Analysis of Provisioning Dependable Spot Virtual Machines in Cloud Environments

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1 Analysis of Provisioning Dependable Spot Virtual Machines in Cloud Environments RamSanthosh Gopala Krishna Guptha MSc Computing and Management Session 2011/2012 The candidate confirms that the work submitted is their own and the appropriate credit has been given where reference has been made to the work of others. I understand that failure to attribute material which is obtained from another source may be considered as plagiarism. (Signature of student)

2 Abstract Cloud Computing is the rapid development trend in IT industry. Cloud platform is a highly monetary cost-effective pay-as-you-go model. With the recent emergence of Spot Virtual Machines, the costs are more flexible and extremely reliable for the cloud users. This report will mainly focus on identifying and analyzing the optimal balance between costs and reliability in Spot Virtual Machines. These factors will be highly achieved by comparing the performance with On-Demand and Reserved Virtual machines. In this project, we present a jquery framework which used to process the data among users and providers. The CloudSim toolkit would be implemented in Eclipse with the integration of our jquery programming model to process the data. We propose and evaluate a model for costs, reliability and trade-off for measuring the performance level among these three virtual machines. The further approach should be extended to different factors such as availability and security to make the best decision. II

3 Acknowledgement I would like to express my gratitude personally to my supervisor, Professor Jie Xu, for his precious advice, guidance and feedback on time throughout of my Master s project. Without his support, would not be able to fulfill the requirements of my project on time. I would also like to deeply thank my assessor, Dr Haiko Muller, for his valuable feedback for my interim report and during the progress meeting. I would really say thanks to Peter Garraghan, for suggesting me this research project and for assisting me during the overall project session in the proper way. I would like to express my hearty thanks to my loving parents for their love, prayers, support and inspiration throughout my life. Finally, I would like to say thanks to my friends who helped and encouraged me to complete the project successfully. III

4 Table of Contents Abstract... II Acknowledgement III List of Acronyms VII List of Figures IX List of Tables.... XI Chapter 1: Introduction Project Outline Aim Objectives Minimum Requirements Further enhancements Deliverables Resources Required Project Schedule and Progress Report Proposed Research Methods Structure of the Thesis Chapter 2: Literature Research Cloud Computing Characteristics of Cloud Computing Service Models Deployment Models Cloud Computing Challenges Service Oriented Architecture Principles of SOA Benefits of SOA Web Services Web Service Architecture Web Service Development Lifecycle Dependability Dependability and their Attributes Threats to Dependability Means to attain Dependability...16 IV

5 2.4.4 Challenges and Opportunities of Dependability in the cloud Virtualization Why Virtualizes Types of Server Virtualization Chapter 3: Reliability and Costs of Virtual Machines On-Demand Virtual Machine Reserved Virtual Machine Spot Virtual Machine Features of Spot Instances Chapter 4: Model and System Design Cloud Infrastructure Model Scenario How Cloud Broker Works? Data Processing Application Design CloudSim Architecture VM Allocation DataCenter DataCenterBroker Cloudlet VMProvisioner...32 Chapter 5: Implementation Creating the Database CloudSim Implementation Description of Data Processing Application using jquery.. 34 Chapter 6: Experiments and Evaluation CloudSim: Response Time Cost Analysis Performance of Reliability Trade-off...44 Chapter 7: Conclusion Overall Evaluation Problems Occurred Suggested proposals for further research...48 References...49 Appendix A Project Reflection...53 V

6 Appendix B Interim Report...54 Appendix C Gantt chart...55 Appendix D Sample Data Processing Application using jquery...56 Appendix E Costs Analysis...58 Appendix F Performance of Reliability...59 Appendix G Trade-off...60 VI

