1 R e p o r t o n t h e S u r v e y Corporate Foundations in Poland
3 Corporate Foundations in Poland Report on the Survey
5 S p i s t r e ś c i Introduction: Corporate Foundations in Poland Seen Against World Tendencies  Part 1: Corporate Foundations an Overview of World Experience  Part 2: History of Corporate Community Investment in Poland  Part 3: Methodology of the Survey on Corporate Foundations in Poland within the CEENERGI Project  3.1 Survey s Overall Goals  3.2 Selection of the Sample, Definition of a Corporate Foundation  3.3 Research Issues  3.4 Method and the Course of the Survey  Part 4: A Corporate Foundation Institutional Structure  4.1 Legal Regulations  4.2 Statutory Bodies  4.3 Team  4.4 Financing  4.5 Grant-awarding Procedures  4.6 Monitoring, Evaluation, Reporting  Part 5: Corporate Foundations Activity  5.1 Activity Range  5.2 Activity Goals  5.3 Beneficiaries  5.4 Partners, Cooperation  5.5 Image  5.6 Barriers 
6 Part 6: Corporate Foundations as the CCI Instrument  6.1 Reasons for and Initiators of Foundations Establishment  6.2 Company Benefits Resulting from the Foundation Establishment  6.3 Corporate Foundations Identity Business or the Third Sector?  6.4 Company s CCI Independently or by Means of the Foundation?  Part 7: Commentaries on the Survey on Corporate Foundations  7.1 From CSR to PR a Role of Corporate Foundations in Polish Non Governmental Sector  7.2 Corporate Foundation as a Strategic Mechanism for the Implementation of CCI 
7 S p i s i l u s t r a c j i Diagram no 1 Public Benefit Organisations status among corporate foundations.  Diagram no 2 Employment status in corporate foundations.  Diagram no 3 Foundations employees versus employment status.  Diagram no 4 Size of foundations budgets.  Diagram no 5 Foundations financing sources.  Diagram no 6 Grant-awarding procedures in corporate foundations.  Diagram no 7 Average 2006 grant.  Diagram no 8 Publishing reports by corporate foundations.  Diagram no 8a Publishing reports by corporate foundations.  Diagram no 9 Range of foundations activity.  Diagram no 10 Domains of corporate foundations activity.  Diagram no 11 Forms of corporate foundations activity.  Diagram no 12 Beneficiaries of corporate foundations activity.  Diagram nor 13 Entities sponsored by corporate foundations.  Diagram no 14 Dates of corporate foundations establishment.  Diagram no 15 Business branches establishing corporate foundations.  Diagram no 16 Is company s CCI run exclusively by means of a foundation?  Picture no 1 A number of foundations within voivodships.  Picture no 2 A number of foundations, which was set up in a certain year.  Picture no 3 Eight key success factors a strategic role of a corporate foundation for the implementation of CCI.  Picture no 4 Decision to establish a corporate foundation: a list of key issues. 
