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1 Rivi't lt.rlienr di Plenrlgr e StrriSr[i.r \ttìnle tul pgrne 4Z-68 Aprile 2001 THE LO\TER PERMAN N THE OROBC ANTCLNE (SOUTHERN ALPS, LOMBARDY): A REVE\T BASED ON NE\í STRATGRAPHC AND PETROGRAPHC DATA DARO SCUNNACH Received. September 5, 200; ccepred Jnury 31, 2A01 Key urds: Suthern Alps, Permin, gelgicl mpping, vlcnic successins, s,rndstne petrgrphl', chrnstrtigrphy. Rissunt.Un rilevment gelgic dj fcies, eseguit in scl 1: nel Permin nferire dell'anticlinle Orbic nell'mbit del Prgett CARG, h cnsentit di ricstruire l':rrchitettur del bcin e di pervenire d un suddir'ìsine dell successine str:tign{icr rnegli clcumentt rispett l qudr dispnibile dell lertertur. All'eruzine prssistic di benmreiti nel nrembr vulcnic dell Frrnzinc di Clli seguì un'ttività vulcnic sinsedimentri dì tip plimdle (cmprendente lve mugeritiche e tufì rilitici), cncmitnte cn l depsizine del sprstnte membr rence-vulcnclstic. Dp l prgrdzine delle fcies dj delt-cnide prssimle del Cnglmert del Pntcrnic, un pssibììe ingressinc Lrrin e suggerir dr rri Frminiferi nel membr rence-pelitìc smmitle dell Frmz.ine di Clli. L'evluzine del mgmtism ben si inqudr in un scenrri plegedinmic dj trscrrenzr crstle; l'sscnz di riliti nel membr vulcnic induce ritenerc che 'ttività vulcnic:rl mrrqinc ccìdentle del Bcin del Clli (Anticlinle Orbic) fsse distint e/ nn cev:1 rispett l settre centr-ccidentle (dlì'anticlinle di Trbuchell-Cbinc ll'anticììnle Cmune). L petrgrfi delle renrie, che indic un sverchìnte prr-enienz c1e ree srgenti nevulcniche, è ssi unifrme in sens si verticle, si lterle, c sugeerisce trlti tssi di sedimentezine per l Frnzine di Clli, in ccrd cn l breve fincstr-temp recentemente ssegnt quest unità d dtzini rdimetriche rrenute rn Anticlinele Cmun. l, clìfferenz di crnpsizine tr le renrie delle Anticlinli Orbic c Cmun è un ltr elenrent: sfvre dell cntinuità fisic del Bcin del Clli. Abstct. Fcies mpping t the 1 : 1 0 0OO scle f the Ln er Perrnin in thc Orbic Anticline, crried ut in the frmewrk f the CARG Prject, llr.ed rccnstructin f the bsin rchìtecturc nd refined subdir-isin f the strtigrphic successin with respect t the vjlble frmer.rk. Prxl.snl effusìn f be.nmreites in the lwer r-lcnic member f the Clli Frmtin x.s fllrved bv r srn.c.limentryr pll-rndl vlcnic ctivltlr (mu lerite flu.s t rhylite tuffs) during depsitin f th. lcrlyini àrcnrccu\-\.lctrniclstic member. After prgrdtin f the Pnternic Cnglmerte pruxì rnl fen-delt fcies, pssìble mrine trnssressin is suggested br r:rre frminifers, in the upper ren:rceus-pclitic member f the Clli Frm:tin. N4gm;rtìc evlutin fits int plegedynmic scenrì f cntinentl r.renching; lck f rhvlites in the r.lcnic member pints t distinct :nd/r nn-cevl rlcnic rcririty rt the western edge f the Clli Bsin (Orbic Anticline) with respect t the centrl-estern sectr (Trbuchell-Cbinc t Cmun Antìclines). Sndstne petrgrphy, indictrng prvennce frm verwhelming nevlcnic surces, is firly unrfrm bth verticlly nd lterll,v, nd thus sugsests high sediment;rtin rres fr the Clli Frmtin, in greement wìth the shrt time spn recently ssigned t this unit bv rdimetric dt frm the Cmun Anticline. Different sndstne cmpsitin in the Orbic nd Cmun Anticlincs is ànther line f evidence gìnst physicl cntinllitv f thc Cllj Bsin. ntrductin. The tlin prgrm fr gelgicl mpping t the 1: 50 O0O scle (CARG Prject: Ctencci 1995) cn be