7 List of Acronyms API AWS CDSV CMS CPU CRM EC2 ERP HTTP I/O IaaS IBM IT JDBC MTBF NIST OASIS ODBC OS PaaS QoS RAM RDBMS REST RHEL S3 Application Programming Interface Amazon Web Services Cloud Dependability by using System- level Virtualization Cloud Management System Central Processing Unit Customer Relationship Management Elastic Compute Cloud Enterprise Resource Planning Hypertext Transfer Protocol Input/output Infrastructure as a Service International Business Machines Information Technology Java DataBase Connectivity Mean Time Between Failures National Institute of Standards and Technology Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards Open DataBase Connectivity Operating System Platform as a Service Quality of Service Random Access Memory Relational DataBase Management System Representational State Transfer Red Hat Enterprise Linux Simple Storage Service VII

8 SaaS SI SLA SOA SOAP SQL VM VMM VPC W3C WS WSDL WSDL WWW XML Software as a Service Spot Instance Service Level Agreement Service Oriented Architecture Simple Object Access Protocol Structured Query Language Virtual Machine Virtual Machine Monitor Virtual Private Cloud World Wide Web Consortium Web Service Web Service Development Lifecycle Web Services Description Language World Wide Web extensible Markup Language VIII

9 List of Figures Figure 1: Service Models Figure 2: Deployment Models 7 Figure 3: SOA Infrastructure Figure 4: Web Services Architecture Figure 5: Dependability Figure 6: Fault-Error-Failure Chain Figure 7: Virtual Infrastructure Figure 8: Spot Instance pricing in EU region Figure 9: On-Demand Instance pricing in EU region...22 Figure 10: Reserved Instance pricing in EU region...24 Figure 11: Working of Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud...25 Figure 12: Overall Cloud Infrastructure Model...27 Figure 13: Simple design of Data Processing system using jquery...29 Figure 14: CloudSim Architecture...31 Figure 15: Detailed version of Data Processing system design using jquery...35 Figure 16: Cost Analysis based on Amazon default (Small) type Standard Instances...39 Figure 17: Cost Analysis based on Amazon Medium type Standard Instances...39 Figure 18: Cost Analysis based on Amazon Large type Standard Instances...40 Figure 19: Performance of Reliability for Amazon default (Small) type Standard Instances...42 IX

10 Figure 20: Performance of Reliability for Amazon Medium type Standard Instances...43 Figure 21: Performance of Reliability for Amazon Large type Standard Instances...43 Figure 22: Trade-off for Amazon default (Small) type Standard Instances...44 Figure 23: Trade-off for Amazon Medium type Standard Instances...45 Figure 24: Trade-off for Amazon Large type Standard Instances...45 Figure 25: Initial schedules for the tasks and deadlines allocated to complete.55 Figure 26: Final schedules for the tasks and deadlines allocated to complete..55 Figure 27: Costs Analysis for Amazon Standard Instances ( VM s)...58 Figure 28: Performance of Reliability for Amazon Standard Instances ( VM s)...59 Figure 29: Trade-off for Amazon Standard Instances ( VM s)...60 X

11 List of Tables Table 1: Data Processed response time for 10 to 100 instances...37 Table 2: Data Processed response time for 10 to instances...38 Table 3: MTBF rate for 10 to 100 Instances which failed to create in Datacenters...41 Table 4: MTBF rate for 10 to Instances which failed to create in Datacenters...41 Table 5: Overall Performance of Cost, Reliability and Trade-off...46 XI

12 Introduction 1.1 Project Outline Aim Chapter 1 The aim of the project is to analyse and construct a model that helps to strike an optimal balance between the cost and reliability of Spot Virtual Machines (VM) and to identify and analyse the characteristics and economic factors of different VMs in the cloud infrastructure Objectives Understand the concepts of Cloud and its deployments, characteristics and service models. Understand the concepts of Cloud VM instance Types: On-demand instances, reserved instances and Spot instances. Understand the economic factors of Spot VM that differs from the on-demand and reserved VMs in the Cloud infrastructure. Explore the service reliability of Spot VM instances. Propose and develop models for Spot instance pricing and reliability in the Clouds. Evaluate the developed models for achieving optimal balance between cost, reliability and performance of Spot VMs Minimum Requirements A literature study on Cloud computing infrastructure and the relationship between spot Virtual Machine reliability and the Cloud economic model for analyzing and deducing some conclusions through comparison. Production of taxonomy of classifications of types of Virtual Machines. The development of a simulation framework, such as using CloudSim, to analyse the reliability of Spot Virtual Machines as contrasted with other types of Virtual Machines based on the taxonomy. A quantitative analysis of the cost, reliability and performance of applications exposed to the simulation framework. 1

