2 Harvard Referencing Style What is it? Academic writing requires authors to support their arguments with reference to other published work or experimental results/findings. A reference system will perform three essential tasks: Enable you to acknowledge other authors ideas (avoid plagiarism). Enable a reader to quickly locate the source of the material you refer to so they can consult it if they wish. Indicate to the reader the scope and depth of your research. The Harvard style is a widely used referencing system to help you achieve these objectives. How do I use the Harvard Referencing Style? The Harvard style involves two tasks: How you refer to other authors in the body of your text (in-text citation). How you compile a list of reference sources at the end of your text (reference list). What does it look like? Here is an extract showing what in-text citations look like in the Harvard Style It has been claimed that due to funding being almost exclusively available from the Irish Film Board (IFB), Irish film makers are restricted to the type of Ireland they can depict in their work (MacDougall, 2009). Jervir (2011) argues that subjects such as Northern Ireland are disproportionately represented as these are key areas of interest to the IFB. Here is an example of what a Reference List looks like in the Harvard Style Moriarty, D. (2012) Funding models for Irish film makers. Dublin: Collins Press. Hayes, B. C., McAllister, I. and Dowds, L. (2011) 'Depicting Ireland on Film, what are we really saying?', Social Cinema Journal, 54(4), pp Jervir, C. E. O. (2010) 'Symbolic Violence, Resistance and how we view ourselves in Irish Film', World Cinema, 37(6), pp
3 MacDougall, H. (2009) 'Who Needs Hollywood?: The Role of Popular Genre Films in Irish National Cinema', The Canadian Journal of Irish Studies, 35(1), pp In this guide we show how common reference types should look in your reference list (REF) along with an example. Immediately following this will be two samples of how that reference should appear as an in-text citation (ITC). If the exact reference type you are looking for is not shown in this guide, look for one similar and follow the same rules. Alternatively consult the book Cite the Right, by Richard Pears and Graham Shields which is available in UCD Library. Notation guide REF = reference list ITC = in-text citation Book with one author REF: Author/Editor Last name, Initials. (Year) Title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher. McDonagh, S. (2001) Why are we Deaf to the Cry of the Earth? Dublin: Veritas. Author Last name (Year) (Author Last name, Year) According to McDonagh (2001) As has been argued (McDonagh, 2001) Book with two authors REF: First author Last name, Initials and second author Last name, Initials (Year) Title. Place of publication: Publisher. Shalloway, A. and Trott, J. (2001) Design patterns explained: a new perspective on object-oriented design. London: Addison Wesley.
4 First author Last name and second author Last name (Year) (First author Last name and second author Last name, Year) Shalloway and Trott (2001) suggest that.. It has been suggested (Shalloway and Trott, 2001) Book with more than three authors REF: Authors Names. (Year) Title. Place of publication: Publishing company. McGeady, T.A., Quinn, P.J., Fitzpatrick, E.S. and Ryan, M.T. (2006) Veterinary embryology. Oxford: Blackwell. First author Last name et al. (Year) (First author Last name et al. Year) McGeady et al. (2006) suggest. It has been suggested (McGeady et al., 2006). Book with a corporate author REF: Name of corporate author (Year) Title. Place of publication: Publisher. Department of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (2000) Pedigree sheep breed improvement programme: performance results for lambs summer Cavan: Department of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development. Name of corporate author (Year) (Name of corporate author, Year) Figures from the Department of Agriculture (2000) show that. Figures from other sources (Department of Agriculture, 2000) show.
