants. The CLF system is operated until the tablets/pellets are completely reacted. After several cycles through the grain storage bin the fumigant is evenly distributed. The CLF fan is then run periodically over the course of the fumigation to maintain a uniform concentration throughout the grain storage bin. Recommended CLF flow rates of to m 3 /min per m 3 grain (0.002 to cfm/bu) provide several air changes through the grain storage bin per day to provide sufficient mixing in the usual time that phosphine pellets/tablets react (Noyes et al., 2002). CLF systems have been shown to distribute fumigant evenly throughout a grain storage bin to ensure that all areas of the bin are treated, allowing more even distribution of phosphine in the bins (Kenkel et al., 1993; Noyes et al., 1995). Although phosphine is chemically stable at the conditions inside a grain storage bin and diffusion through the envelope of the structure is generally of negligible concern, the major loss of phosphine is through leakage from the structure through cracks and other openings. Pressure from wind and thermal buoyancy are the primary forces that drive the exchange of fumigant with the air outside the structure (Cryer, 2008).. Wind velocity, direction, and the presence of other structures all affect the pressure distribution on the grain storage bin, and in turn, influence leakage (Banks et al., 1983). CLF systems produce a pressure differential across the grain mass that can significantly contribute to leakage in a grain bin that is not sufficiently sealed. Wind and thermal effects on fumigant loss from structures has been studied using Computational fluid dynamics models. Research with these models indicates that weather parameters are the major factors in predicting fumigant loss from the structure (Cryer, 2008; Chayaprasert and Maier, 2010). The models incorporate simplified parametric leakage constructs to represent actual openings in the structure. These allow for computational efficiency but reduce the utility of the model for grain storage bin managers in predicting fumigant dose. The average phosphine concentration inside a grain bin during fumigation can be adequately predicted using integrated form of first-order kinetics according to equation 1 (Steinfeld et al., 1998): [PH 3 ] = [PH 3 ] o e kt = [PH 3 ] o e ln(0.5)t/hlt (1) where [PH 3 ] o is the initial concentration of phosphine at the start of fumigation, t (h) is time, k (h - 1 ) is the first order fumigant decay constant, and HLT is the half-loss time. The fumigant decay constant, k, can be estimated by measuring the concentration of phosphine over time during a fumigation using equation 1. The time it takes for the fumigant concentration to drop to half of the initial value is called the half-loss time (HLT). The primary control over fumigant leakage that an elevator manager has is to thoroughly seal the openings in the grain storage bin. Sealing of a grain bin can be divided into permanent and temporary sealing. Permanent sealing remains on the bin while temporary sealing is installed at the start of fumigation and is removed to allow 2

4 routine access to the bin and grain. Casada and Noyes (2001) recommended that the following areas be sealed for fumigation treatments: roof to sidewall eave joints, vents, hatches, access doors, aeration fans intakes, downspouts, and conveyor fill points. The effectiveness of permanent and temporary sealing varies with workmanship and may degrade over time due to weathering, wear or physical damage. This degradation or failure of bin sealing often goes undetected and does result in suboptimal fumigations. Visual inspections of commercial scale grain bins are expensive and can be difficult or impossible in confined spaces or elevated locations. Even if done, visual inspections are unlikely to provide quantitative, actionable information to the fumigator and manager. The ability to routinely and quantitatively assess the leakage of a grain bin prior to fumigation provides managers with critical information to allow better control of the fumigation and also serves as an indicator for when sealing maintenance is needed. Leakage tests fall into two main categories: pressure decay and constant pressure. In pressure decay tests the structure is first pressurized by pumping gas into it. The pump is then stopped and the pressure is monitored as it falls over time. The time it takes for the pressure to fall a prescribed amount gives an indication of the grain bin sealing quality. The second method is to maintain a constant pressure in the structure with a fan and measure the airflow rate required to maintain that pressure. The constant pressure test, also called equilibrium pressure flow test, is prescribed by ASHRAE (2001) for testing leakage of buildings for heating and air conditioning. The pressure decay test has been used extensively in Australia on permanently sealed bins. The constant pressure test is more appropriate for typical leakage characteristics of unsealed or temporarily sealed U.S. grain bins. If a bin is equipped with an appropriate CLF system, many of the components required for a constant pressure leakage test are already present. If the CLF system does not have the capacity for leakage testing, offline pressure testing equipment can be used. To address these issues, we propose to develop standard constant pressure test procedures that will allow grain bin managers to accurately determine the sealing effectiveness of bins and the required fumigant dose for successful fumigations. Grain bins will be evaluated at different levels of sealing quality for leakage using pressure tests. The constant pressure test results will be used to determine effective leakage area for the grain bin. Phosphine concentration decay rates in fumigation experiments will be correlated with results of the pressure tests. The correlation results will then be incorporated into a tool for stored grain managers to determine required fumigant application rates to maintain target fumigation concentrations in their pressure-tested bins. In addition, an economic analysis will be conducted to provide managers with information to help with investment decisions. Objectives The overall objective of this project is to develop and deploy leakage testing methods suitable for metal grain storage bins, which can be used to determine sealing and phosphine dosage required for effective fumigations. In addition, in the U.S. there is no accepted standard for measuring storage bin leakage rates to determine suitability for effective fumigation or to estimate the amount of additional sealing that is needed. The current recommended dosage rate provided by phosphine suppliers does not adequately consider fumigant loss due to leakage and often overestimates the application requirement for a properly sealed grain storage bin. This research will provide grain managers with tools to accurately predict the phosphine requirement based on the results of pressure tests conducted in metal grain storage bin. Proper and more accurate use of phosphine will minimize the rate of insect resistance development to phosphine. 3