13 1.1.4 Further enhancements Develop Model for cost, reliability and performance of applications. Based on the Economic factors measure the reliability of Spot Virtual Machines Deliverables Models developed for economic factors supported by simulation and similar mechanisms Resources Required CloudSim is a tool and it supports for modeling and simulation of various instances Project Schedule and Progress Report The initial and revised project plan schedules are given in Appendix C. The progress of the project plans until the submission of the interim report has been done perfectly based on their respective deadlines. Hopefully, further progression also will be progressed on the basis of the timeline Proposed Research Methods To analyse the economic factors in the cloud infrastructure is done through the creation of the model which is on the basis of cost and reliability of distinct spot virtual machines. I would go with the System Model to create the models to spot the variations of costs, reliability and performance of the spot instance. Simulation helps to find the past price history of the spot instances and calculates the probability density function. Evaluating the models using cloud test bed through simulation. 2

14 1.2 Structure of the Thesis Introduction chapter describes the aim and objectives of the project. Literature Review chapter summarizes the subjects which relate to Cloud Computing, Service Oriented Architecture and Web Services, Dependability, Virtualization. Reliability and Costs of Instances chapter contain the research analysis on On- Demand VM, Reserved VM and Spot VM about the pricing model and how these VM s are reliable. Model and System Design chapter explains about the Cloud modeling, Data Processing application system and the CloudSim Architecture. Implementation chapter describes about the jquery Framework and how it assists to process the data into the system between cloud users and cloud providers. Experiments and Evaluation chapter contains the experimentation and evaluation results of three different virtual machines in the form of tables and graphs. Conclusion chapter refers to overall evaluation and further research on the project. 3

15 Literature Research 2.1 Cloud Computing Chapter 2 The great changes in the traditional IT business, this happens because of the drastic development of cloud computing. Although, Cloud computing has no precise definition. Cloud computing will resolve a number of questions with the aid of speed of the internet and improvements of software on the internet. Cloud Computing provides on-demand resource provisioning. The basic principle of Cloud computing is to distribute the computing tasks to many distributed computers, not local computers or remote servers. [Shuai Zhang et al., 2010] Cloud computing is developed from Grid computing and it combines the traditional concepts of Grid Computing, Distributed Computing, Utility Computing that coupled with virtualization [Kalagiakos & Karampelas, 2011]. In Grid computing, it regrets about how things are maintained in the clouds but not how things are running in the user s system. We used to store documents, sharing files through U-disk with the help of PC. Once the PC doesn t work we lost all the data. But in Cloud computing, all these actions will do with clouds due to numerous of computers in a cloud. The most important advantage is Cloud computing will extend the hardware and software applications and based on that it will change the hardware and software application model. For new Internet Services developers have no longer demand about the capital expenditure in hardware to deploy the services and human expense of operating the services as well [Shuai Zhang et al., 2010]. NIST proposed a Cloud Computing definition, which includes the key elements that extensively used in the Cloud Computing community, stated as Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g.., networks, servers, storage, services and applications) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. [Mell & Grance, 2011] 4