9 I n t r o d u c t i o n Corporate Foundations in Poland Seen Against World Tendencies We are presenting the Readers with a Report on corporate foundations in Poland which sums up the results of a survey commissioned by the Donors Forum in Poland and carried out by Inwestycje Społeczne sp. z o.o. Our survey formed part of the regional CEENRGI (Central Eastern European Network for Responsible Giving) Project financed by the C.S. Mott Trust for Civil Society in Central and Eastern Europe Foundation, the Project being implemented in 8 countries of Central and Eastern Europe by Donors Forums. The CEENERGI Project aims at promoting CSR and corporate philanthropy in Central and Eastern Europe and establishing a regional platform allowing the exchange of experience and information on the degree of regional CCI, promotion of good practice and of interesting forms of community involvement. The CEENERGI Project carries out, among others, surveys on CCI, this including a ranking of companies, entitled Philanthropy Leaders 2006, donating resources to social causes. Moreover, workshops, seminars, and conferences are held; they aim at expanding knowledge and perfecting skills in CCI programmes. The Project also creates conditions for establishing a platform for cooperation among corporate donors and private grant-giving foundations. The first year of the CEENERGI Project was dedicated in Poland mainly to promoting the model of the corporate foundation as the instrument to implement company s CCI and promoting companies commitment to financing community projects. Our activities included, among others: quantitative and qualitative survey of Polish corporate foundations; workshops for corporate foundations employees focused on forming, running, and assessing community involvement programmes, communicating on CCI programmes outwardly and inwardly, as well as workshops on social marketing and community involvement, social advertising, legal conditions for foundation operation in Poland, and reporting principles. Together with the Forbes magazine and the Stock Exchange we held the Philanthropy Leaders Competition, accompanied by a ranking of companies who donated most resources and the highest percentage of their revenue to CCI activities in We monitored the presences of the CCI topic and corporate philanthropy in the media. We were involved in lobbying for creating a friendly legal environment for the development of corporate philanthropy. All information regarding the above is available at our website and the Project s website We have reduced the survey on CCI in Poland to corporate foundations for two reasons only. Firstly, carrying out a broader survey covering e.g. 500 of the largest Polish companies was beyond both our organizational and financial capacity: in Poland we lack any reliable data accounting for CCI, as it is not included
10 8 in their financial statements; neither is such information available at Polish Central Statistical Office or at the Ministry of Finance, the latter able to provide only information on tax exempted sums. No information is available on the overall size of financing of community projects in Poland, this also by other grant institutions, be they private or public. 1 Hence a challenge still ahead of the third sector. Secondly, and what is more important, corporate foundations, as a formal independent legal entity, seem to be the most mature form for the implementation of CCI and thanks to stable financing, this guaranteed by the company, they rank as the closest to the classical formula of a foundation (defined as an institution provided by its founder with endowment meant to serve the accomplishment of the goal set by the founder). Established in compliance with the provisions of the Law on Foundations, and sometimes also the Law on Public Benefit Activity (over 60 per cent of those enjoy such status), they abide by the same regulations and rigours as other foundations. Among such requirements there is the necessity to have authorities caring for foundation s good and independent of the company; reporting responsibility; openness of the decision-making process, as well as activity openness and transparency. The structure and operating ways make corporate foundations part of the non-governmental sector. And although they do not constitute a significant group among the overall foundation population, 2 they are a significant and important group among foundations involved in grant-giving activity. 3 For as distinct from the majority of other foundations they have stable and independent financing allowing to develop long-term grant-giving programmes. This a distinctive feature that turns such foundations into an important support sources for social initiatives and a natural partner for the grant-giving foundations associated in the Donors Forum. The herein presented survey is the first such complex attempt to analyses the environment of corporate foundations in Poland, being at the same time the first survey of this group of entities in our region. 4 The collected material was to help us ascertain basic data regarding corporate foundations operating in Poland: their number, scale of financial involvement, activity forms and methods, areas of support and the profile of sponsored entities, internal structure and procedures for sponsoring allocation. Our intention was to examine to what extent these foundations are independent of the companies which established them, not only in the formal (as separate legal entities), but the real one too. Are they being treated by their founders as the instrument to implement corporate image policy, or are they an attempt to institutionalize and professionalize their community involvement, to separate it from promotional activities and to give them a more structuralized and long-term profile. Finally, we wanted to learn what their needs and challenges are, what obstacles they come across in their activity, as well as to identify those spheres of their operations which require investment and support from colleagues from the non-governmental sector. It us up to our Readers to judge to what degree we have been successful with accomplishing our task. Meanwhile, let me allow to share with you some observations regarding the situation of Polish corporate 1. The survey carried out annually by the Klon/Jawor Association demonstrating the percentage of specific financing sources in NGOs, is based on questionnaire information provided by the beneficiaries of the organizations and does not include any direct financing of social activities by companies nor donations granted to public institutions. 2. According to the assessment based on the Klon/Jawor survey in 2006 they form ca 2 per cent of all the foundations listed in the REGON statistical number register. 3. I.e, activity consisting in providing financing to other entities: individuals, NGOs, public and private institutions (according to the Klon/Jawor survey about 12 per cent of all the foundations in Poland run grant-giving activity). 4. Apart from two surveys by the Smart Company for CAF from 2006 and July 2007 regarding corporate foundations in Great Britain, we are unaware of any serious research targeted at foundations.