5 The specific objectives of the proposed work are to: 1. Develop methods to determine leakage of metal grain storage bin using constant pressure testing methods and evaluate appropriate sealing levels to reduce leakage. 2. Characterize and quantify the differences in phosphine leakage and phosphine fumigation efficacy in temporarily sealed bins (modified conventional bins) and completely sealed bins. 3. Formulate recommendations for economic-based best management practices for closed loop phosphine fumigation in sealed and temporarily sealed bins, thereby minimizing phosphine loss and reducing insect resistance to phosphine. NC-213 objective 3 is directly addressed, because this research quantifies and disseminates the economic impact of supply chain related to bulk grain products by improving the quality, increase value, and protect food safety/security via improved methods of pest management. Methods For the proposed project, we have formed a multi-disciplinary team from Oklahoma State University (OSU), Kansas State University (K-State), and USDA-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) with extensive experience and knowledge of quality grain storage, integrated pest management, and closed loop fumigation. Each subsection heading of the procedures below shows which of the cooperating institutions are directly involved in each of the activities. Pressure testing of grain bins at three sealing qualities (ARS, K-State, and OSU) Research grain bins at the OSU Stored Product Research and Education Center (SPREC), USDA-ARS Center for Grain and Animal Health Research (CGAHR), and Grain Science and Industry at K-State will be used for all the experimental tests related to this proposal. Iowa State University will be involved in advisory and consulting role for these experiments. Four commercial size bins at OSU (varying in sizes from 8000 bu to 18,000 bu), including two wellsealed and two temporarily sealed bins, will be fumigated and tested for leakage for two years. Additionally, four research bins in CGAHR and K-State (equipped with a completely sealed bins designed by an Australian Company) will be involved and tested for two years. Each bin involved in the study will be pressure tested with at least two of these three levels of sealing: (1) unsealed, (2) temporarily sealed, and (3) completely sealed. The unsealed condition is the normal storage configuration of U.S. grain storage bins. The temporary sealed condition will be prepared in accord with the traditional fumigation practice of the facility. Normally this includes sealing vents, hatches, aeration fans intakes, downspouts, and conveyor fill points (Casada and Noyes, 2001) with tape and plastic. The completely sealed bin will be prepared using best practice sealing techniques, including modified bin designs. Experimental complete sealing studies in Australia have shown a bin that can hold excess internal pressure of 500 Pa decaying to 250 Pa. in not less than 5 min is considered as a completely sealed bin (Winks et al., 1980; Banks and Annis, 1980). Important aspects of sealing the bins completely include attention to the joints and construction of the bins, eventually minimizing gaps in the bins constructions to restrict air movement. Polyurethane foam coated with weather resistant sealant, adhesive tapes, and rubber gaskets in the ports are some of the examples of sealing the conventional (unsealed) bins in U.S. grain storage industry. However, pressure failure tests are critical. 14,000 ton of wheat bin showed half-life decay (P 1/2 ) of a pressurized bin from initial 100 Pa to 50 Pa of 483 seconds under stable atmospheric conditions (Newman, 2006). These 4