16 2.1.1 Characteristics of Cloud Computing According to the NIST definition, Cloud computing has five essential characteristics that are obviously articulated [Dillon et al., 2010], On-demand self-service: Customers can use the computing resources such as server time, network storage, software use and so on, automatically without any human interactions with the cloud provider. Broad network access: The computing resources are available over the network and that can be accessed through the client applications (i.e., enabled with internet devices) with heterogeneous platforms such as laptops, mobiles, tablets and workstations. Resource Pooling: The computing resources such as physical and virtual resources are dynamically pooled together to serve multiple customers via the multi - tenant model. The main objective of setting the physical and virtual resources is off because the physical resources become invisible to the customers who do not have the authority or knowledge over the location of the resources. Rapid Elasticity: The computing resources are scalable, the customers can extend the resources whenever they need and release them once they finished. The consumption of resources can increase at any time to meet their requirements. Measured Service: The usage of the computing resources such as storage, processing, capacity planning, resource optimization, bandwidth and active user accounts are controlled and monitored by the Cloud providers that has been shared in the cloud infrastructure Service Models Software as a Service: The cloud consumers can use the provider s applications running on a cloud infrastructure. Most of the applications in the Cloud Computing Service are web-based applications that can be accessed via a thin client interface such as an API by cloud users. Cloud consumers do not manage or control the cloud infrastructure, to achieve the scalability and optimization all the users application is systemized in a single infrastructure on the SaaS [Hoefer & Karagiannis, 2010]. 5

17 Platform as a Service: The cloud provider offers a combination of OS and application servers, programming environment, development interfaces such as SOAP and REST, configuration management, and so forth to the cloud consumers. So they can use this service to design, development, testing, deployment and hosting on the cloud providers environments with free of cost and complexity of owning the platform [Velte et al., 2010]. The cloud users can control the application which is running on the platform infrastructure but not able to control the hardware, software, operating system, network infrastructure on which they are progressing to develop their applications [Mell & Grance, 2011]. The drawback of PaaS is a lack of interoperability and portability amid providers. Infrastructure as a Service: Cloud consumers could rent these computing capabilities from the cloud providers instead of owning those resources [Hoefer & Karagiannis, 2010]. Cloud consumers can use the cloud services such as processing, storage space, network, servers, memory, CPU cycles and other computing resources which are available on the IaaS cloud. The cloud users could not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure, but can control over the operating system, storage, deployed applications and possibly network components such as firewalls [Mell & Grance, 2011]. Figure 1: Service Models Source: Cloud Computing - An Overview 6

18 2.1.3 Deployment Models NIST proposed four deployment models namely private cloud, community cloud, public cloud and hybrid cloud. Private Cloud - Private cloud infrastructure is exclusively built for a single organization, managed and operated by the organization or the third party and it may exist on or off premises to maintain security, privacy and governance control. On-premise private cloud provides the standard process protection whereas off-premise private cloud facilitates high guarantee of protection. There are various aspects to prefer the private cloud within the organizations are, to maximize the utilization of existing resources, data privacy, data transfer cost from private cloud to public cloud is considerable and for research purposes [Mell & Grance, 2011]. Community Cloud - Community cloud infrastructure is shared and controlled by several groups of organizations in terms of policies, missions, security requirements, values and concerns. It may be owned by within the group of organizations or the third party vendor and exist on or off premises [Dillon et al., 2010]. Public Cloud - Public cloud infrastructure is owned by third parties (i.e., cloud service provider) with its own policy, profit and value, costing, and charging model and is used by general cloud users. They can access the public cloud services from the cloud provider using networks and it provides effective cost and elastic inferior to deploy solutions. Some of the organization provides public cloud services are Amazon EC2, S3, and Google AppEngine [Dillon et al., 2010]. Figure 2: Deployment Models Source: Cloud Computing Architectural Framework 7

19 Hybrid Cloud - In a cloud infrastructure, the combination of multiple cloud models (private, community, or public) that interoperates. The major advantage of using the hybrid computing is that it provides optimization, scalability and lower costs of public cloud without exposing application to the third party [Dillon et al., 2010] Cloud Computing Challenges Some of the challenges associated with Cloud computing are as follows, Security - Some of the security issues such as data loss, phishing, botnet pose arduous threats to the organization s application and software. The multi-tenancy model has created new security issues such as shared resources on different instances and reputation fate sharing [Dillon et al., 2010]. Some instance storage location is not disclosed to the cloud users because of the organization s security concern. Costing Model - Cloud users should think about the tradeoffs among communication, integration and computation between different clouds. Cloud migration could considerably reduce the cost but it does hoist the data communication cost. From the economic view, transactional applications such as CRM/ERP does not apply in cloud computing. The cost of data integration is considerable when the clouds use protocols and interfaces migrate the data amongst different clouds. The cloud users required to use the cloud provider interface (e.g., API) to access the heterogeneous data and applications to and from different clouds [Dillon et al., 2010]. Charging Model - Elastic resource pool has made a cost analysis bit more complicated than regular data analysis of the cloud provider s outlook [Dillon et al., 2010]. For the SaaS cloud providers, developing the multi-tenancy charging model is more crucial in terms of cost and it includes re-design and re-development of software, some features such as performance, security and customization for simultaneous user access. Service Level Agreement - All business level operations has Service Level Agreements because the cloud users have no control over the underlying computing resources so they need to get assurance from the cloud providers about the quality, reliability, availability and performance. Different clouds such as SaaS, PaaS and IaaS will be required to define distinct SLA meta-specifications so it increases the number of implementation issues for the cloud providers [Dillon et al., 2010]. 8