11 9 foundations as seen against worldwide trends and also on the map of Polish grant-giving organizations. Yet, before I proceed with this, let me anticipate some potential criticism and say a few words of what we have been unable to accomplish in our survey. We have been unable to ascertain the overall number of company-established foundations. Our researchers have identified only 50 active foundations, meaning such which feature records of not only having been established, but are actually involved in some form of activity. Jan Herbst in his commentary to the present Report assesses the overall number of corporate foundations registered under the REGON statistical number as not smaller than 200, whereas the survey of Klon/Jawor of October 2006 at ca. 150 (2 per cent of the whole population). The above figures continue to be but assessed numbers. Ascertainment of the actual number of corporate foundations requires a thorough analysis of the data of 7,500 entities registered as foundations in the National Court Register (KRS) or the REGON statistical system. This is a task still awaiting research. If the assessment of Klon/Jawor is confirmed, this will mean that the number of corporate foundations places Poland among European leaders in this respect, next to the Czech Republic (133, of which 48 own capital endowment), Great Britain (126), Romania (100), France (83), and Slovakia (76, among which only a fraction is made up by grant-giving foundations). However, if the assessed figure is wrong and the number of company-established foundations is not much higher than that identified in the framework of the CEENERGI Project, we are slightly behind our European partners. Moreover, we are unaware of the size of the sponsoring of community involvement provided by corporate foundations. On the grounds of our research we are only able to roughly assess that 27 surveyed foundations allocated million PLN to community causes. For the sake of comparison let us say that 12 grant-giving organizations associated in the Donors Forum allocated ca. 93 million PLN to the same causes over the same period, whereas 10 companies ranking among Philanthropy Leaders (also including those which established their own corporate foundations and financed their budgets with donations) spent ca. 49 million PLN. The Ministry of Finance reports that the overall size of donations of companies in Poland amounted in 2006 to 286 million PLN. 5 In the US corporate foundations donate 29 per cent of all the sponsoring that comes from the business sector, and when counting the in-kind donations of the pharmaceutical companies, the above figure reaches almost 50 per cent. In Great Britain 18 per cent of business donations are transferred by corporate foundations. Our survey has allowed to ascertain several tendencies common for corporate foundations in Poland and in other countries, e.g.: the size of companies most eager to establish corporate foundations, most popular areas for sponsoring, and the most common beneficiary groups. The survey has also revealed some Polish idiosyncrasies and debunked several myths and stereotypes. The first of them being that corporate foundations in Poland are created mainly by international companies whose native country enjoys a well rooted tradition of corporate foundations. Meanwhile, among the 50 foundations identified in the survey the majority have been founded by Polish companies, even if later on some of them received additional 5. This data derived from the CIT 2006 declarations cover these donations that served the companies for tax exemption. However, as the survey of donations allocated by companies taking part in the Philanthropy Leaders 2006 demonstrates companies often renounce tax exemptions when allocating donations to community causes. It may thus be a priori assumed that the total sum of donations coming from the business sector is evidently much bigger.