6 pressure relief systems use light hydraulic oil (because it does not have additives that can react with phosphine) and control the oil level along with monitoring the internal pressure levels in the completely sealed bins (Newman, 2006). Newman (2006) recommended one pressure relief valve for every 15,000 ton of storage capacity and that oil chambers have internal surface area of 240,000 mm 2. Pressure relief systems should be designed independently in the sealed bins to prevent damages due to temperature and ambient pressure changes (Newman, 1989). Additionally, a ventilation fan system may be designed for commercial bins that will help to extract the air when personnel enter the bins for grain quality monitoring. But for farm size bins (300 to 600 ton capacity) natural ventilation should be sufficient to compensate for temporary opening of the hatches. The Australian pressure decay test will be compared to the constant pressure test results in the sealed bins at K-State. The conventional, temporarily sealed bins would not be expected to produce meaningful results from a pressure decay test because of the lack of sealing compared to fully sealed bins. (a) Figure 1 (a): Pressure relieve valve systems for metal bins; (b): air spray sealant is being applied on metal bins in Australia (Newman, 2006). Results for completely sealed bins in Australia indicated that corrugated shed type bins should have P 1/2 10 min with a starting internal pressure of 200 Pa. For small scale steel bins (around 300 to 600 ton capacity) in Australia, the recommendation is to have P 1/2 3 min with a starting pressure of 250 Pa and up to 5 min for higher capacity bins due greater volume of air contained in it. However, empty or partially loaded silos could yield P 1/2 value less than 3 min due to internal air contracting more rapidly than full bins (Newman, 2006). The degree of sealing will be used as a predictor of efficacy of the phosphine fumigation and, thus, of reducing insect resistance issues. Sealants needed for making the temporary sealed and completely sealed bin are available in various forms -including acrylic, silicone, and polyurethane based (Newman, 1989). In addition to constant pressure tests done on all bins, we will also conduct pressure decay tests on bins whenever applicable, and compare the pressure decay time results with Australian bins. Preliminary results on pressure decay tests at K-State on a completely sealed bin (*capacity) (based on an Australian design) bin yielded average P 1/2 about 1.06 min when empty and 1.43 min when partially loaded. A temporarily sealed bin yielded average P 1/2 of sec when empty and 38.5 sec when partially loaded. Both the bins were hopper bottom steel bins with 2000 bu (2489 ft 3 or m 3 ) capacity each. More pressure decay tests needed to be done at various ambient temperatures to compare with Australian recommendations on decay times. The constant pressure test to determine leakage from KS and OK bins will be conducted by attaching a variable speed blower to an appropriate opening, such as an access door or vent, on the bin. Volumetric flow rates of air to up to 500 Pa will be given to test the degree of leaking in (b) 5

7 the bins. Some completely sealed bins will be equipped with CLF systems with sufficient airflow to pressurize the bin and an offline blower will not be required. For these systems, the CLF duct system will be modified to allow pressurization of the bin and the measurement of airflow rates at various pressure levels. Weather data during pressure testing will also be recorded. Comparison of pressure testing techniques using the constant pressure method with the blower fan vs. the pressure decay method (as demonstrated in the Australian bins) will be performed on completely sealed bins and temporarily sealed bins and phosphine leakage will be monitored. The bins will be tested in the spring and fall, which are typical fumigation times. Tests will be conducted for two years giving four total tests for each bin at each sealing condition. 1. Bin unpressurized 2. Bin fully pressurized 3. Bin decayed by half (P1/2) Figure 2: Demonstration of air tightness (sealing quality) on sealed metal bin using mineral oil pressure level detection method. Data and Economic analysis (OSU) Statistical analysis of treatment results will be performed using the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) and Regression procedures of SAS statistical software (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC). Mean, standard deviation, and Analysis of Variance data will be obtained. Regression analysis of pressure test results and phosphine decay rate during fumigation will be used to obtain model parameters to predict optimal fumigant dose. Phosphine concentration decay rates in fumigation experiments will be correlated with results of the pressure tests. The correlation results will then be incorporated into a tool for stored grain managers to determine required fumigant application rates to maintain target fumigation concentrations in their pressure-tested bins. An economic analysis tool using the data from the prescribed bin pressure test will be developed to help grain storage managers decide if converting a bin for CLF fumigation or additional sealing is economically advantageous for their facilities Decision makers considering investments in better sealing or CLF technology will be evaluating the tradeoff between higher investment costs and higher variable costs of fumigation. The information needed for these evaluations will be obtained by comparing the total costs of investment and fumigation for each configuration identified above, at various rates of measured leakage. Cost factors for each configuration include amortized installation costs (including equipment, labor, and supplies), labor, chemicals, electricity, grain weight lost, safety training, safety equipment, and cost of facility downtime. These costs will be estimated using economic engineering methods in a partial-budgeting approach, as in Adam et al. (2010). Tutt (2002) reported that from 1980 to 1999 cost of sealing permanent storage was $35.6 (in Australian Dollars) but savings from application costs alone amounted to $186 million (in Australian Dollars) within the same period. 6