20 2.2 Service Oriented Architecture SOA is an architectural model for the development of loosely coupled applications in distributed systems via internet [Hongqi Li & Zhuang Wu, 2009]. SOA architecture is different from traditional distributed system architectures by loosely coupled, decentralized middleware and well-supported standards. The SOA paradigm intended to increase the efficiency, agility and productivity of the organization by providing services through loosely coupled infrastructure associated with service-oriented computing. SOA implementation is mainly based on the unification of technologies, API, products and infrastructure extensions and so forth [Erl, 2008]. To construct the system architecture in the enterprises, the SOA architecture provides a more flexible loosely coupled and low cost system development to improve the quality of the whole system. Figure 3 shows the typical infrastructure of distributed SOA. Figure 3: SOA Infrastructure Source: Research on Distributed Architecture Based on SOA OASIS group defined SOA by, A paradigm for organizing and utilizing distributed capabilities that may be under the control of different ownership domains. It provides a uniform means to offer, discover, interact with and use capabilities to produce desired effects consistent with measurable preconditions and expectations. [OASIS, 2006] 9

21 2.2.1 Principles of SOA Thomas Erl of SOA Systems Inc defined eight service-orientation principles to all SOA platforms on the basis of corporate perspective. SOA attempts to combine the service-orientation principles with the IT and business architecture goals [Offermann et al., 2009]. The basic principles are as follows, Standardized Service Contract: The service interface provides an agreement between the service and clients which should be both technically and legally, it includes their communication requirements, properties, purposes, policies, programmatic interfaces and capabilities [SOA Systems Web Services Journal, 2005]. Service Loose Coupling: Loose Coupling refers to a connection between receiving and sending parties with a minimal dependency whereas tightly coupled relates to the high degree dependency and decoupled has no dependency. Service-orientation maintaining a level of loosely coupled relationships between service contracts, implementation and clients [SOA Systems Web Services Journal, 2005]. Service Abstraction: The Service Abstraction emphasizes in the service contract, regarding service implementation information is hidden from the outside world and it serves service as a black box to the clients [SOA Systems Web Services Journal, 2005]. The result of accomplishment enables and preserves the established service- client relationship. Service Reusability: The Service Reusability defined as the service capabilities may not be specific to any business tasks and to guarantee that the service capabilities can be developed with the intention of reuse requirements. The intention of SOA itself can be broadened beyond enterprise infrastructure solutions. The service reusability is always conceived through standardized design [SOA Systems Web Services Journal, 2005]. Service Autonomy: The Service Autonomy has the control over the underlying business logic within the ownership resources of the provider s organization so the services are directed as independently as possible from other services of the technical infrastructure [SOA Systems Web Services Journal, 2005]. This autonomy supports the design principles by fostering the characteristics of design that raises the efficiency, availability and reliability. 10