seen s n pprtunity t recnsider bth the lithstrtigrphic frmewrk nd the tectnic evlutin f the Lmbrdy Suthern Alps. A prminent structurl feture f the Suthlpine rnge is represented by the Orbic Anticlines, n lignment { three E-\fl trending nticlinri nmed Orbic strict sensu, Trbuchell-Cbinc nd Cedegl, west t est (Fig. 1); in ech nticlinrium, vlcnic t sedimentry successin spnning the Upper Crbniferus t the lwermst Anisin nn-cnfrmbly verlies the Hercynin crystlline bsement. The mst imprtnt prt f this successin in terms f viume, ecnmic interest nd pletectnic significnce is surely the Lwer Permin (Clli Frmtin nd heterpic cnglmertes: Fig. 2), depsited in strngly subsiding, fult-bunded cntinentl bsins nd cntining urnium minerls in the Nvzz-Vl Ve dell district (Cdel 1986; Cdel er. 1987). Mpping f this series shuld rely n detiled strtigrphic frmewrk, tht hwever hs turned ut difficult t estblish ll ver the utcrp re, mstly due t 1) strn l lterl vritins f fcies nd thickness f the clstic bdies, 2) scrcity f time-dignstic fssils nd - Struttur Anlisi e nfrmzjn j TerritriL, Regine Lrnb.rrdi.r, Pirzz Duc d'ast unn.reh,,, regin.. Miln (tly). E-mil ddrcss: Dri Sci-

2 48 D. Scìunnch N -0 f f7q r1g. r Lctin f the Lwer Permin utcrps in the Lmbrdy Suthern Alps (simplifìed:rfter Mntrsi 1990): slid, hrìzntìly stripped nd dtted res crrespnd, respectivcl,v, t vlcnic, :renceus-pelitic nd cnglmertic fcies. OA : Orbic Anticline, T-CA : Trbuchell-Cbinc Anticline, CeA : Cedegl Anticline, CA : Cmun Antìcline. The bx ìncludes the re f Fig. 3. G. z Í= 3< J(, <z (r^ i"''' F J ORG'CANÎCUNE TRABUCHELLOCABA\CAANNCLNE CEDEGOLOANNCUNE VERRUCANO LOMBARDO..,26 6', $ 6 '"6 -;_::-g sî: CAMUNAANTCLNE z. J LiJ,t À< <: Z JJ lo UJ F(9 zz Sedimentry 2 Upper Sedimeniry t.- Member (mp unìts 4 t 8 f Cdel et l., > 1 996) É. z upper Sedimentry F Member x DOSSO DE \=- O Upper Member ("Clli Beds") < É. = tn Lwer Vlcnic Member O (ìniervls LR1 t UR6+, mîn rnitc O t^ J '13 f Cdel c) et l., 1996) (J -() Lwer Vlcnic Member ^ r ṟ () - Lwer : Member g l - (J -.ì f É. U L z ( (J METAMORPHC BASEMENT C'f\GLOUERATO BASALE t CTAÍADDU',1 'u*=ilft;"t METAMORPHC BASEMENT Fig. 2 Avilble strtigrphic frmewrk fr the Lrver Permin in the Orbic t Cmun Anticlines (mstly fter D4, 1.935; Csti 8c Gncletters. VBG : Vl Bindi- c tnr7967; Cssìnis et l. 1988; Cdel et l. 1996). Frmtins re in ll cpitls, members:in cpitl/smli n Grndìrite nd sscitcd pst-vriscn plutns. Age cnstr.rint: fter Fig. l0 nd rcltcd discussìn in text. -s

3 The Lu,er Permin in the Orbic Anticlìne 49 mrker beds, 3) intense Alpine defrmtin. The type res nd best expsures f the Clli Frmtin ccur in the Cmun Anticline (Fig. 1); the present p.rper is fcused n strtigrphic nd petrgrphic results btined n the Lwer Permin f the Orbic Anticline during field nd lbrtry wrk crried ut in the frmewrk f the gelgicl mpping f the frthcming sheet 076 "Lecc" f Lhe ne* :50 OOO gelgicl mp f tly. Gelgicl frmewrk. The Orbic Anticline ("Vl Stbin Anticline" f Prr 1.932; "Mezzld Unit" f Schònbrn 1992) extends fr br-rt 25 km west t est, frm the Tcen district in Vlsssin (Sciunnch et l nd ref. therein) t the Mnte Pesherl crbnte ridge in the Brembn Vlley (Csti 8. Gncclini 1967), peking in ltitude with the Piz-z dertre Signri (2554 m.s.l.). At the cre f the fld, the Hercynin crystlline bsement is expsed in the Vlsssin, Ornic, Cprile (r Vln.rresc) nd Mezzld "windws". The metmrphic bsement cnsists