1 Turkmen/Lesson One SIZIŇ ADYŇYZ NÄME? What is your name? Salam, or hello, and welcome to your first official class! OK, so I bet that now you really want to learn Turkmen, right? Well then, let's start off with our names! Throughout this lesson we will be analysing part of a conversation between a Turkmen man called Murat and a Turkmen woman called Bahargül. Let's begin... Siziň adyňyz näme? "Siziň adyňyz näme?" or "What is your name?" is, for obvious reasons, a very important phrase to learn. The phrase literally translates word-by-word as Your name what?. The word näme simply means "what", and like other Turkmen question words, it always goes to the end of the sentence. Read the conversation between Murat and Bahargül below: Murat: Salam! Bahargül: Salam. Murat: Siziň adyňyz näme? Bahargül: Meniň adym Bahargül. Siziň adyňyz näme? Murat: Meniň adym Murat. Although there might not be words in there that you understand, it should be pretty obvious what each sentence means, considering that you already know how to say salam and siziň adyňyz näme?, and that you know their names, too. Before you can read the translation for this conversation, first let's look at some important grammatical points. Cases Like Russian or German, Turkic languages have a system of grammatical cases. Cases are defined by changes that occur to a word when it is placed in different grammatical context. English has cases for personal pronouns. For example: "I see him", "He sees me". Not "Me sees he", "Him sees I". Turkmen, however, has six cases, and these cases are used for all words, not just personal pronouns. The six Turkmen cases are: the nominative, used for the subject of the sentence; the genitive, similar to English possessives; the dative, used to show directed action; the accusative, which is similar to the English "direct object"; the locative, which shows locality; and the instrumental, which is used to show origin. While six cases might seem a bit overwhelming at first, it should be noted that the case suffixes simply replace our English prepositions such as "from," "at," "with," "in," "on," and "to". Also, the rules for their use are remarkably simple and inflexible, unlike those of the Russian cases. In the case of the conversation that we were looking at, cases were used with personal pronouns (e.g. Siziň). These follow fairly straightforwardly from the regular case endings. For now, though, we will only be learning the nominative and genitive cases. As you can see, its all fairly straightforward, except for ol which changes to on- in every non-nominative case. To make a pronoun genitive, simply add -iň or -yň, depending on the pronoun's vowel harmony.
2 Case I you (singular informal) he/she/it we you (plural or formal) Nominative men sen ol biz siz olar Genitive meniň (my) seniň (your) onyň (his/her/it's) biziň (our) siziň (your) they olaryň (their) That's all fairly easy, but you still can't say My name is in Turkmen if you only know how to make a pronoun genitive. Unlike English, the Turkmen language also adds a suffix to the object of possession. This may at times be redundant (Meniň kakam geldi. = My father-(my) came.) but often the possessive participle is omitted (Kakam geldi. = Father-(my) came.) so the suffix alone shows possession, for example, adym Murat alone still means My name is Murat, even without using meniň. The suffix added to a noun depends on it's vowel harmony, so using the words kaka (father), eje (mother), at (name) and it (dog), let's look at the suffixes which need to be added: Vowel ending Consonant ending Vowel ending Consonant ending My -m kakam - my father ejem - my mother Your (sing., informal) -ň kakaň - your father ejeň - your mother My -ym, -im (-um, -üm) adym - my name itim - my dog Your (sing., informal) -yň, -iň (-uň, -üň) adyň - your name itiň - your dog Our -myz, -miz kakamyz - our father ejemiz - our mother Your (pl., formal) -ňyz, -ňiz kakaňyz - your father ejeňiz - your mother His/her/it's -sy, -si His/her/it's -y, -i Their -sy, -si kakasy - his/her/it's father ady - his/her/it's name kakasy - their father ejesi - his/her/it's mother iti - his/her/it's dog ejesi - their mother Our -ymyz, -imiz (-umyz, -ümiz) adymyz - our name itimiz - our dog Your (pl., formal) -yňyz, -iňiz (-uňyz, -üňiz) adyňyz - your name itiňiz - your dog Their -y, -i ady - their name iti - their dog As mentioned already, the noun alone already indicates possession, so pronouns such as meniň, seniň, etc., don't HAVE to be used. For example, in Turkmen My name is John could either be Meniň adym John or simply just Adym John. As you can see in the above table, possessive suffixes for nouns are not only about vowel harmony, but also whether the noun, in it's nominative form, ends in a vowel or a consonant. You've also probably noticed that at changes to ad- when a suffix is added to it. The word at is merely one of the few irregularities of the Turkmen language, and its good that you're getting used to it at an early stage. Is? You may be wondering what the word for "is" is in Turkmen. The truth is, there isn't one. If you tried to translate "he is" by itself into Turkmen, or any Turkic language for that matter, it would be impossible. If you tried to translate "he is good" into Turkmen, it would translate as o ýagşy, which would translate word-by-word back into English as "he good". It works in the same way in "Siziň adyňyz näme?" and "Meniň adym...", which literally translate wordby-word as "Your name what?" and "My name..." respectively. Sentence order
3 Turkmen, like other Turkic languages, follows an SOV (Subject Object Verb) sentence order. Don't know what subject, object or verb are? Let's look at a very basic demonstration in English, which uses SVO instead of SOV: Bobby kicked the ball. Subject Verb Object In this case, Bobby is the subject, because he is the one kicking the ball (i.e. the subject is the word executing or otherwise attributed to the verb); kicked is the verb because it is a word of action (i.e. verbs show what is taking/has taken/will take place); and the ball is the object because it is being kicked by Bobby (i.e. something happens to the object by the subject by means of the verb). Now that we've established what the subject, object and verb actually are, you'll be able to understand that in Turkmen, the subject goes first, then the object, and then the verb. This is true in most cases, but in some instances, mostly in sentences without verbs such as O ýagşy or Siziň adyňyz näme?, the sentence order is just SO. Unlike in English, in which all sentences need to have verbs, in Turkmen certain things such as "he is nice" can be demonstrated, as shown in the Is? section of this page, without the use of a verb. On the other hand, as a result of pronouns not being needed in Turkmen, sentences can also be verb only, such as "geldi" (he came), although the subject (he) is still technically in the verb, so "geldi" itself is both a subject and a verb. If you look at it in this sense, then you'll find that all Turkmen sentences have at least a subject. We will look at verbs in more detail at a later stage in this book. Turkmen/Lesson Two ÝAGDAÝYŇYZ NIÇIK? How are you? Salam, my Turkmenists! In this lesson we will continue looking at Murat and Bahargül. This time, though, they will be asking each other Ýagdaýyňyz niçik?. Although this translates as "How are you?", it literally means "How is your situation/condition/etc.?" (ýagdaý = condition, state, circumstance, etc.). Murat: Salam, Bahargül! Bahargül: Salam! Murat: Ýagdaýyňyz niçik? Bahargül: Ýagşy. Siz? Murat: Ajaýyp! Numbers - Sayılar -??? -??? zero sıfır (5083 bytes) nol one bir (6680 bytes) bir bir
4 two iki (7232 bytes) iki ikki three üç (8704 bytes) üç uch four dört (8704 bytes) dört tort five beş (7232 bytes) bäş besh six altı (8704 bytes) alti olti seven yedi (7784 bytes) ÿedi etti eight sekiz (8152 bytes) sekiz sakkiz nine dokuz (8704 bytes) dokuz toqqiz ten on (6680 bytes) on on 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 a half a quarter yarım, buçuk çeyrek twenty yirmi (4600 bytes) ÿigrimi yigirma thirty otuz (4253 bytes) otuz ottiz forty kırk (3190 bytes) kirk qirq fifty elli (4674 bytes) elli ellik sixty altmış (5953 bytes) altmyş oltmish seventy yetmiş (5834 bytes) ÿetmiş yetmush eighty seksen (6295 bytes) segsen sakson ninety doksan (5487 bytes) togsan toxson one hundred yüz (3430 bytes) ÿüz yuz two hundred iki yüz iki ÿüz ikki yuz one thousand bin (3703 bytes) mun ming
