1 24 1. NETWORK CONFIGURATIONS definition Standard IEC 38 defines voltage ratings as follows: - Low voltage () For a phase-to-phase voltage between 100 V and 1000 V. The standard ratings are: 400 V V V (at 50 Hz) - Medium voltage () - High voltage (HV) For a phase-to-phase voltage between 1000 V and 35 kv. The standard ratings are: 3.3 kv kv - 11 kv - 22 kv - 33 kv For a phase-to-phase voltage between 35 kv and 230 kv. The standard ratings are: 45 kv - 66 kv kv kv kv kv General structure of the private distribution network Generally, with an HV power supply, a private distribution network comprises (see fig. 1-1): - an HV consumer substation fed by one or more sources and made up of one or more busbars and circuit-breakers - an internal production source - one or more HV/ transformers - a main switchboard made up of one or more busbars - an internal network feeding secondary switchboards or / substations - loads - / transformers - low voltage switchboards and networks - low voltage loads.
2 25 supply source HV consumer substation internal production HV main distribution switchboard load load load internal distribution network secondary distribution switchboards switchboards and distribution load load Figure 1-1: general structure of a private distribution network
3 The supply source The power supply of industrial networks can be in, or HV. The voltage rating of the supply source depends on the consumer supply power. The greater the power, the higher the voltage must be HV consumer substations The most usual supply arrangements adopted in HV consumer substations are: single power supply (see fig. 1-2) supply source HV busbar to main switchboard Figure 1-2: single fed HV consumer substation advantage: drawback: Reduced cost Low availability N.B.: the isolators associated with the HV circuit-breakers have not been shown.
4 27 dual power supply (see fig. 1-3) source 1 source 2 devices operated bythe utility HV busbar HV HV to main switchboard Figure 1-3: dual fed HV consumer substation operating mode: - normal: Both incoming circuit-breakers are closed, as well as the coupler isolator. The transformers are thus simultaneously fed by 2 sources. - disturbed: If one source is lost, the other provides the total power supply. advantages: - good availability in that each source can supply the entire network - maintenance of the busbar possible while it is still partially operating drawbacks: - more costly solution than the single power supply system - only allows partial operation of the busbar if maintenance is being carried out on it N.B.: the isolators associated with the HV circuit-breakers have not been shown.
5 28 dual fed double bus system (see fig. 1-4) source 1 source 2 coupler or BB1 BB2 HV double busbar Out1 Out2 Out3 Out4 HV HV to main switchboard Figure 1-4: dual fed double bus HV consumer substation operating mode: - normal: Source 1 feeds busbar BB1 and feeders Out1 and Out2. Source 2 feeds busbar BB2 and feeders Out3 and Out4. The bus coupler circuit-breaker can be kept closed or open. - disturbed: If one source is lost the other provides the total power supply. If a fault occurs on a busbar (or maintenance is carried out on it), the bus coupler circuit-breaker is tripped and the other busbar feeds all the outgoing lines. advantages : - good supply availability - highly flexible use for the attribution of sources and loads and for busbar maintenance - busbar transfer possible without interruption (when the busbars are coupled, it is possible to operate an isolator if its adjacent isolator is closed). drawback: - more costly in relation to the single busbar system N.B.: the isolators associated with the HV circuit-breakers have not been shown.
6 power supply We shall first look at the different service connections and then the consumer substation Different service connections According to the type of network, the following supply arrangements are commonly adopted. single line service (see fig. 1-5) overhead line Figure 1-5: single line service The substation is fed by a single circuit tee-off from an distribution (cable or line). Up to transformer ratings of 160 kva this type of service is very common in rural areas. It has one supply source via the utility.
7 31 ring main principle (see fig. 1-6) underground cable ring main Figure 1-6: ring main service Ring main units (RMU) are normally connected to form an ring main or interconnectordistributor, such that the RMU busbars carry the full ring main or interconnector current. This arrangement provides the user with a two-source supply, thereby reducing considerably any interruption of service due to system faults or switching operations by the supply authority. The main application for RMU's is in public-supply underground cable networks in urban areas.
8 32 parallel feeder (see fig. 1-7) parallel underground-cable utility Figure 1-7: duplicated supply service When an supply connection to two lines or cables originating from the same busbar of a substation is possible, a similar switchboard to that of an RMU is commonly used. The main operational difference between this arrangement and that of an RMU is that the two incoming panels are mutually interlocked, such that only one incoming switch can be closed at a time, i.e. its closure prevents that of the other. On loss of power supply, the closed incoming switch must be opened and the (formerly open) switch can then be closed. The sequence may be carried out manually or automatically. This type of switchboard is used particularly in networks of high load density and in rapidly expanding urban areas supplied by underground cable systems.