12 10 financing from foreign businesses. Only 3 out of 29 foundations which sent back the questionnaire were founded by international companies. The survey has also demonstrated a great variety of foundations: starting from organizations managing expanded community involvement and charity programmes, up to foundations administering employee volunteerism and employee donations programmes. Moreover, it has shown that although (similarly as in the West European countries and the USA) the majority of corporate foundations in Poland are established by financial institutions, then already few of them are founded by pharmaceutical companies which are the leader in this respect in the United States, France, and Great Britain, or by food, telecommunication, and IT companies. In Poland the corporate foundations which head the list were established by companies representing publishing business and the media as well as fuel and energy branches. We have also found out that the degree of independence from mother company, or as others might want to phrase it, their integration with the company, differ. Some corporate foundations form a separate, autonomous institution independently employing their staff, while the majority, though formally constituting an independent legal entity, remain fully merged into the structure of the company, who either appoints its employees to work for the foundation, or includes running the foundation in the scope of responsibilities of either one of the departments or some of the employees. In every case, however, all the executive and monitoring bodies of corporate foundations have the company s representatives: they are either members of the management board or council, they are the executives and employees. In this respect Poland does not differ from other countries, either. It was also interesting to analyse financing sources of corporate foundations in Poland. As it turned out, differently than elsewhere in Europe and throughout the world, where the budget of a corporate foundation is fully financed by the founding company (although acquiring financing from partner companies or employees donations have also been recorded), corporate foundations in Poland receive financing not only from the founder (though for the majority of them this still remains the main source of income), but also from other commercial and individual donors, and occasionally from public sources as well. Moreover, there are foundations which either do not receive any sponsoring from their paternal company, or are donated only a fraction of their budget from that source, while collecting the majority of their resources by text message or TV-telephone collections, marketing campaigns, or donations by individuals, either company s employees or customers, business partners, or other private institutions. Such a group, completely unique on the universal scale, is formed by the majority of the Polish media foundations who in their operation mode do not essentially differ from typical fund-raising foundations appealing to the generosity of the audience, with the only difference that in the campaigns to acquire resources they benefit from a privileged access to the media owned by their mother company. Another of Polish specific features can be seen in the capacity to use the payment of 1 per cent of tax from physical persons by corporate foundations. The survey has demonstrated that almost half of them use this mechanism of collecting financing necessary for their activities, and for some it constitutes a significant source of revenue. In other countries where the 1 per cent tax allocation is also valid, corporate foundations do not insist to such an extent on acquiring the 1 per cent. Another interesting phenomenon can be seen in foundations established on the initiative of the employees themselves and to a great extent financed by them. Such foundations, despite being officially established by the
13 11 company which grants them its name and partially sponsors the activity (.e.g by doubling the employees payments or donations) are more an institutionalized form of the employees charity and community commitment than a traditional corporate foundation. Foundations of this type, popular in Poland, and particularly among auditing and consulting companies, are also know in the USA and Great Britain where the so-called employee funds are established; which are, as a matter of fact being more and more often used by companies as an instrument to implement their CSR strategy, combining corporate philanthropy with the employees CI. Corporate foundations when seen against the overall foundation population in Poland are much better off in view of complying with the legal provisions, these including the reporting requirement, or the application of transparent forms of activity. What is interesting, as distinct from the majority of foundations in Poland they most frequently own two authority organs: the board and the council, thought this is not a legal requirement regarding foundations which have not been granted the Public Benefit Organization status (the Law on Foundations merely provides for the management board). However, corporate foundations statutes authored most frequently by lawyers working for the company were modelled on the company status. Therefore, they found it much easier than any other regular foundation to apply for the Public Benefit Organization status which implied, among others, an obligatory control organ. And this is perhaps why as many as half of the surveyed corporate foundations boast of this status. All the foundations, as the surveyed claim, prepare reports on their activity and make them available to the public. More and more of the surveyed foundations elaborate procedures of granting sponsoring modelled on those applied by independent grant-giving institutions: they hold grant competitions, assessing