8 Additional costs that are more difficult to quantify, but that are likely to differ across the configurations, include risk of insect infestation, worker exposure to phosphine, risk of gas leakage to surrounding residences and businesses, and probability of insects developing resistance to phosphine. These costs will be estimated using risk simulation analysis. Technology Transfer Procedures for assessing and correcting leakage and predicting phosphine dosage in metal grain bins along with closed loop fumigation system design and implementation guidelines will be a central part of the technology transfer program. Economic tools using system dynamics (SD) modeling and partial budget analysis will be made available free of charge to farmers, commercial grain elevator managers, and food industry stakeholders. Both the USDA ARS and Department of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering at OSU Research and Extension will advertise the improved CLF guidelines, leakage assessment, and economic modeling techniques through their web sites and traditional print media and will highlight these areas during extension presentations to farmers, elevator managers and operators, and other producer and grain industry groups. Results from the first year of the study will be incorporated into extension presentations in the late summer of the second year of the project. These initial pest management recommendations will be further evaluated and expanded, based on the final project results, in the development of best management practices. This information will continue being presented through the end of the project time frame and beyond. In addition to scientific and popular press publications, we will also transfer the technology to stakeholders through personal contacts, GEAPS, PAT conferences, and appropriate electronic means. In addition, results of this research will be published through appropriate channels of USDA ARS, K-State, and OSU research and extension, and professional scientific journals. Anticipated Results, Products, and Impacts Sealing leaks in the grain storage bin is critical to effective fumigation, both traditional and closed-loop. Without suitable sealing, fumigations use excess amounts of phosphine to compensate for leakage and uneven fumigant distribution. A safer and more effective alternative to traditional methods of phosphine fumigation is the use of CLF systems in grain handling and storage facilities. CLF systems have been proven to produce a more uniform distribution of fumigant throughout the grain storage bin and they provide safety and cost advantages also. The suggested application rates for phosphine are far above the needed rate for a properly sealed grain storage bin. To determine the phosphine application rate, managers need to be able to accurately predict how much fumigant will leak out of their grain storage bin over the duration of the fumigation process. Pressure testing can provide a quantitative measure of expected leakage. Routine monitoring of the sealing quality of a grain storage bin allows a manager to assess when maintenance is needed and accurately determine the amount of phosphine needed for fumigation. The research will provide managers with tools to accurately identify when sealing maintenance is required predict the amount of phosphine required to fumigate a grain storage bin based on results of a pressure test. This tool can also be used to identify grain bins that are too poorly sealed for effective fumigation applications. The tool will incorporate results of pressure tests and fumigations on grain bins taken at three sealing levels. In addition, an economic analysis will be conducted to supplement the fumigant dose results and provide managers tools to guide decisions about upgrading their facilities and equipment. 7

9 The two major deliverables are: (1) a straightforward grain bin pressure test protocol for grain storage managers to determine airtightness that will correlate with phosphine leakage levels from temporary and completely sealed bins. (2) an economic analysis tool using the data from the prescribed bin pressure test to help grain storage managers decide if converting a bin for CLF fumigation or investment in additional sealing is economically advantageous for their facilities. It is anticipated that the protocol and tools will be adopted by commercial grain elevator facilities to aid in achieving successful fumigations and to evaluate the benefits of converting to CLF systems that could improve their fumigations and reduce operating costs. Leveraging Resources Experience and data from previous research projects under SARE funding will be reviewed and compared with information gathered in this project. In the earlier project, we compared fumigation in a CLF system installed in one half of the bins at a concrete elevator in Broken Arrow, Oklahoma, with fumigation conducted in the remainder half of the elevator which had no CLF system installed and limited sealing. This proved the concept of using CLF in a concrete facility and gave direction for this proposed project. One challenge the SARE project encountered was the gross overestimation of phosphine dosage that resulted in difficulty in evacuating the fumigant from the bins. The results of this research will be used to develop a larger grant to investigate effect of different locations, weather conditions, and storage capacities of farm storage bins and commercial grain handling or food processing facilities. The pressure testing and efficacy of phosphine fumigation results (from this research) will be used to prepare a large scale proposal to look deeper into these issues including additional factors such as grain type, wind speeds, and specific construction techniques intended for Agriculture and Food Research Initiative Competitive Grants (AFRI) under Food Security priority area, sponsored by USDA in Estimates of benefits from reduced human hazard and from reduced insect resistance can be viewed as part of integrated pest management (IMP) strategy in grain industry. Timetable The Gantt chart below shows the timeline for the project components. Fumigation task will include pressure tests of three level of sealing of grain bins. The research team has numerous contacts with commercial elevator sites and will make arrangements with the elevators prior to the start of the pressure testing and fumigation. The first fumigation will begin in April of Second to fourth fumigations will begin in September of 2016 and continue to October Data analysis will follow after each fumigation activity. Initial BMP development will begin in the summer of 2016 and will continue through most of the project life. These recommendations will begin being incorporated into extension presentations, as appropriate, in the fall of 2017 and will continue after the conclusion of the formal project. 8