9 consumer substations The consumer substation may comprise several transformers and outgoing feeders. The power supply may be a single line service, ring main principle or parallel feeder (see 1.4.1). Figure 1.8 shows the arrangement of an consumer substation using a ring main supply with transformers and outgoing feeders CT VT feeders Figure 1-8: consumer substation
10 networks inside the site networks are made up of switchboards and the connections feeding them. We shall first of all look at the different supply modes of these switchboards, then the different network structures allowing them to be fed. Note: the isolators and drawout systems which allow maintenance to be carried out on the installation have not been shown on the diagrams switchboard power supply modes We shall start with the main power supply solutions of an switchboard, regardless of its place in the network. The number of sources and the complexity of the switchboard differ according to the level of dependability required. The diagrams have been classed in order of improving dependability but increasing installation cost. 1 busbar, 1 supply source (see fig. 1-9) source busbar feeders Figure 1-9: 1 busbar, 1 supply source operation: if the supply source is lost, the busbar is put out of service until the fault is repaired.
11 35 1 busbar with no coupler, 2 supply sources (see fig. 1-10) source 1 source 2 or busbar feeders Figure 1-10: 1 busbar with no coupler, 2 supply sources operation: both sources can operate in parallel or one source can back up the other. If a fault occurs on the busbar (or maintenance is carried out on it), the outgoing feeders are no longer fed. 2 bus sections with coupler, 2 supply sources (see fig. 1-11) source 1 source 2 or busbar feeders Figure 1-11: 2 bus sections with coupler, 2 supply sources operation: the coupler circuit-breaker can be held closed or open. If it is open, each source feeds one bus section. If one source is lost, the coupler circuit-breaker is closed and the other source feeds both bus sections. If a fault occurs on a bus section (or maintenance is carried out on it), only one part of the outgoing feeders is no longer fed.
12 36 1 busbar with no coupler, 3 supply sources (see fig. 1-12) source 1 source 2 source 3 or busbar feeders Figure 1-12: 1 busbar with no coupler, 3 supply sources operation: the three sources can operate in parallel or one source can back up the other two. If If a fault occurs on a bus section (or maintenance is carried out on it), the outgoing feeders are no longer fed. 3 bus sections with couplers, 3 supply sources (see fig. 1-13) source 1 source 2 source 3 or or busbar feeders Figure 1-13: 3 bus sections with couplers, 3 supply sources operation: both bus coupler circuit-breakers can be kept open or closed. If they are open, each supply source feeds its own bus section. If one source is lost, the associated coupler circuit-breaker is closed, one source feeds 2 bus sections and the other feeds one bus section. If a fault occurs on one bus section (or if maintenance is carried out on it), only one part of the outgoing feeders is no longer fed.
13 37 "duplex" distribution system (see fig. 1-14) source 1 source 2 coupler BB1 BB2 double busbar Out1 Out2 Out3 Out4 feeders Figure 1-14: "duplex" distribution system operation: The coupler circuit-breaker is held open during normal operation. Each source can feed one or other of the busbars via its two drawout circuit-breaker cubicles. For economic reasons, there is only one circuit-breaker for the two drawout cubicles which are installed alongside one another. It is thus easy to move the circuit-breaker from one cubicle to the other. Thus, if source 1 is to feed busbar BB2, the circuit-breaker is moved into the other cubicle associated with source 1. The same principle is used for the outgoing feeders. Thus, there are two drawout cubicles and only one circuit-breaker associated with each outgoing feeder. Each outgoing feeder can be fed by one or other of the busbars depending on where the circuit-breaker is positioned. For example, source 1 feeds busbar BB1 and feeders Out1 and Out2. Source 2 feeds busbar BB2 and feeders Out3 and Out4. If one source is lost, the coupler circuit-breaker is closed and the other source provides the total power supply. If a fault occurs on one of the busbars (or maintenance is carried out on it), the coupler circuitbreaker is opened and each circuit-breaker is placed on the busbar in service, so that all the outgoing feeders are fed. The drawback of the "duplex" system is that it does not allow automatic switching. If a fault occurs, each changeover lasts several minutes and requires the busbars to be de-energized.