f metpelites nd metpsmmites (phyllites, micschists nd prgneisses with minr qurtzites, mphiblites nd mrbles) in greenschist fcies ("Gneiss di Mrbegn" Auct.); relics f highergrde prgeneses (kynite, sturlite; Cdel et L.1996) xre 1clly preserved. Leuccrtic rthgneisses ("Gneiss Chiri di Crn Steli") re cmmnly fund t the nn-cnfrmble cntct n'ith the sedimentry successin (Brini & Clmb 1979).n Vlsssin, the metmrphic bsement is intruded by Ìte Hercynin plutns, cmmnly knwn s Vl Bindin Grndirite (Psquré 1967) nd Vle Bigi Grnite (De Sitter & De Sitter-Kmns 1949). Rdimetric rges (Tlrni et nd ref. therein) cnstrin these intrusins s lrgely Erly Permin. A swrm f rughly prllel'stcks nd dykes, striking but 60'N nd thus nrrtching l Permirn tectnic trend widespred in the Orbic Alps (Cdel 1986). represents the typicl ut-.rnn nrtrern /Fi l\ \- -b' " / ' The ldest sedimentr.. unii, nn-cnfrmbly verlying the crystlline bsement, is the Cnglmert Bsle, up t160 m-thick in the Trbuchell-Cbinc Anticline (Cdel et l. 1996) but very prly expsed in the Orbic Anticline. At le;rst three lithfcics r.ithin the Cnglmert Bsle re esìly recgnised in the field: 1) "eprphyric" phyllrenitic cnglnler;ìtes, with subngulr metmrphic pebbles previling qurtzite pebbles nd cmmnlr'' supprted by crse-grined, prly-srted micceus sndy rntrix. Depsitin ccurred in tlus cnes t prximl lluviì frns; 2) "prphyric" qurtzse rthcnglmertes, prcnelmcrtes,rnd very crse-grined sndstnes with sprse grnules ;rnd pebbles ("typicl" fcies), in prìy distinct l1'ers l0 t ver 100 cmthick, cmmnly with imbricted pebbly lgs t their bse (estìmted pebble cmpsitin: mìlky qurtz: 9-99'L, metmrphic rcks n, r.lcnic rcks - tr.). Depsitin in elluvil fns nd high-energy brided strems is indjc;rted; 3) strngil' biturbted siltstnes t mediurn-grined sndstnes, wìne red jn clur nd rich in detritl mic flkes, ("Pietr Simn-like" fcies, lthugh much ìder). This finer-grined fcies, seemingl;' depsited by flds jn verbrnk sertings, supprts thc inference tht the describcd fcies re rernnnts f vst. rticulted lluviel system, dissected by subsequent ersin; t1'picl chnnel ìg t mernder plrn [cicr :re lcking. Cmpsitinlly similr clstics, nn-cnfrmbly verlying the metmrphic bsement west f Lke Cm (Mnn, Alpe Lgne, Bcchett di Sn Bernrd, Beder, nvri) re scribed t lte Westphlin t pssibly erly Stephnin times due t plnt remins (\funz & Mgli 1942; Jngmns 1960) ; hwever, n erly Cisurlin ge (Asselin t Skmrin) fr the unfssiliferus Cngimert Bsle cnnt be ruled ut due t strtigrphic psitin. n the Orbic Anticline, the nly utcrps f Cnglmert Bsle re fund t Cim dei Siitri nd Mnte Arele (Csti Ec Gncclrm 1967), nrth f the Mnte Pegherl ridge nd well utside the study re. Thus, in the present pper this unit will be discussed nly mrginlly. Tht pssibly huge vlumes f Cnglmert Bsle were ersed lng the tectnic surfce displcing the bse f the Clli Frmtin (see belw) is destined t remin n undemnstrted ssumptin. The Clli Frmtin (up t 1250 m-thick in the Orbic Anticline) verlies either the Cnglmert Bsle r, mre cmmnly, the crystlline bsement. n the frmer cse the bundry is shrp nd prcnfrmble; in the ltter, it typiclly crrespnds t blnket f blck ctcl:rsites, up t few metres-thick, yielding bundnt turmline (Zhng et l. t99+). n the three Orbic Anticlines, the Clli Frmtin is usully subdivided int lwer member, in which vlcnic prducts previl by fr ver sedimentry rcks ("Vlcnic Member" Auct.), nd