10 Q1 16 Q2 16 Q3 16 Q4 16 Q1 17 Q2 17 Q3 17 Q4 17 Task Begin End Fumigation # 1 2. Data & Economic Analysis 3. Fumigation # 2 4. Annual Report 5. Fumigation # 3 6. Fumigation BMP Development 7. Fumigation # 4 8. Technology Transfer 9. Final Report 04/01/16 05/30/16 06/01/16 10/31/17 09/01/16 10/31/16 12/01/16 12/31/16 04/01/17 05/30/17 06/01/16 12/12/17 09/01/17 10/31/17 08/01/17 12/311/17 12/01/17 12/31/17 Collaboration The proposed project involves significant collaboration among scientists from OSU (Carol Jones and Brian Adam), K-State (Ronaldo Maghirang, Rumela Bhadra, Sam Cook), Iowa State (Dirk Maier), and USDA ARS (Mark Casada, Frank Arthur). Carol Jones will act as the lead investigator and will have oversight of the total project. We will hold regular project meetings, team meetings at professional conferences, teleconference calls, and regular correspondence. Jones will oversee the Oklahoma portion of the research. Casada, Arthur, Bhadra, Cook, Maier, and Maghirang will work on the project implementation in Kansas. Jones will do the implementation in Oklahoma. Adam will guide the development of the economic portion of the research. Jones will be in charge of the overall technology transfer of the project. Literature Cited Adam, B. D., M. Siaplay, P. W. Flinn, B. W. Brorsen, and T. W. Phillips Factors Influencing Economic Profitability of Sampling-Based Integrated Pest Management in Stored Grain. Journal of Stored Products Research 46: ASHRAE ASHRAE Handbook: Fundamentals. Altanta, Ga.: ASHRAE. Banks, H. J., R. A. Longstaff, M. R. Raupach, and J. J. Finnigan Wind-induced pressure distribution on a large grain storage shed: Prediction of wind-driven ventilation rates. Journal of Stored Products Research 19(4): Banks, H.J. and P.C. Annis Conversion of existing grain storage structures for modified atmosphere use. In Controlled Atmosphere Storage of Grains, ed. J Shejbal, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1980, 461. Benhalima, H., M. Q. Chaudhry, K. A. Mills, and N. R. Price Phosphine resistance in stored-product insects collected from various grain storage facilities in Morocco. Journal of Stored Products Research 40(3): Casada, M. E. and Noyes, R. T Future bulk grain bin design needs related to sealing for optimum pest management: a researcher s view. In Proc. Int. Conf. Control. Atmos. Fumig. Stored Prod., ed. EJ Donahaye, S Navarro, JG Leesch, pp Clovis, CA: Exec. Print. Serv. 9

11 Chayaprasert, W., and D. E. Maier Evaluating the effects of sealing quality on gas leakage rates during structural fumigation by pressurization testing and CFD simulations. Transactions of ASABE 53(3): Jones, C., J. Hardin, and E. Bonjour Design of closed-loop fumigation systems for grain storage structures. Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service. Stillwater, OK. Fact Sheet BAE 1111, pp 4. Kenkel, P., R. T. Noyes, G. W. Cuperus, and J. T. Criswell Costs and benefits of installing closed loop fumigation systems in commercial elevators. OSU Extension Facts No Stillwater, Ok.: Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service. Lorini, I., P. J. Collins, G. J. Daglish, M. K. Nayak, and H. Pavic Detection and characterisation of strong resistance to phosphine in Brazilian Rhyzopertha dominica F. Coleoptera: Bostrychidae. Pest Management Science 63: Newman, C. J. E Specifications and design of enclosures for gas treatment. In Fumigation and Controlled Atmosphere Storage of Grain, eds. BR Champ, E Highley, and HJ Banks, Proc. of an Intl. Conf., Singapore, February. ACIAR Proceedings no. 25, Canberra, ACT, Australia. Newman, C. R Application of sealing technology to permanent grain storage in Australia. In Proc. 9 th Int.Work. Conf. on Stor. Prod. Protect., ABRAPOS, Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil, Oct, pp: Noyes, R. T., and T. W. Phillips A model for selecting tablet vs. pellet dosages in storages with closed loop fumigation (CLF) systems. In Intl. Conf. Control. Atmos. Fumig. Stored Prod FTIC Ltd, Publishing. Noyes, R. T., P. Kenkel, and G. Tate Closep loop fumigation systems. In Stored Product Management. Circular No. E-912. Stillwater, Ok.: Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service. Noyes, R., S. Navarro, and D. Armitage Supplemental Aeration Systems. In The Mechanics and Physics of Modern Grain Aeration Management, eds. S Navarro and R Noyes. Boca Raton, Fl: CRC Press. Steinfeld, J., J. S. Francisco, and W. L. Hase Reaction Kinetics and Dynamics (2 nd edition), Pentice Hall Publishing, NJ, USA. Tutt, C Conversion of CBH storage to sealed structures and fumigation. In: Proceedings (GEAPS) Exchange, Vancouver. Winks, R. G., H. J. Banks, P. Williams, M. Bengston, and M. G. Greening Dosage recommendations for fumigations of grain with phosphine. Canberra, CSIRO, Science Communication Unit, SCA Technical Report Series No. 8, pp: 9. 10