14 38 2 busbars, 2 connections per outgoing feeder, 2 supply sources (see fig. 1-15) source 1 source 2 coupler BB1 BB2 double busbar Out1 Out2 Out3 Out4 feeders Figure 1-15: 2 busbars, 2 connections per outgoing feeder, 2 supply sources operation: the coupler circuit-breaker is held open during normal operation. Each outgoing feeder can be fed by one or other of the busbars depending on the state of the isolators which are associated with it and only one isolator per outgoing feeder must be closed. For example, source 1 feeds busbar BB1 and feeders Out1 and Out2. Source 2 feeds busbar BB2 and feeders Out3 and Out4. If one source is lost, the coupler circuit-breaker is closed and the other source provides the total power supply. If a fault occurs on a busbar (or maintenance is carried out on it), the coupler circuit-breaker is opened and the other busbar feeds all the outgoing feeders.
15 39 2 interconnected double busbars (see fig. 1-16) source 1 source 2 CB1 BB1 2double bus switchboards CB2 BB2 Out1 Out2 Out3 Out4 feeders Figure 1-16: 2 interconnected double busbars operation: this arrangement is almost identical to the previous one (2 busbars, 2 connections per feeder, 2 supply sources). The splitting up of the double busbars into two switchboards with coupler (via CB1 and CB2) provides greater operating flexibility. Each busbar feeds a smaller number of feeders during normal operation.
16 network structures We shall now look at the main network structures used to feed secondary switchboards and / transformers. The complexity of the structure differs depending on the level of dependability required. The following network supply arrangements are the ones most commonly adopted: single fed radial network (see fig. 1-17) source 1 source 2 main switchboard switchboard1 switchboard2 Figure 1-17: single fed radial network - the transformers and switchboards 1 and 2 are fed by a single source and there is no back-up supply - this structure should be used when availability is not a high requirement and it is often adopted for cement works networks.
17 41 dual fed radial network with no coupler (see fig. 1-18) source 1 source 2 main switchboard switchboard1 switchboard2 Figure 1-18: dual fed radial network with no coupler - switchboards 1 and 2 are fed by 2 sources with no coupler, the one backing up the other - availability is good - the fact that there is no source coupler for switchboards 1 and 2 renders the network less flexible to use.
18 42 dual fed radial network with coupler (see fig. 1-19) source 1 source 2 main switchboard switchboard1 switchboard2 Figure 1-19: dual fed radial network with coupler Switchboards 1 and 2 are fed by 2 sources with coupler. During normal operation, the bus coupler circuit-breakers are open. - each bus section can be backed up and fed by one or other of the sources - this structure should be used when good availability is required and it is often adopted in the iron and steel and petrochemical industries.
19 43 loop system This system is suitable for widespread networks with large future extensions. There are two types depending on whether operation. the loop is open or closed during normal open loop (see fig a) source 1 source 2 or main switchboard A B switchboard 1 switchboard 2 switchboard 3 Figure 1-20 a: open loop system - the loop heads in A and B are fitted with circuit-breakers. - switchboards 1, 2 and 3 are fitted with switches. - during normal operation, the loop is open (on the figure it is open at switchboard 2). - the switchboards can be fed by one or other of the sources. - reconfiguration of the loop enables the supply to be restored upon occurrence of a fault or loss of a source (see of the Protection guide). - this reconfiguration causes a power cut of several seconds if an automatic loop reconfiguration control has been installed. The cut lasts at least several minutes or dozens of minutes if the loop reconfiguration is carried out manually by operators.
20 44 closed loop (see fig b) source 1 source 2 main switchboard switchboard 1 switchboard 2 switchboard 3 Figure 1-20 b: closed loop system - all the loop switching devices are circuit-breakers. - during normal operation, the loop is closed. - the protection system ensures against power cuts due to a fault (see of the Protection guide). This system is more efficient than the open loop since it avoids power cuts. On the other hand, it is more costly since it requires circuit-breakers in each switchboard and a more developed protection system.
21 45 parallel feeder (see fig. 1-21) source 1 source 2 or main switchboard switchboard 1 switchboard 2 switchboard 3 Figure 1-21: parallel feeder network - switchboards 1, 2 and 3 can be backed up and fed by one or other of the sources independently. - this structure is suitable for widespread networks with limited future extensions and which require good availability.