rn upper member, minly cnsisting f clstic sedimentrl' rcks with vlcnic intercltins ("Sedimentry Member" Auct., "Arenceus-shley Member" Auct.); bth members hve t be regrded s infrml lithstrtig::phic units. At the western nd estern bundries i:the utcrp re, the "Sedimentry Member" psses lterlly nd upsectin i cnglmerte wedges (Pnternic nd Dss dei Glli Cnglmertes, respectively) tht rre insted frml lithstrtigrphic units f frmtin rnk. T the est, the Dss dei Glli Cnglmerte (which includes the Pietr Simn Member) is seled by the Aucci Vlcnics, in turn verlin with ngulr uncnfrmity by the Verrucn Lmbrd redbeds (Fig. Z). Strng lterl vribility f fcies nd lcl incrnpleteness f the strtigrphic successin re prbbly due t syndepsitinl ulift f fult-bunded blcks nd ersin in cn-

4 50 D. Sciunnch tinentl setting. These fctrs cuse the Clli Frmtin, lng with the bve-mentined sscited units, t be perceived by msr field gelgists simply s the strtl pckge brcketed between the crystlline bse* ment -t- the Bsl Cnglmerte t the bse nd the Verrucn Lmbrd t the tp. Under this respect, the whle Lwer Permin my be regrded s n uncnfrmity-bunded llstrtigrphic unit f grup rnk. Sedimentry structures nd the few fssils (lrge- 1y plnt remins nd tetrpd ftprints) dcumenr depsitin in endrheic lcustrine bsins in the Cmun (Cssinis 1966) nd Trbuchell-Cbinc Anticlines (Cssinis et l. 1986). Sndier fcies nd minr pelites re expsed in the Orbic Anticline, pinting t previling distl fn-delt envirnmenrs. Strngly vrible fcies nd thickness cn be seen s the result f syntectnic depsitin n the hnging wlls f fult-cntrlled bsins, ccmmdting the clstic sediments frm ftwll-surced fns; this rchitecture indictes tht the verticl slip rte f the fults utpced reginl subsidence (Dglini et l. tlls). Tectnic defrmtin prbbly strted lredy in the Permin nd peked during the Alpine Orgeny; it results in lrge-scle, pen flds nd u,'idespred fults, s well s in pervsive frcture t slty clevges develped in vlcnic t crse clstic nd pelitic rck types, respectively. Smll-scle plyhrmnic flds re cmmn in snd-mud cuplets, nd recumbent t isclinl flds - trnspsing the sedimentry bedding - ccur in ll the sedimentry fcies. The Verrucn Lmbrd, rnging in thickness frm 150 t nerly 450 m ver mst f its utcrp re (Asseret & Csti 1965), cnsists f pebble rth- nd prcnglmertes, crse-grined sndstnes nd micceus siltstnes cmmnly rrnged in decmetric FUcyclthems; runded vlcnic pebbles re rughly s bundnt s subngulr qrrtzite pebbles, wheres mermrphic pebbles re very rre. ln Vlsssin, ngulr cbbles f Gneiss Chiri re hwever bserved; rre grnphyre pebbles might hve been derived frm subvlcnic cidic rcks similr t the thse presenrly expsed t Cuss l Mnte (Buletti 1985), but their lcl cncentrtin might even suggest prvennce frm lcl surces nerby. Clur f ll the grin size frctins is typiclly wine red; greenish reductin spts re bserved nìy lclly. The Verrucn Lmbrd ws depsited in vst bridplin, pssing - est f the Giudicrie Line - t the Vl Grden Sndstne fldplin (Mssri er L 1994). Bth the nn-cnfrmble cntcts n the crystlline bsement bserved west f ntrbi (Grznti 8r Sciunnch 1.997; Sciunnch 2OO1) nd the ngulr uncnfrmity with the Clli Frmtin (Csti Ec Gncclini 1962) dcument prlnged hitus befre depsitin { the Verrucn Lmbrd nd mjr shift in the subsidence ptterns, seemingly pssing frm tectnicllydrìven nd lclised t therm-tectniclly driven nd widespred (Cssinis et l. 1988); the described