applications. However, as we can see through the analysis of websites, there is still too little importance attributed to making these procedures public. Only some corporate foundations inform about their donation-granting procedures at their website, they give the application assessment criteria and the decision-making mode; and as much as we can quote some outstanding examples in this respect, there still remains a lot to be done. A similar thing can be said about reporting. Despite the fact that foundations representatives reassured how important it was for them to comply with the reporting requirement, in order to enhance company s and foundation s credibility and transparency, and despite the legal requirement to make the reports public, the majority of them also those enjoying the Public Benefit Organization status do not make their reports available at websites (in this respect they do not, actually, differ from the overall foundation population which, according to the Klon/Jawor survey comply with this requirement merely in the case of 35 per cent of foundations). The few of those who publish their reports, go beyond their legal obligation and prepare a clear settlement of financing allocated to community causes together with a full list of granted donations. In few foundations only the annual report is subject to an external auditor s control. This points to the still handicapped awareness of how important it to is present a clear information on the organization s activity to the public, as well as a clear communication on the financing allocation outside the company. As the Report has it, the majority of corporate foundations in Poland were established after For the sake of comparison let us remind the Reader that a foundation boom in the USA and Great Britain happened in the 1990s and has remained in place until this very day. The dynamics of establishing corporate foundations in Poland increased particularly after 2001, when as many as one/fifth of the foundations identified in the survey were established. However, after the years of constant increase, in 2006 already a clear decline was observed and instead of as many as several until then, only 2 foundations were established. Was this sudden slow down
14 12 merely a brief interval caused by the uncertainty regarding the amendments planned by the government to the Law on the Foundations and the overall atmosphere unfavourable to business created by the then administration? Will the growth tendency be maintained in the coming years? This remains to soon be seen. A significant growth of the number of corporate foundations over the recent years can be associated with the more general acceptance of the role that a company plays in the process of social transformations, these implying the growing tendency to integrate CSR strategy with all the spheres of corporate activities. A company establishing a corporate foundation shows that it has adopted a more strategic approach to philanthropic activity, providing it with a more institutionalized framework and safeguarding it a stronger independence of the company. However, what is significant, corporate foundations, though established, as their representatives say, in order to direct and order CCI, in majority of cases only fragmentarily take over this activity, leaving within the company s structure either activities of short-term charity or the running of major social projects, and as a matter of fact there exists no principle that might rule here. Sometimes foundations run activities more focused and more of a long-term character, while companies run the short-term one, and vice versa: foundations dealing with a short-term charity, with the company transferring all the more substantial sums in order to finance innovatory community programmes. The survey, however, does not account for the choices companies make in this respect. Yet, it seems crucial for the identification of he role that corporate foundations play in the CSR strategy of the company. This certainly is one of the motifs which would be worth tackling in further research on CCI in Poland. We are fully aware that the presented Report touches only on the surface of the phenomenon that is caused by the development of corporate foundation market in Poland, thus opening field to more advanced research and investigation. We are, however, hopeful that this publication will set off the discussion on the essence of corporate foundations, their function and role. We are hopeful that the survey results will help the existing foundations to take a closer look and think what should be altered in their activity, and the companies to wonder whether the establishment of the foundation is a good solution to them. We will be pleased if the companies who have been thinking of establishing such foundations find in our Report some practical remarks how to do it, whereas the foundations themselves come across some ideas how to improve their working modes. * * * We are grateful to the Social Investment team for carrying out the survey and preparing the present Report. We extend acknowledgement to Hanna Palska for her factual supervision, methodological consultation, and assistance in analysing the survey; we are grateful to Małgorzata Greszta, and Jan Herbst for their commentary on the survey results, as well as to Agata Stafiej Bartosik for presenting the issue of corporate foundations worldwide and to Paweł Łukasiak for sharing his knowledge about history of corporate community investment in Poland. We express our gratitude to all the surveyed participants for dedicating their time to us. Without your responses, remarks, and opinions, this Report could never be written. Enjoy reading it Ewa Kulik Biellińska President of the Donors Forum in Poland