22 networks inside the site We shall first of all study the different low voltage switchboard supply modes. Next, we shall look at the supply schemes for switchboards backed up by generators or an uninterruptible power supply switchboard supply modes We are now going to study the main supply arrangements for an switchboard, regardless of its place in the network. The number of supply sources possible and the complexity of the switchboard differ according to the level of dependability required. single fed switchboards example (see fig. 1-22) : supply source S1 S2 S3 Figure 1-22: single fed switchboards Switchboards S1, S2 and S3 have only one supply source. The network is said to be of the arborescent radial type. If a switchboard supply source is lost, the switchboard is put out of service until the supply is restored.
23 47 dual fed switchboards with no coupler example (see fig. 1-23): source 1 source 2 CB1 CB2 source 3 S1 CB3 CB4 S2 Figure 1-23: dual fed switchboards with no coupler Switchboard S1 has a dual power supply with no coupler via 2 / transformers. Operation of the S1 power supply : - both sources feed switchboard S1 in parallel. - during normal operation only one circuit-breaker is closed (CB1 or CB2). Switchboard S2 has a dual power supply with no coupler via an / transformer and outgoing feeder coming from another switchboard. Operation of the S2 power supply: - one source feeds switchboard S2 and the second provides a back-up supply. - during normal operation only one circuit-breaker is closed (CB3 or CB4)
24 48 dual fed switchboards with coupler example (see fig. 1-24): source 1 source 2 S1 CB1 CB3 CB2 source 3 CB4 CB5 S2 CB6 Figure 1-24: dual fed switchboards with coupler Switchboard S1 has a dual power supply with coupler via 2 / transformers. Operation of the S1 power supply: during normal operation, the coupler circuit-breaker CB3 is open. Each transformer feeds a part of S1. If a supply source is lost, the circuit-breaker CB3 is closed and a single transformer feeds all of S1. Switchboard S2 has a dual power supply with coupler via an / transformer and an outgoing feeder coming from another switchboard. Operation of the S2 power supply: during normal operation, the circuit-breaker CB6 is open. Each source feeds part of S2. If a source is lost, the coupler circuit-breaker is closed and a single source feeds all of S2.
25 49 triple fed switchboards with no coupler example (see fig. 1-25): source 1 source 2 source 3 S1 Figure 1-25: triple fed switchboards with no coupler Switchboard S1 has a triple power supply with no coupler via 2 / transformers and an outgoing feeder coming from another switchboard. During normal operation, the switchboard is fed by 2 transformers in parallel. If one or both of the transformers fail, switchboard S1 is fed by the outgoing feeder coming from another switchboard.
26 50 triple fed switchboards with coupler example (see fig. 1-26): source 1 source 2 source 3 CB1 CB2 S1 Figure 1-26: triple fed switchboards with coupler Switchboard S1 has a triple power supply with coupler via 2 / transformers and an outgoing feeder coming from another switchboard. During normal operation, the two coupler circuit-breakers are open and switchboard S1 is fed by 3 supply sources. If one source fails, the circuit-breaker of the associated source is closed and the incoming circuit-breaker of the source that has been lost is tripped.
27 switchboards backed up by generators example 1: 1 transformer and 1 generator (see fig. 1-27) source 1 S1 G CB1 mains/standby CB2 S2 non priority circuits priority circuits Figure 1-27: 1 transformer and 1 generator During normal operation CB1 is closed and CB2 open. Switchboard S2 is fed by the transformer. If the main source is lost, the following steps are carried out: 1. The mains/standby changeover switch is operated and CB1 is tripped. 2. Load shedding if necessary of part of the loads on the priority circuit in order to limit the load impact on the generator. 3. Start-up of the generator. 4. CB2 is closed when the frequency and voltage of the generator are within the required ranges. 5. Reloading of loads which may have been shed during step 2. Once the main source has been restored, the mains/standby changeover device switches the S2 supply to the mains and the generator is stopped.
28 52 example 2: 2 transformers and 2 generators (see fig. 1-28) source 1 source 2 TR1 TR2 G G CB4 CB5 S2 S3 CB1 CB2 mains/ standby CB3 S1 non priority circuits priority circuits Figure 1-28: 2 transformers and 2 generators During normal operation, the coupler circuit-breaker CB1 is open and the mains/standby changeover device is in position CB2 closed and CB3 open. Switchboard S1 is fed by transformer TR2. If source 2 is lost or there is a breakdown on TR2, the S1 (and part of S2) standby supply is given priority by transformer TR1, after reclosing of the coupler circuit-breaker CB1. The generators are only started-up after the loss of the 2 main supply sources or the S2 busbar. The steps for saving the priority circuit supply are carried out in the same way as in example 1.