5 Book with an editor REF: Editor(s) Last name, Initials (Ed.). (Year) Title. Place of publication: Publisher. O'Riordan, T. (Ed.). (2001) Globalism, Localism and Identity. London: Earthscan. Editor s Last name (Year) (Editor s Last name, Year) This was examined in O Riordain (2001). Others have examined this claim (O Riordain, 2001). Chapter in an edited book REF: Chapter Author(s) Last name, Initials. (Year) 'Chapter title'. In: Editor's(s) last name, Initials. ed(s). Book title. Place of publication: Publisher. Rose, H. (2000) 'Risk, Trust and Scepticism in the Age of the New Genetics'. In: Adam, B. et al. eds. Risk Society and Beyond. London: Sage. (Author(s) Last name, Year This was proposed by Rose (2000). It has been proposed (Rose, 2000). Electronic Book (e-book) REF: Authors Last name, Initials. (Year) Title of book. Available at: URL [Downloaded: Day Month Year]. Luhr, W. (2004) The Coen brothers' Fargo: Cambridge University Press film handbooks series. Available at: ebook/dp/b001g60iqi/ref=kinw_dp_ke [Downloaded: 24 February 2014].
6 Author s Last name (year) (Author s Last name, year) Luhr (2012) suggests that the Coen brothers It has been argued that The Coen brothers represent a revolution in cinamatography (Luhr, 2012, Chapter 2, 22%). Print Journal article with one author REF: Author Last name, Initials. (Year) 'Article title', Journal title, Volume (Issue), pp. page numbers. Tovey, H. (2002) 'Risk, Morality, and the Sociology of Animals - Reflections of the Foot and Mouth Outbreak in Ireland', Irish Journal of Sociology, 11 (1), pp ITC (Author(s) Last name, Year) Tovey (2002) argues. It has been argued (Tovey, 2002). Print Journal with two or three authors REF: First Author Last name, Initials and Second Author Last name, Initials. (Year) 'Article title', Journal title, Volume (Issue), pp. page numbers. Lopez, I. and Rodriguez, E. (2011) 'The Spanish Model', New Left Review, 69 (May/June 2011), pp
7 First author Last name and second author Last name (Year) (First author Last name and second author Last name, Year) Lopez and Rodriguez (2011) suggest that.. It has been suggested (Lopez and Rodriguez, 2011). Print journal with more than three authors REF: Authors Names. (Year) 'Article title', Journal title, Volume (Issue), pp. page numbers. Janssen, C, Vanhamme, J, Lindgreen, A, and Lefebvre, C. (2014) 'The Catch-22 of Responsible Luxury: Effects of Luxury Product Characteristics on Consumers' Perception of Fit with Corporate Social Responsibility', Journal Of Business Ethics, 119(1), pp First author Last name et al. (Year) (First author Last name et al. Year) Janssen et al. (1996) suggest. It has been suggested (Janssen et al., 1996). E-journal article REF: Author(s) Last name, Initials. (Year) Article title, Journal title, Volume (Issue), pp. page numbers. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Month Year]. Hawke, J, Wadsworth, S, & DeFries, J, (2006). Genetic influences on reading difficulties in boys and girls: the Colorado twin study, Dyslexia, 12 (1), pp Available at: [Accessed 10 February 2009].
8 (Author(s) Last name, Year) Example Hawke, Wadsworth and DeFries (2006) argue. Others have shown (Hawke, Wadsworth and DeFries, 2006).. Print Newspaper article REF: Author(s) Last name, Initials. (Year) Article title, Newspaper title, date, page numbers. O'Dea, W. (2006) Irish role in battle group concept will help to bolster UN, Irish Times, 10 January, p.16. (Author(s) Last name, Year) O Dea (2006) proposed. The article (O Dea, 2006) argues. Online Newspaper article REF: Author(s) Last name, Initials. (Year) Article title, Newspaper title, day month of publication. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Month Year]. Keenan, D 2011,'North voters go to polls today', Irish Times, 5 May. Available at: [5 May 2011]. (Author(s) Last name, Year)
9 Keenan (2011) reported. In the report (Keenan, 2011). Page on a website REF: Webpage Author(s) Last name, Initials. (Year) Page title. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Month Year]. Kelly, M. (2004) Environmental Attitudes and Behaviours: Ireland in Comparative European Perspective. Available at: [Accessed 8 February 2009]. (Author(s) Last name, Year) Kelly (2004) responded. In the response (Kelly, 2004). Website REF: Website author. (Year published/last updated) Title of Internet Site. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Month Year]. International Tourism Partnership (2004). International Tourism Partnership. Available at: [Accessed 8 February 2009]. (Website name, Year) Information available from their website (International Tourism Partnership, 2004).