15 P A R T I Corporate Foundations an Overview of World Experience In view of the range of the topic, the size or the present Report, and a relatively difficult access to documentation and research, the present text is a kind of a kaleidoscope, so to say, a review of the topic of corporate foundations worldwide. As the authoress of this text I meant first of all to signal various motifs, topics, and aspects, which can be interesting and worth analysing more thoroughly in separate works. I am trustful, however, that the superficiality of this text does not apply to the reflection on the connection between the establishing of corporate foundations (their scale, operating ways, supported goals) in a given society, and ethical and civic values adhered to by its citizens. Searching for the Genesis of Corporate Foundations The first corporate foundation was established in the United States in 1917 by Sears and Roebuck company on the initiative of Julius Rosenwald who also personally founded over 5,000 schools for Afro-Americans from the southern states. Although laicization of charity, i.e. help to the needy stemming from love to man and not to God, was discovered by the Enlightenment, 6 institutionalization of assistance provided by companies happened as late as at the beginning of the 20 th century. Institutionalizing naturally means establishing a separate entity disposing of a separate budget and managing body, as the very idea of strategic community involvement or charity actions has actually never been alien to business, ever since we can speak of proper business. And not only in America. The example of the Czech company Bata shows how its subsequent bosses regularly invested in schools, apartments for their workers, medical care, but also in literature, painting, and architecture. In Warsaw s Wola District until this very day people have been living in the tenement houses raised by Wawelberg, a banker and financial adviser, for workers in the 2 nd half of the 19 th century. It was apparently here that Janusz Korczak made his debut as a children s tutor. Wawelberg also founded a technical secondary school and worked on the establishment of the Museum of Industry and Agriculture in Warsaw. Alexander Graham Bell, founder of Bell Telephone Company (today AT&T), began his career as a teacher of individuals with impaired hearing. His work on ways to use sound waves in order to facilitate teaching 6. E. Leś, Zarys historii dobroczynności i filantropii w Polsce (Outline of Charity and Philanthropy in Poland), Warszawa, 2001
16 14 how to speak to the deaf led him to the invention that has changed the world, namely the telephone. The original interests of Bell are still to be found at the core of community involvement implemented by the AT&T corporate foundation. A long list of such examples could go on, but what matters here is that fact that from the historical perspective the following thesis can be ventured: together with industrial revolution, philanthropy, till then reserved for magnates and aristocrats, also became a domain of big entrepreneurs. Further development of business, this also involving the dispersion of shareholders, brought about a situation in which, in order to guarantee continuity of charity action, it was necessary to institutionalize corporate approach to charity or community questions. It seems probable that this accounts for the genesis of corporate foundations in the European cultural circle. Since that time foundations have been developing at various pace and their number, extent of community involvement, domains supported, have seemed (and continue to seem) to reflect the social history and situation of a given country. For the decision whether wealthy citizens, entrepreneurs, decide to commit themselves to the social sphere or to the patronage of culture, does not only depend on the level of development of the business sector, but also on the attitudes and values valid in a given country, or on a given territory. Corporate Foundations an Attempt to Grasp the Extent of the Phenomenon in Europe Corporate foundations constitute a specific personification of a civic attitude of the business sector. Such institutions are established only because among people deciding on the development of a given company there are enough individuals thinking that a corporate foundation is necessary for one reason or another. These reasons, in turn, reflect values 7 and attitudes adhered to in a given society and they will be the ones to decide on the pace, development, and condition of corporate foundations. These are the reasons why the situation of such institutions differs in the post-communist Europe, from that in the countries where the free market could develop more or less, yet constantly freely and where we observe a much more advanced civil society. Corporate foundations are on the European scale the third biggest category of foundations, following independent foundations and foundations sponsored by different governmental agencies. 8 In the so-called old Europe the biggest number of foundations in general (corporate ones and others) can be found in Denmark, Sweden, Germany, and Great Britain. 9 The ranking of the first ten European corporate foundations with respect to sums allocated to philanthropy in 2005 is as follows (after Philanthropy in Europe) 10 : 7. Let us emphasize here that we have in mind values valid in company s native country, not on all the markets where the company has its operations. 8. Typology of foundation in Europe, European Foundations Center, Foundations facts and figures across the EU, April Philanthropy In Europe, Issue 25-12/2006