5 one million bir milyon (7188 bytes) million million billion milyar milliard milliard eleven on bir (5593 bytes) on bir on bir twelve on iki (5634 bytes) on iki on ikki thirteen on üç (5409 bytes) on uç on uch fourteen on dört (6333 bytes) on dÿort on turt fifteen on beş (6729 bytes) on bäş on besh sixteen on altı (6228 bytes) on alti on olti seventeen on yedi (6346 bytes) on edi on etti eighteen on sekiz (6401 bytes) on sekiz on sakkiz nineteen on dokuz (5881 bytes) on dokuz on toqqiz It is very easy to make up numbers [in Uzbek]. It is the same way as you would make up numbers in English. For example: eleven on bir (5593 bytes) on bir un bir twenty one yirmi bir (5844 bytes) ÿigrimi bir yigirma bir five hundred seventy one bäş ÿüz ÿetmiş bir besh yuz yetmush bir 571 eighty thousand seven hundred one segsen mun ÿüz bir sakson ming etti yuz bir 80,701 five billion twenty million one hundred thousand twenty bäş milliard? ÿigrimi million bir ÿüz mun ÿigrimi besh milliard yigirma million bir yuz ming yigirma 5,020,100,020 Language: 364 Turkish Direction:
6 Basic Words - Temel Kelimeler -??? -??? Into English From English yes evet (9809 bytes) hawa ha. nima? no hayır (10034 bytes) ÿök (däl?) and ve we va or veya, yahut, eğer, ise Help me Mana kemek edin Yes, what is it? Yes, what can I do for you? Ha, nima demoqchisiz? Ha, sizga qanday yordam berishim mumkin? Thank you Thank you very much teşekkürler; teşekkür ederim (10913 bytes) çok teşekkür ederim (12017 bytes) Sag bol, spasiba (r) You're welcome Bir sey değil (7570 bytes) please lütfen (7784 bytes) baş ustÿune sorry pardon bagişlan I do not understand anlamıyorum (13121 bytes) Men size duşunmedim (I do not understand you) How do you say this in [English]? Bu [Türkçe] nasıl soylenir?? (15954 bytes) Do you speak biliyorumusunuz;... konuşuyormusunuz (14225 bytes)
7 English French German Spanish Chinese Ingilizce (9809 bytes) Fransızca (11465 bytes) Almanca (12017 bytes) Ispanyolca (9256 bytes) Çince (10361 bytes) good iyi (3408 bytes) ÿagşi bad kötü (3862 bytes) ÿaman not bad ÿaman däl so so şöyle böyle (7633 bytes) this bu şu that şu şol Directions - Yön -??? -??? here there over there orada left sol (4680 bytes) çen right sağ (4403 bytes) sag straight up down düz (3355 bytes) yukarı (5248 bytes) asağı (5524 bytes)
8 top bottom ekari aşak far near long short a little uzak (4843 bytes) yakın (5101 bytes) uzun (5433 bytes) kısa (4271 bytes) biraz Colors - renkler -??? -??? black kara, siyah gara white ak, beyaz ak grey red yellow blue green brown orange çal gizil sari geok ÿaşyl, gök gonur mämiş People -??? -??? -??? I ben (4105 bytes) men you (singular, familiar) sen (4054 bytes) sen
9 you (singular, formal) siz (4543 bytes) siz he she it o ol we biz (4322 bytes) biz you (plural) siz (4543 bytes) siz they onlar (4568 bytes) olar my, mine your, your his her, his hers our, ours your, yours (pl.) their, theirs meniñ, meniñki seniñ, seniñki onuñ, onuñky biziñ, biziñki siziñ, siziñki olaryñ?, olaryñky who, whose kim, kimiñki man woman family spouse, wife spouse, husband child girl, daughter, virgin, maiden erkek kadın aile eş (3961 bytes), karı eş, koca (4012 bytes) çocuk kız gyz boy daughter ('girl child') oğlan kız çocuk (5231 bytes)
10 son ('man child') mother father friend older sister older brother aunt, older woman uncle, older man erkek çocuk (7456 bytes), oğul anne (4188 bytes) baba (3636 bytes) arkadaş (6526 bytes) abla ağabey teyze amca (boy)friend girlfriend sincere friend (byfriend, girlfriend) arkadaş kız arkadaş dost sir bay, bey janob madam, lady hanım, bayan, kadın xonim ladies and gentlemen hanımlar ve baylar (?) xonimlar va janoblar student öğrenci Doctor Waiter, Waitress Officer Police officer Director, manager Doktor Oficiant, Oficiantka Oficer Melicioner Direktor, boshqaruvchi Greetings -??? -??? -???