22 Service Statelessness: The Service Statelessness defines about the consumption of extensive resources. Services are designed to be in stateful condition only when they requisite so it increases the benefits of scalability and availability of the service. This statelessness simply highlights the state of the resource consumption of the service to be minimized [SOA Systems Web Services Journal, 2005]. Service Discoverability: The Service Discoverability supports the discoverability concept by focusing the service design itself rather than the requisite of applications or any other mechanisms that is associated with the service-orientation. The service contract governs the characteristics of discovery mechanism (e.g., Service registry) which is related to both automated evaluation and human interpretation [SOA Systems Web Services Journal, 2005]. Service Composability: The effective Service Composablilty is required to perform the fundamental tasks of the service-orientation. The services are designed to be participating in the composition controllers, members or both as well; inventory of more adaptive resources can be grouped by ensuring the participation of the services. The extension of the business requirements can be addressed by remodeling of services into further new composition configurations [SOA Principles] Benefits of SOA The scope of business architecture for SOA is effective, efficient and increases the flexibility, changeability and agility [Offermann, 2009]. Generally in the enterprise perspective, the architecture of SOA upgrades the reuse of service (macro) level from the class (micro) level. From a business perspective, SOA generates the further new applications with the aid of existing applications. From IT perspective, this integration reduces the distributed resources over diverse platforms, low expensive; usage of hardware is low and is more reliable. SOA is a platform independent so the organizations able to afford on their own software and hardware services. SOA allows the software developer to enable incremental deployment, development, maintenance and reuse the applications rapidly [Hongqi Li & Zhuang Wu, 2009]. 11

23 2.3 Web Services Web Services are becoming more popular in the distributed systems owing to the simplicity and flexibility of World Wide Web (WWW). Web Services are self-contained, self-describing and modular applications that can be published, located and invoked across the web [Thomas et al., 2003]. It performs functions from simple request to more complex processes. When the web service is deployed, the other web services can invoke the deployed services. Web Service is a collection of operations, standards and protocols that can be used for exchanging XML based information systems via the internet, these systems might contain programs, objects, messages or documents. A web service is controlled and managed by the web server and web pages [Coulouris et al., 2005]. The Web Service is defined by the World Wide Web Consortium as follows, A Web service is a software system designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network. It has an interface described in a machine-processable format (specifically WSDL). Other systems interact with the Web service in a manner prescribed by its description using SOAP messages, typically conveyed using HTTP with an XML serialization in conjunction with other Web-related standards [W3C Working Group, 2004] Web Service Architecture The Web Service architecture combines various components and technologies and it supports an XML-based platform for discovery, description and interoperability of multiple applications as services. Web Service architecture is mainly based on the interaction between three roles: Service provider, Service Requester and Service Registry. The interaction involves some operations such as publish, find and bind. Together, these operations and roles act upon WS artifacts [Al-Ajlan & Zedan, 2008]. Totally there are four stages of web services scenario are as follows, 1. The service provider defines the description of the services and publishes it into the service registry. 2. The service broker discovers optimal services to satisfy the registry specifications. 3. The service broker transmits the services to the service requestor that have been discovered. 4. Once the services have been discovered, to bind these services the service requestor negotiates with the service provider. 12

24 In this, service requestor might be a client, a device, an application or other web services. The roles of the service provider and service requestor are logical constructs and it exposes both characteristics [Al-Ajlan & Zedan, 2008]. The Web Services has three operational behavior named as publish, find and bind. The benefits of web services take place based on these behaviors. Figure 4 explains the WS architecture and the behaviors are explained as follows, (IBM Software Group- 2001) Figure 4: Web Services Architecture Source: The Extension of Web Services Architecture to Meet the Technical Requirements of Virtual Learning Environments Publish: The artifacts of the web service: service description should be published then the only service requestor can easily find it. Find: The service description is retrieved by the service requester. In the service requester, the find operation involves in two phases of distinct lifecycle. One at the design time: for program development, it retrieves the service interface description whereas another at runtime: for invocation, it retrieves the service location and binding description. Bind: To locate, invoke and contact the WS artifact: service, the service requester initiates an interaction with the service using the binding information at runtime Web Service Development Lifecycle The Web Service Development Lifecycle involves the design, runtime and deployment requirements for three roles: service provider, service requester and service registry. Every role has individual requirements for each component in the WSDL. The four phases of WSDL are as follows, [IBM Software Group, 2001] 13

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