17 15 1. La Caixa Foundation (Spain) 303 million EUR 2. Monte dei Paschi di Siena Foundation (Italy) 183 million EUR 3. Cariplo Foundation (Italy) 155,9 million EUR 4. Compagnia di San Paolo Foundation (Italy) 134,8 million EUR 5. Cassa di Risparmio di Torino Foundation (Italy) 109,7 million EUR 6. Migros Kulturprozent Foundation (Switzerland) 100 million EUR 7. Else Kroner-Fresenius Foundation (Germany) 65 million EUR 8. Bertelsmann Foundation (Germany) 56,7 million EUR 9. Robert Bosch Foundation (Germany) 55,6 million EUR 10. Caja Madrid Foundation (Spain) 44,7 million EUR The high position of Italian foundations may possibly be accounted for by a very interesting history of the so-called banking foundations, specific for this country. Their genesis reaches the beginning of the 19 th century and the so-called saving banks which operated simultaneously in two spheres: they were a form of a credit union, simultaneously involved in charity actions in their community. Later legal regulations additionally consolidated their financial-social position. Nowadays there are 88 such foundations in Italy, and in 2006 they awarded grants amounting to 1,594,300,000 EUR. 11 It is also interesting to analyse the distribution of resources allocated by Italian banking foundation, as this seems to confirm the thesis that activity and number of corporate foundations does not only reflect the development of the business sector, but also the development of civil society. As we may remember from the works by,.e.g. Robert D. Putnam, 12 northern communities are more open to cooperation and display a higher level of social trust, they are more willing to act for the good of community, whereas in the south the eagerness to cooperate is much smaller, there predominates clan social organization, focused on the good of the family. And so in 2006 as much as 61 per cent of financing was allocated to organizations applying from northern Italy, whereas the south of the country was allocated the sum equivalent to 8.2 per cent of the total budget allocated in grants. It is worth emphasising that it was the number of applications and their quality, and not geographical preferences of the donors which were decisive in the grant-awarding procedure. Corporate Foundations in Great Britain, France, and the United States While remaining within the Western culture, let me propose below an analysis of the profile of corporate foundations in three countries: Great Britain, USA, and France, following a very up to the point remark made be Alexis de Tocqueville in his treatise Democracy in America: Where in France you will see at the lead of a project the government, and a great lord in England, in the United States you expect to see an association. 11. Banking Foundations, ACRI R. D. Putnam, Making Democracy Work. Civic Traditions in Modern Italy
18 16 Although here we speak about foundations, not associations, when reading the treatise thoroughly we are allowed to think that the French observer, rather than in today s legal nuances, was more interested in the concept of common civic actions in order to solve certain social problems. And though a foundation is not a direct heir to this idea, at its beginnings we will find the concept of responsibility for the community and support for initiatives that improve the quality of life, but are independent of the administration. Great Britain is an EU member state, significantly advanced with respect to CSR and also characterised by its specific approach to community questions that resulted from a combination of the role of the state and private sector deriving from the tradition of the lords and their social commitment. France is a country where charity of entrepreneurs has been developing completely differently. Here the social issues have for years remained within the responsibility of the government, therefore the role and development of foundations established by private entities, specially from the business sector, should be different than the British ones. The point of reference for our analysis of corporate foundations will be found in a natural way in the United States. And not only because the first corporate foundation was established there in Actually, the USA can be regarded as the cradle of corporate foundations, first of all due to the values of civic society: a Protestant ethos combined with the liberal trust in the self-regulation of the market created ideal conditions for the establishment and operation of such undertakings. Number of foundations It will not surprise anyone to hear that the greatest number of corporate foundations operate in the United States. Over 2,600 foundations granted the total of 4.2 billion USD as various donations for social causes; this standing at 6 per cent more than in the previous year. 13 Almost 60 per cent of foundations assume that the 2007 donation figure will increase by ca. 10 per cent, whereas one fourth of the foundations assume smaller spending. Great Britain 14 that features 126 corporate foundations on its territory holds the second place in this ranking, just as it could have been assumed. In France the situation on the corporate foundation market seems much worse. In 2004, there were 83 corporate foundations in France, 15 which means that proportionally 7 times as few as in the USA at the time. 16 Let us mention, however, that in France legal regulations contributed to a sudden increase of the number of corporate foundations after And while in Great Britain the total of 24 new organizations were established in , in France in 2004 alone 18 such organizations were formed. If the dynamics prevail, France will soon outpace her neighbours. 13. Figures regarding US given in our analysis come mainly from the report Key Facts on Corporate Foundations, Foundation Center, May Figures regarding Great Britain come mainly from the Report Revealing the Foundations a Guide to Corporate Foundations in England and Wales, The Smart Company, June Figures regarding France come from the report Panorama 2004 des fondations d entreprise: La Loi Aillagon, accelerateur de creation?, Ernst&Young, February This ratio was calculated by comparing the number of corporate foundations with the population size of the given country.