10 Blog REF: Author(s) Last name, First name. (Year site published/last updated) Title of message, Title of Internet Site, Day Month of posted message. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Month Year]. O Connor, John (2010) Global warming and the future, Jane Murphy Blog, 14 January. Available at: [Accessed 13 April 2010]. (Author(s) Last name, Year) Example O Connor (2010) proposed. It was proposed elsewhere (O Connor, 2010) communication REF: Sender Last name, Initials (Year of message) to name of recipient, Day Month of communication. Scott, G. (2010) to John Bryce, 26 February. (Author(s) Last name, Year) In an response (Scott, 2010) In an to this author (Scott, 2010) Facebook REF: Author Last name, Initials. (Year page published/last updated) Title of page. Day Month Year of posted message. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Month Year].
11 DSPCA (2014) Dublin, SPCA. 21 January. Available at: https://www.facebook.com/dspca [Accessed 15 February 2014]. (Author(s) Last name Year) DSPCA (2014) reported the discovery of four emaciated pups.. It was reported that four emaciated pups were discovered on Christmas day (DSPCA, 2014). Twitter REF: Author(s) Last name, Initials. (Year page published/last updated) Day Month Year of posted message. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Month Year]. UCD School of Archaeology (2014) 29 July Available at: https://twitter.com/ucdarchaeology [Accessed 24 March 2014] (Authors(s) Last name, Year) UCD School of Archaeology (2013) reports that the Mesolithic house An exact replica of a Mesolithic house has been built by UCD Archaeology students at Mt Sandal (UCD School of Archaeology, 2013) *Note: date of post is used for in-text citation, date page published/last updated.
12 Images/Photographs REF: Photographer/Creator Last name, Initial(s). (Year) Title of image/photograph [Photograph/Image]. Place of publication: Publisher. O Meara, S. (2014) Orchid [Photograph]. Co. Clare: Collins Press. (Authors(s) Last name, Year) O Meara (2014) shows a perfect example of the epipactis atrorubens. The velvety red of the epipactis atrorubens is demonstrated (O Meara, 2014). Images/Photographs (Online) REF: Photographer/Creator Last name, Initial(s). (Year). Title of image/photograph. Available at: URL [Accessed 31 January 2014]. O Meara, S. (2014) Orchid. Available at: [Accessed 3 February 2014]. As detailed for Images/Photographs above. Lectures or Presentations REF: Author(s) Last name, Initial(s). (Year) Title of lecture/presentation [Medium], (Module Code: Module title). Institution. Day Month. De Burca, M. (2014) Geriatric radiography services in Ireland [Lecture to BSc Radiography Stage 3], RDGY30300: Clinical Practice of Radiography. University College Dublin. 11 May.
13 (Authors(s) Last name, Year) De Burca (2014) described the complicated system of radiographic services There is a complicated system of geriatric radiographic services (De Burca, 2014). Group or Individual Work REF: Student(s) Last name, Initial (s). (Year of submission) Title of essay/project/assignment, Module Code: module title. Institution. Unpublished essay/project/assignment. Woods, M., Mulcahy, W.D., Halpin, L., and O Shea, R.W. (2014) A model code of ethics for corporate governance in the Irish non-profit and charity sector, BMGT3019D: Corporate Responsibilities and Business Ethics. University College Dublin. Unpublished group project. Author(s) Last name et al. (Year) (Author(s) Last name et al., Year) Woods et al. (2014) detailed a model for corporate governance.. There have been complete models for corporate governance in the Irish non-profit and charity sector (Woods et al., 2014). *Note: use the et al. for three or more authors just like for a book/journal etc. Interviews (television) REF: Last name, Initials of person interviewed. (Year of interview) Title of the interview (if any). Interview by/with Interviewer s First name Last name, Title of publication, Day Month of Publication, page numbers if present.