29 switchboards backed up by an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) The main devices making up a UPS system are shown in figure 1-29 and table 1-1. (5) manual by-pass network 2 supply network incoming feeders network 1 (7) switch or circuit-breaker (8) switch (4) static contactor _ ~ _ ~ (1) rectifiercharger (3) inverter (9) switch (6) battery circuit-breaker load (2) battery Figure 1-29: uninterruptible power supply system
30 54 Device name Ref. n Function Rectifier-charger (1) Transforms the alternating voltage of a supply network into a direct voltage which will: - feed the inverter on the one hand, - continually provide the charge of the storage battery on the other Storage battery (2) Provides a back-up supply to feed the inverter in case: - the supply network disappears, - the supply network is disturbed. Inverter (3) Transforms the direct voltage from the rectifier-charger or storage battery into alternating voltage with more severe tolerances than those of the network (supplies an alternating current close to the theoretical sine curve). Static contactor (4) Switches over the load supply from the inverter to network 2 (standby), and vice versa, without interruption (no cut due to mechanical switching device changeover time - the switchover is carried out using electronic components in a time < 1 ms). This switchover is performed if the inverter stops working for one of the following reasons: - switched off, - overload beyond the limiting capacities of the inverter, - internal anomaly. Manual by-pass (5) Manual switch which allows the user to be fed by network 2 (standby), while maintenance is being carried out. Manual switches Battery circuitbreakers (6) (7) (8) (9) Provides insulation of the different parts when maintenance is being carried out Tableau 1-1: function of different devices making up an uninterruptible power supply system
31 55 network incoming feeder(s) The terms network 1 and network 2 designate two independent incoming feeders on the same network: - network 1 (or mains) designates the incoming feeder usually supplying the rectifier-charger, - network 2 (or standby) is said to be a back-up feeder. The inverter's frequency and phase are synchronised with network 2. Thus, the static contactor can instantaneously switch the power supply to network 2 (in less than 1 ms). The connection of a UPS system to a second independent network is recommended since it increases the reliability of the system. It is nevertheless possible to have only one common incoming feeder. The choice of an uninterruptible power supply structure depends on the quality of networks 1 and 2, the use and the availability required. The manufacturer must provide the designer with sufficient elements for him to choose the most suitable structure. The following examples show the most common structures. example 1: switchboard backed up by an inverter, with a generator to eliminate the problem of the limited autonomy of the battery (usually about 15 mn) (see fig. 1-30) G non priority circuits filter ~ ~ Figure 1-30: switchboard backed up by an inverter The filter allows harmonic currents travelling up the supply network to be reduced.
32 56 example 2: switchboard backed up by 2 inverters in parallel with no redundancy (voir fig. 1-31) source G network 2 non priority circuits network 1 filter filter ~ ~ ~ ~ P 2 P 2 P priority circuits Figure 1-31: switchboard backed up by 2 inverters in parallel with no redundancy This configuration only allows an overall power capacity above that of a single rectifier/inverter unit. The power P to be supplied is also divided between the 2 inverters. A fault in one of the units leads to the load being switched to network 2 without interruption, except if the network is beyond its tolerance level.
33 57 example 3: switchboard backed up by 3 inverters one of which is actively redundant (see fig. 1-32) source G non priority circuits filter filter filter ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ P 2 P 2 P 2 P priority circuits Figure 1-32: switchboard backed up by 3 inverters one of which is actively redundant Let P be the maximum load rating of the priority circuit. P Each inverter has a rated power of, which means that when one inverter breaks down, the 2 other two inverters provide the total load power supply. This is referred to as a parallel-connected unit with 1/3 active redundancy.
34 58 example 4: switchboard backed up by 3 inverters one of which is on standby redundancy (see fig. 1-33) source G non priority circuits 3 ~ ~ 1 network 2 network 1 ~ ~ priority circuits ~ _ 2 _ ~ priority circuits Figure 1-33: switchboard backed up by 3 inverters one of which is on standby redundancy Inverter 3 is not charged, it is on standby ready to back up inverters 1 or 2. There is no power cut during switchover due to static contactors 1 and 2. Static contactor 3 provides back-up via network 2 in case there is a failure on network 1, or the 2 inverters break down. This is referred to as a parallel-connected unit with standby redundancy.