19 17 Reasons for Establishing Corporate Foundations British sources seem to provide us with quite ample motivation for establishing corporate foundations, which, as a matter of fact, coincided with that of American and French business people. First of all, a foundation allows to establish a separate structure managing charity efforts of the company, while not giving additional work to the employees and while allowing for a specific controlled independence from the core business of the company (e.g. charity activities are not related to the soothing of company s image crises as they therefore do not play the role of an ad hoc taken fig leaf). Secondly, it allows for a more consistent CCI strategy: more focused and long-term. The third reason is the personal motivation of the owner or founder. Finally, the fourth cause results in reputation advantage. We also know of cases of corporate foundations having been established to commemorate uncommon special occasions, important for the company: anniversaries, special achievements (e.g. going public), or to commemorate the founder of the company or his/her family. In France the declared reason is also found in the desire to give an institutionalized form to the feeling of responsibility of the company not only for economic results, but also for the impact on social and natural environments, dominating in the corporate structure of some companies, but also to provide a tool to implement this responsibility versus community. Financing Sources The majority of corporate foundations in all the three analysed countries are financed from one source only, i.e. the company that establishes the foundation. The exception in this respect being foundations of capital groups, where one organization can be financed by several companies forming the group. The latter, however, is not a dominant form: in France, out of 18 foundations established in 2004, only 6 were entities which had more than one founder. An interesting example of a financing formula can be found in the Airport Community Trust, a foundation established by the operator of Gatwick, Birmingham, and Manchester Airports who is contributed financially also by airlines using founder s airports. The foundation s mission is to ease the inconvenience of living in the vicinity of airports suffered by nearby communities. The financing of corporate foundations can either be in the form of regular (e.g. annual) donations interconnected with company s budget plans; there are certain organizations whose revenue is related to the profitability of the company-founder within a given period of time in the form of a definite percentage on the dividend. Another applied formula is to sponsor a corporate foundation with the interest on the capital endowment or on investment of the initiating donation granted once when the organization is established. We also come across some untypical financing of corporate foundations, like in Fiat Auto UK in which salesmen donate to the foundation a symbolic (yet significant in proportion to the size of the business) sum of 1 GBP for every car sold. In neither of the analysed countries do corporate foundations lead among private donors in view of the sums granted to the beneficiaries. In the USA grants allocated by corporate foundations were a mere 10 per cent of all the community-transferred donations in This figure was even more modest in Great
20 18 Britain where the revenues of corporate foundations in 2006 amounted to merely 0.6 per cent of all the revenues of grant-giving organizations in the country, therefore it may be assumed that the grants they awarded account for merely a fraction of all the sums allocated. British reports disclose that corporate foundations allocated 148 million GBP in This sum constituted 18 per cent of all corporate donations, which goes to say that over 80 per cent of donations coming from the business sector are not transferred by means of corporate foundations, but directly by companies. Format of Donations Transferred by Corporate Foundations and Categories of Sponsored Initiatives Corporate foundations distribute resources in a varied way, yet the dominating form can be seen in a grant competition or programme. Scholarships are also a popular way. Such sponsoring is distributed within long-term topic-focused programmes run by the foundations in the period of at least several years. In France corporate foundations most eagerly sponsor culture, but also health and social issues. It must be remembered, however, that the latter category includes a number of sub-categories that differentiate it significantly. In Great Britain corporate foundations focus mainly on charity actions, though their target includes also sports, culture, and education. Whereas in the USA education was the top priority for corporate foundations (25 per cent of all the sponsoring in 2005), this closely followed by social issues (22 per cent). It seems interesting to observe that in all the described countries environmental questions were of little interest to corporate foundations (e.g. 3 per cent in the US) and so were the questions related to political sciences and international relations, such as the development of Third World countries or peace (4 per cent in the US). Degree of Interrelation with Company s Business Strategy There still remains the issue to what extent corporate foundations are the instrument of the business sector that initiates them? Are charity activities used to achieve business goals? If so, then what are these goals: image-, marketing-, or HR management-related? The survey carried out by the Smart Company demonstrates that the staff of corporate foundations in Great Britain go into extremes in assessing the status of their organizations, namely either as totally independent ( the company has no influence every third foundation), or as subdued to the interests of the company ( the company is in full control almost every sixth foundation.). However, the Report s authors point to the fact that the majority of the foundations do not sponsor activities reflecting business priorities of the founding company. An exception in this respect can be seen in foundations bearing local or regional colouring which form ca. 30 per cent of corporate foundations in Great Britain. Also, every third British foundation involves the founder s employees in the actions. The latter may be done in a form of a payroll deduction and the so-called matched giving (the foundation completes employees donation or volunteerism with a definite sum).