12 Carol L. Jones, Ph.D. OSU, Stillwater, OK Earned Degrees Ph.D., Biosystems Engineering, Oklahoma State University, B.S., Agricultural Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Employment History Associate Professor and Extension Agricultural Engineer, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Dept., Oklahoma State University, Stillwater. July Present. Assistant Professor and Extension Agricultural Engineer, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Department, Oklahoma State University. August 2006 July Research Engineer, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Department, Oklahoma State University. August 2002 August Technology Coordinator, Network Administrator and Math Instructor, Dover Public Schools. August April 1999 and August 2001 August Network Coordinator, Ok CareerTech, April 1999 August Manager, Boeckman Farms, October 1984 April Facility Manager and Design Engineer, W. L. Somner Co., April 1982 October 1984 Manager of Marketing Applications Engineering, Worthington Pump Co., January 1978 April Refereed Journals Ding, T. X. Xuan, D Liu, X Ye, J. Shi, K. Warriner, S. Xue, and C. Jones Electrolyzed Water Generated Using a Circulating Reactor. International Journal of Food Engineering. 2014:aop. Bajracharya, N., G. Opit, C. Jones, and J. Talley Efficacies of spinosad and a combination of chlorpyrifos-methyl and deltamethrin against phosphine-resistant Rhysopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrianidae) on wheat. Journal of Economic Entomology 106(5): Sekhon, J., C. Jones and N. Maness Effect of preprocessing and solvent extraction with compressed propane on quality of cilantro (Coriandrum Sativum L.). Food Chemistry 175: Sekhon, J., C. Jones and N. Maness Effect of propane extraction and subsequent storage on color and volatile composition of dried cilantro (Coriandrum Sativum L.) Journal of Food Quality (accepted for publication). Jones, C. and G. Dilawari Non-destructive estimation of free fatty acid content and peroxide value using NIR spectroscopy in canola seed. Journal of Infrared Spectroscopy Status: accepted for publication Dilawari, G. and C. Jones Quantification of dockage in canola using flatbed scanner. Transactions of the ASABE 56(5):1-7. Jones, C. and G. Dilawari Quality estimation of canola using machine vision and VIS- NIR spectroscopy. Proc. 9 th International Conference on Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation of Stored Products. Antalya, Turkey, October, CAF268. Okiror, G., and C. Jones Effect of temperature on the dielectric properties of low acyl gellan gel. Journal of Food Engineering 11

13 Ding, F., C. Jones, and P. Weckler Identification and detection of stored grain insects with RF and microwave technology. Transactions of the ASABE. 52(6): 1-10.A 40(7&8) Non-Refereed Technical Publications Bajracharya, N., G Opit, J Talley and C Jones Comparing effectiveness of three traps used to monitor Tribolium Castaneum (Coleoptara: Tenebrionidae). Entomological Society of America Conference. Poster # November Austin, Texas. Bajracharya, N., G Opit, J Talley and C Jones Comparing effectiveness of three traps used to monitor Tribolium Castaneum (Coleoptara: Tenebrionidae). Entomological Society of America Conference. Poster # November Austin, Texas. Bajracharya, N., G Opit, J Talley and C Jones. 2013). Fitness cost of phosphine resistance determined by measurement of developmental rates of phosphine-resistant and susceptible populations of Rhyzopertha dominica and Tribolium castaneum. Entomological Society of America Conference. Paper # November Austin, Texas. Bonjour, E., C. Jones, and R. Beeby A closed loop system improves phosphine fumigation in stored grain facilities. Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting. November 12, Austin, Texas. Schielack, V. and C. Jones A comparison of coffer dam grain entrapment rescue systems. White Paper prepared for KC Supply, Kansas City, Missouri. Bonjour, E., C. Jones, and R. Beeby Improving phosphine fumigation by sealing and using a closed-loop system. Internatyional Organisation for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants, Zagreb, Croatia, June Professional Activities National ASABE (past 12 years) 2006-Present IET348 Electromagnetics and Hyperspectral Sensing Committee Secretary, ; Vice-Chair, ; Chair, ; Transactions associate editor 2006-Present FPE702 Crop and Feed Processing and Storage Committee Secretary, ; Vice-Chair, ; Chair, Present IET Standards Committee, Publications Committee, and Planning Committee 2006-Present GEAPS 2006-Present NC213 Executive Committee, Chair Present Board of Directors InfraGard 2012-Present OSU Faculty Council, Vice Chair present Professional Engineering, Oklahoma Registration 12