35 Industrial networks with internal production example (see fig. 1-34) : Network structure: - consumer substation - the main switchboard is fed by the internal production station - some outgoing feeders are fed by the utility and cannot be backed up by the internal production station - an loop system and some outgoing feeders are fed during normal operation by the internal production station. If the production station breaks down, this loop system and its outgoing feeders can be fed by the utility. The publication, translation and reproduction, either wholly or partly, of this document are not allowed without our written consent.
36 61 The publication, translation and reproduction, either wholly or partly, of this document are not allowed without our written consent.
37 Examples of standard networks example 1 (see fig. 1-35) Network structure: - consumer substation in a ring main system with two incoming feeders - main low voltage switchboard backed up by a generator - a priority switchboard fed by an uninterruptible power supply - the low voltage network is the arborescent radial type. The secondary switchboard and terminal boxes are fed by a single source. The publication, translation and reproduction, either wholly or partly, of this document are not allowed without our written consent.
38 63 consumer substation incoming feeders from utility G m meter main switchboard UPS priority switchboard secondary switchboard terminal box terminal box Figure 1-35: example 1 The publication, translation and reproduction, either wholly or partly, of this document are not allowed without our written consent.
39 64 example 2 (see fig. 1-36) Network structure: - consumer substation - the main switchboard can be backed up by a generator set and it feeds 3 transformers - an earthing transformer allows impedance earthing of the neutral when the network is fed by generators - the main low voltage switchboards MS1, MS2 and MS3 are independent and each one has an outgoing feeder to an uninterruptible power supply feeding a priority circuit - the low voltage network is the arborescent radial type. The motor control centres and terminal boxes are fed by a single source. The publication, translation and reproduction, either wholly or partly, of this document are not allowed without our written consent.
40 65 Figure 1-36: example 2 The publication, translation and reproduction, either wholly or partly, of this document are not allowed without our written consent.
41 66 example 3 (see fig. 1-37) Network structure: - consumer substation - the main switchboard can be backed up by a generator set and it feeds 2 / transformers - an earthing transformer allows impedance earthing of the neutral when the network is fed by generators - the main low voltage switchboard has a dual power supply with coupler - each bus section of the main low voltage switchboard has a UPS system feeding a priority circuit - the secondary switchboards, terminal boxes and motor control centres are fed by a single source The publication, translation and reproduction, either wholly or partly, of this document are not allowed without our written consent.
42 67 Figure 1-37: example 3 The publication, translation and reproduction, either wholly or partly, of this document are not allowed without our written consent.
43 68 example 4 (see fig. 1-38) Network structure: - consumer substation - the main switchboard can be backed up by a generator set. It feeds two / transformers in a single line supply system, 4 secondary switchboards in a loop system and a secondary switchboard in a single line supply system - the low voltage network is the arborescent radial type The publication, translation and reproduction, either wholly or partly, of this document are not allowed without our written consent.
44 69 The publication, translation and reproduction, either wholly or partly, of this document are not allowed without our written consent.
45 70 example 5 (see fig. 1-39) Network structure: - consumer substation. - two ratings: 20 kv and 6 kv. - the main switchboard fed in 20 kv can be backed up by a set of 4 generators. It feeds:. an 20 kv network in a loop system comprising 3 secondary switchboards 4, 5 and 6. two 20 kv/6kv transormers in a single line supply system - an earthing transformer allows impedance earthing of the neutral when the network is fed by generators - the main switchboard is made up 2 bus sections fed in 6 kv by 2 sources with coupler. It feeds 3 secondary switchboards and two 6 kv/ transformers in a single line supply system. - the secondary switchboard 2 is fed by 2 sources with coupler and is made up of 2 bus sections. It feeds two 6 kv motors and two 6kV/ transformers in a single line supply system. - the secondary switchboards 1 and 3 are fed by a single source. Each feeds a 6 kv/ transformer and a 6 kv motor. - the main low voltage switchboard MS1 can be backed up by a generator. - the main low voltage switchboard MS2 is fed by 2 sources with coupler. - the main low voltage switchboard MS3 is fed by a single source. - the motor control centres 1 and 3 are fed by a single source. - the motor control centre 2 is fed by 2 sources with no coupler. The publication, translation and reproduction, either wholly or partly, of this document are not allowed without our written consent.
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