14 Kenny, E. (2013) Ireland s lost generation. Interviewed by Miriam O Callaghan for Prime Time, RTE One Television, 15 March. Interviewee(s) Last name (Year) (Interviewee(s) Last name, Year) Example Kenny (2010) claimed in an interview. In an interview on RTE (Kenny, 2010). Interviews (newspaper) REF: Last name, Initials of person interviewed. (Year of interview) Title of the interview (if any). Interview by/with Interviewer s First name Last name, Title of publication, Day Month of Publication, page numbers if present. O Brien, M. (2014) Achieving success in parenting. Interview by Siobhan Moynihan for Irish News Weekly, 6 June, p. 56. Interviewee(s) Last name (Year) (Interviewee(s) Last name, Year) O Brien (2014) outlined honesty as key to parenting Honesty is seen as key to parenting through the teenage years (O Brien, 2014). Government agency publication REF: Name of government department (Year) Title. Place of publication: Publisher (Series if applicable). Available at: URL [Accessed Day Month Year]. Department of Health & Children (2006) A Vision for Change Report of the Expert Group on Mental Health Policy'. Dublin: Stationary Office. Available at: [Accessed 11 April 2010].
15 Department (Year) (Department, Year) The Department of Health & Children (2006) have shown. In a similar report (Department of Health & Children, 2006) it was shown Parliamentary and legal material REF: Government of Country. Title (Year) Place of Publication: Publisher. Government of Ireland. Human Rights Commission Act. (2000) Dublin: Stationery Office. (Country. Title of Legislation Year) Legislation (Ireland. Human Rights Commission Act 2000) outlawing the act. EU publications REF: Name of EU Institution (Year) Title. Place of Publication: Publisher. European Commission (2003) Making globalisation work for everyone. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. (Name of EU Institution, Year The predicted growth (European Commission, 2003) did not occur. Conferences REF: Author(s) Last Name, Initials (Year) Title of paper, Title of conference: subtitle. Location and date of conference. Place of publication: Publisher, Pages numbers
16 O Connor, J (2009) Towards a greener Ireland, Discovering our natural sustainable resources: future proofing. University College Dublin, March. Dublin: Irish Environmental Institute, pp (Author(s) Last name, Year) O Connor (2009) was able to highlight. Others (O Connor, 2009) have shown.. Theses REF: Author (Year of submission) Title of thesis. Degree statement. Degree-awarding body. Allen, S. J. (2009) The social and moral fibre of Celtic Tiger Ireland. Unpublished PhD thesis. University College Dublin. Author Last name (Year) (Author Last name, Year) Allen (2009) disagrees with this.. As argued elsewhere (Allen, 2009). Audio-visual material REF: Title of film (Year of distribution) Director [Format]. Place of distribution: Distribution company. The Lives of Others. (2007) Florien Henckel von Donnersmarck [DVD]. Santa Monica: Lionsgate.
17 Title of film, Year (Title of film, Year) The portrait shown in The Lives of Others (2007). East Germany was the subject of a recent successful movie (The Lives of Others, 2007). Podcasts REF: Author/Presenter Last name, Initial(s). (Year site published/updated) Title of podcast. [Podcast]. Day Month Year of podcast posted. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Month Year]. Reddy, M. (2013) Hibernian Hardboiled: Race & Gender in Contemporary Irish Crime Fiction. [Podcast]. 24 November Available at: [Accessed 31 January 2014]. Author s/presenter s Last name (year) (Author s/presenter s Last name, year) Reddy (2013) outlines how Irish crime fiction.. It has been argued Irish Crime fiction has strong gender typing (Reddy, 2013).
18 Further Help UCD Library has a basic online tutorial on how to use the Harvard Referencing Style. It is accessible at EndNote is a software application that allows researchers store and manage all references in one place. It is available via Software for U and the Library runs regular introductory and advanced training sessions. Users can record, store and manage references in hundreds of citation styles. Users can add references manually or search and download directly from online databases and library catalogues. EndNote Cite While You Write features allows users to insert citations easily and creates bibliographies automatically in Microsoft Word and Apple's Pages '09 More information about Library support for Endnote is available on our website 1. 1
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