14 MARK E. CASADA, Ph.D., P. E. Research Agricultural Engineer USDA ARS, CGAHR, Engineering & Wind Erosion Research Manhattan, Kansas EARNED DEGREES Ph.D., Biological and Agricultural Engineering North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh 1990 M.S., Agricultural Engineering University of Kentucky, Lexington 1985 B.S., Mechanical Engineering University of Kentucky, Lexington 1981 EMPLOYMENT HISTORY 1999 present Research Agricultural Engineer. USDA ARS, Center for Grain and Animal Health Research, Manhattan, Kansas. Leads research on grain handling, drying, and storage present Adjunct Associate Professor. Kansas State University, Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department. Member of graduate faculty Associate/Assistant Professor. University of Idaho, Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department. Taught and conducted research on grain drying and storage, food engineering, and potato transportation. Member of graduate faculty Research Assistant, Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, North Carolina State University. Studied global methane emissions from livestock and poultry waste. PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES Major Committees: American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE): FPE-03, Standards Group (Chair, 2013 to present), FPE-04, Publications Group (Chair, 2008 to 2010), FPE-702, Crop and Feed Processing and Storage (Chair, 2003 to 2005), FPE-704, Special Crops Processing (Chair, 1990 to 1991). American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE): Biological and Agricultural Engineering. Division, Chair, 1999 to 2000 Biological and Agricultural Engineering. Division, Proceedings Editor, 1998 to 1999 IWQC-II, International Wheat Quality Conference: Advances in Processing Technology Technical Committee, Chair, 2000 to 2001 Industry Advisory Board, Bio. Sys. Engr. Dept., Washington State Univ., 1998 to 1999 ASABE-FPEI Associate Editor (Trans. ASABE; Applied Engr. in Agri.) to present NC-213, Marketing and Delivery of Quality Cereals and Oilseeds, Chair, 2001, 2009 Theses Supervised: University of Idaho 2 M.S, 2 Ph.D. Kansas State University 2 M.S, 4 Ph.D. HONORS AND AWARDS Sigma Xi, Alpha Epsilon (Agricultural Engr.), Pi Tau Sigma (Mechanical Engr.) ASABE Paper Awards: 1995, 2006, and 2009 ASABE Outstanding Journal Reviewer Award, Andersons Cereals and Oilseeds Award of Excellence (2013), Multistate Project NC-213. Kansas Section ASABE, 2015 Member of the Year. 13

15 RECENT PUBLICATIONS Tilley, D.R., M.E. Casada, M.R. Langemeier, Bh. Subramanyam, and F.H. Arthur Economic analysis for commingling effects of insect activity in the elevator boot area. Journal of Economic Entomology 108(5): In Press. Boac, J.M., R.P. Kingsly Ambrose, M.E. Casada, R.G. Maghirang, and D.E. Maier Applications of discrete element method in modeling of grain postharvest operations. Food Engineering Reviews 6(4): Patwa, A., R.P. Kingsly Ambrose, H. Dogan, and M.E. Casada Wheat mill stream properties for discrete element method modeling. Transactions of the ASABE 57(3): Tilley, D.R., B. Subramanyam, M.E. Casada, and F.H. Arthur Stored-grain insect population commingling densities in wheat and corn from pilot-scale bucket elevator boots. Journal of Stored Product Research 59: 1-8. Armstrong, P.R., M.E. Casada, and J. Lawrence Development of equilibrium moisture relationships for storage moisture monitoring of corn. Trans. of the ASABE In Press. Boac, J.M., M.E. Casada, R.G. Maghirang, and J.P. Harner III D and quasi-2-d DEM modeling of grain commingling in a bucket elevator boot system. Transactions of the ASABE 55(2): Jones, C., M. Casada, and O. Loewer Drying, Handling and Storage of Raw Commodities. Book chapter 10 in Stored Product Protection. Navarro, S., R.T. Noyes, M.E. Casada, and F.H. Arthur Aeration of grain. Book chapter 11 in Stored Product Protection. 14

16 Rumela Bhadra, Ph.D. Research Associate Biological and Agricultural Department 129 Seaton Hall, Kansas State University Manhattan, KS Education Ph.D. & M.S. (integrated) in Agricultural & Biosystems Engineering South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD Bachelor of Technology (B. Tech) in Biotechnology 2006 Heritage Institute of Technology, Calcutta, West Bengal University, India January, July, Professional Appointments Research Associate Kansas State University, KS, 2011-Present Involved in developing compaction factors for six major food grain crops in U.S. for USDA- RMA and USDA-ARS interagency agreement. Other collaborators are from University of Kentucky and University of Georgia. Involved in physical and bulk properties of modified (low-oil) DDGS, funded by Anderson Research Grant Program Team Competition in Graduate Research Assistant South Dakota State University, SD, Involved in developing co a comprehensive understanding of flowability issues in Distillers Dried Grain with soluble (DDGS) and established a suitable mathematical model (using advanced statistical and theoretical modeling tools) for flow problems and cohesiveness, in collaboration with USDA-ARS. Awards 2014 New faces of Engineering recognition at the National Engineers Week Feb 16-22, 2014 representing Agricultural and Biological Engineering professionals. Featured in DiscoverE website for outstanding contribution in engineering profession. ASABE Young Member of the Year (age below 41), ASABE Kansas Chapter (Co-sponsor). Order of the Engineer, ASABE Louisville, KY, st place, Graduate Student Research Award competition, IFT sub-sectional meeting, Spring Graduate Travel award, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, Spring Professional Membership American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE), Member Engineering Without Borders, KS Chapter, Member International Food Technologist (IFT), Member Sigma Xi Scientific Research Society, Member 15