11 Hi! Selam Salam Salom! Hello! Merhaba (9809 bytes) Assalomy Alaikum! Bye! güle güle; (10361 bytes) Goodbye Allaha ısmarladık Sag bol So long Görüşürüz (5189 bytes) See you tomorrow Ertire çenli koş Welcome Hosgeldiniz (?) Koş geldiniz Nice to see you Koş gerdÿuk Good morning Good afternoon Good evening günaydın (7784 bytes) iyi öğlenler (10913 bytes); iyi gunler iyi akşamlar (12017 bytes) Good night iyi geceler (12017 bytes) Gijaniz rahat bolsun How do you do? How are you? Nasılsın(ız)? (6485 bytes) agdaÿin niçik? Ishlaringiz Qalai? Thank you, not bad Sag bol, ÿaman däl name ad at What is your name? isminiz nedir? (9180 bytes) Adin nÿame? Ismingiz Nima? Otiz Nima? My name is Nice to meet you Tanıştığımıza memnun oldum (14036 bytes) Menin adim orÿan şat Who are you? Kimsiz? Where have you come from? Siz nirerden geldin?
12 I am from United States My native language is English My nationality is American I live in the United States I am from Florida I live in the city of New York Men Amerikadanman Mening ona tilim Ingliz tili Men Americalikman 1. Men Amerikada yashaiman 2. Men Amerikada turaman Men Florida shtatidanman Men New Yorkda yashaiman Men New Yorkda turaman Dialogue -??? -??? - Gaplashish Hello, I'm Farhod Hi, my name is John Where are you from? I'm from Tashkent. What about you? I'm from Los Angeles, California What are you doing in Tashkent? I am teaching at the University What do you teach? Economics It was nice to meet you Salom, men Farhodman Salom, mening ismim John Siz qayerdansiz? Men Toshkentdanman. Sizchi? Men Los Angeles Californiyadanman Toshkentda nima qilayapsiz Universitetda dars berayapman Nimadan dars berasiz? Ekonomikadan Siz bilan kurishkanimdan hursandman
13 It was nice to meet you, too Siz bilan ham Don't mention it; don't say so; not at all. Estağfurullah! Time and Dates - Zaman ve Tarihler -??? -??? clock saat sagat later, past half quarter sonra buçuk çeyrek What time is it? Saat kaç? (7323 bytes) Sagat näçe? It's 8 o'clock Saat sekiz Sagat sekiz 7:13, Seven thirteen 7:13, Yedi on üç (7400 bytes) edi on üç 3:15, Three fifteen 3:15, Üç on beş (7469 bytes) Üç on bäş 3:15, A quarter past three 3:15, Üçü çeyrek geçiyor (11222 bytes) 11:30, Eleven thirty 11:30, On bir otuz (7937 bytes) On bir otuz 11:30, Half past eleven 11:30, On bir buçuk (6550 bytes) 12:30, half past twelve yarım 1:45, One forty-five 1:45, Bir kırk beş (8590 bytes) 1:45, A quarter till two 1:45, ikiye çeyrek var (10137 bytes) day gün (4622 bytes) gün
14 week hafta (4940 bytes) hepde month ay (3801 bytes) aÿ year yıl (3944 bytes) ÿyl Monday pazartesi (7739 bytes) Duşenbe Tuesday salı (3435 bytes) Sişenbe Wednesday çarşamba (7068 bytes) Çarşenbe Thursday perşembe (6967 bytes) Penşenbe Friday cuma (4945 bytes) Anna Saturday cumartesi (7890 bytes) Şenbe Sunday pazar (4434 bytes) ekşenbe January February March April May June July August September October November December ocak (3167 bytes) şubat (6145 bytes) mart (4915 bytes) nisan (6002 bytes) mayıs (5873 bytes) haziran (5712 bytes) temmuz (5130 bytes) ağustos (7168 bytes) eylül (5021 bytes) ekim (4389 bytes) kasım (5028 bytes) aralık (3854 bytes)
15 spring summer fall, autumn winter ilkbahar (6894 bytes) yaz (4343 bytes) sonbahar (6679 bytes) kış (4356 bytes) today yesterday tomorrow bugün (4733 bytes) dün (4539 bytes) yarın (4433 bytes) birthday Happy Birthday! doğum günü (6628 bytes) Doğum günün kutlu olsun! (12277 bytes) day morning; in the morning afternoon; in the afternoon evening; in the evening night; in the night early late, delayed later presently, in a moment gün sabah; sabah, sabahleyin öğlen, öğleden sonra; öğleyin akşam; akşamleyin gece; geceleyin erken geç sonra biraz sonra