17 AABFIO (ASABE India Chapter), Vice Chair, Member Publication list (recent five) Bhadra, R., K. Muthukumarappan, and K. A. Rosentrater Effects of varying CDS levels and drying and cooling temperatures on the flowability properties of DDGS. Cereal Chemistry 90(1): Bhadra, R., K. A. Rosentrater, and K. Muthukumarappan Effects of CDS and drying temperature on the flowability behavior of DDGS. Drying Technology 30(5): Bhadra, R., K. Muthukumarappan, K. A. Rosentrater, and S. Kannadhason Drying characteristics of Distillers Wet Grains with varying Condensed Distillers Solubles and drying temperature levels. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 27(5): Bhadra, R., K. A. Rosentrater, and K. Muthukumarappan Effects of varying CDS, drying, and cooling temperatures on glass transition temperature of DDGS. Canadian Biosystems Engineering vol. 53: Bhadra, R., K. A. Rosentrater, K. Muthukumarappan, and S. Kannadhason Drying kinetics of Distillers Wet Grain under varying Condensed Distillers Solubles and temperature levels. Cereal Chemistry 88(5): Conferences (recent five) Bhadra, R., Boac, J.(Presenter), Casada, M.E., Montross, M.D., Thompson, S.A., McNeill, S., and Maghirang, R.G Field Measurement for grain compaction and commercial storage in US (project summary). Poster No Presented at 2014 ASABE international meeting, Montreal, CA. Bhadra, R., Kingsly, A.R. P., Casada, M.E., Simsek, S., and S. Kaliramesh (Presenter) No. Comparison of flow and physical properties of low-oil and regular DDGS. No Presented at 2014 ASABE international meeting, Montreal, CA. Bhadra, R., Kingsly, A.R. P., Casada, M.E., Simsek, S., and S. Kaliramesh Intrinsic characteristics of modified DDGS and effective handling strategies. Presented at 2014 NC-213/GEAPS meeting at Omaha, NE. Bhadra, R., Boac, J., Casada, M.E., Montross, M.D., Thompson, S.A., McNeill, S., and Maghirang, R.G Field Measurement for Food Grain (6 crops) Packing Factors in US. No Presented at 2013 ASABE international meeting, Kansas City, MO. Bhadra, R., and Casada, M.E Field measurement for stored grain packing factors: Field measurements. Presented at 2013 NC-213/GEAPS meeting at Kansas City, MO. 16

18 EDUCATION Franklin H. Arthur Research Entomologist USDA-ARS, 1515 College Avenue Manhattan, KS Ph.D. (1985) and M. S. (1982) in Entomology. North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina. B.S. (1976) in Wildlife Ecology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE GRANTS Research Entomologist, USDA Center for Grain and Animal Health Research, Manhattan, Kansas Research Entomologist, Stored Product Insects Research & Development Laboratory, Savannah, Georgia Responsible for planning, coordinating, and developing an independent research program on insect pest management in stored raw agricultural commodities and processed food warehouses. Cooperate with private industry by conducting laboratory and simulated field tests to determine effective application rates and residual efficacy for conventional insecticides and microbial products that are being developed for use in post-harvest environments. Identify factors that affect residual insecticide efficacy, model insecticide residual degradation and biological efficacy during storage, determine insecticide resistance in pest species, and develop methods for assessing resistance that more accurately simulate insect exposure under field conditions. Evaluate non-chemical control options such as aeration and moisture control for inclusion in management programs for stored products. Analyze and interpret research data, publish results, and present papers at professional meetings Graduate Research Assistant, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina Biological Technician, USDA Insects Affecting Man & Animals Laboratory, Gainesville, Florida US-AID. Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Reduction of Post-Harvest Losses (multi-institutional grant). $5,000,000, 2013 USDA-NIFA-MBT. Evaluation of New Strategies and Tactics to Manage Insect Pests in Mills. $ , 2013 USDA-NIFA-MBT. Integrated Pest Management Programs to Reduce Reliance on Methyl Bromide Fumigation in Rice Mills. $450,000, 2011 USDA-NIFA-MBT. Evaluation, integration, and implementation of non-fumigation based pest management approaches for food processing facilities. $787,144,

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