rchitecture indictes tht reginl subsidence utpced the verticl slip rte f nrml fults (Dglini et ). Oxidtin nd pedgenesis re reprted frm bth bsement rcks (Sciunnch 2001) nd Clli sediments (Cdel et l. 1996) underlying the Verrucn Lmbrd redbeds. An intrfrmtinl hitus, nt esily perceived in the field, is suggested by the brupt cmpsitinl shift in sndstne cmpsitin frm Petrfcies P1 t P2 (Sciunnch et l. 1996). Methds f study. Fcies mpping. n the frmewrk f the CARG Prject, n re f but 75 km2 ws mpped t the 1: scle in the suthern Orbic Anticline (Fig. 3). Since the strtigrphic reference frmewrk (Csti 8e Gncclini 1962) cnsidered nly tw subdivisins in the Clli Frmtin ( vlcnic lwer member nd sedimentry upper member), cntrsting with much mre detiled subdivisins btined in the djcent Trbuchell-Cbinc Anticline (Cdel et. 7996), preliminry fcies mpping hs been crried ur, imed t defining sufficient number f mppble strtigrphic intervls. The cmplex prblems f strtigrphic nmenclture psed by the Lwer Permin in the Suthern Alps re beynd the scpe f this pper; the rnk f the C1- i Frmtin, lthugh needing recnsidertin, will nt be questined, nd ll the lithstrtigrphic nmes here prpsed hve t be regrded s infrml. Six lithfcies, systemriclly recgnised in the Lwer Permin f the Orbic Anticline, re described here belw (vlcnic lithfcies V1 t V3 nd sedimentry lithfcies S1 t 53). A similr, but wider, specrrum f fcies is prpsed in Frcell et l. (ZOOt) fr ll the three Orbic Anticlines. Fì l Selected fcìes f the Lwer Permin vlcnics nd cl:rstics in the Orbic Anticiine. Vlcnic member f the Clli Frmtin: A) r.elded lpillistne in u'hich nly subtle vritins in grin size nd degree f welding hint t the riginl plne bedding (V1 fcies, Cedrin Pss); B) lminted welded tr"iff (V1 fcies, Pizz dr Givnni); C) intrfrmtinl vlcnic brecci (V1 fcies, Pizz di Givnni); D) welded ccretinry lpìlli (V1 fcìes, Bindin Vllel- - pht by M.P Cnflnieri); E) erded pyrclstic t epìclstìc depsit (V2 fcìes, Pizz di Givnni). Lwer Permin clstics: F) vlcniclstic prcnglmertc (S1 fcies, Cusi - hnrmer hed n the left fr scle); G) Pnternic Cnglmerte (S3 fcìes, Bindin Vllev - pht by M.P Cnflnieri); H) medium-grined sndstne r.ith bundnt flttened :rnd imbricted mudclsts (S2 fcies, Przz. di Givnni).

5 Tlce Lter Permin in the Orbic Anticline 51 ry. m;. '*"4

6 52 D. Sciunnch V1 - ntermedite t cidic welded tuffs nd lpillstnes, with vrible mlìnt f prphyrcrvsts nd degree f welding (Fìg. A) up t n-rssive prphyries, rnging in clur frm whitish t deep red t brwnish-green; cmprtir.elv rre ignimbrites, displvins pumiccus lithics nd sheredfìmme, d hu'ever ccur. This fcies ws rnenr t inciude ls intrfrrntìnl breccis (Fig. 4C) cnsistìng f 100%' ngulr blcks rvelded in n.rphnitic mrtrix ("blck- nd sh-flr. clepsìts"sezs Cs & ${rright 1987), cmmnly t thin t be mpped t the 1: scie. A rugh bedding underlined by thin tuffceus interlvers (Fig. B) is lclly bserved, but in gencrl is pen'sively verprinted by the Alpine clevge. V2 - Vlcniclstic breccis nd renites t rewrked tuffs ("epiclstìcs"; Fisher 1961) rvith prly-srted, ngulr lpilli exclusivei,vvlcnic in rigìn embedded ìn "slt-nd-pepper" sndv mtrix (Fig. E); bundnt plgiclse is recgnised in the renites. V3 - Mssive, mstly bsic lv flws, deep green t lnst blck ìn clur. Blck femics nd sussurrìtìsed ple grccn plgiclse re lclly bserved; mygdlr vcules re n,idespred. S1 - Mcdium- t crse-grined, grev t pink vlc:nic rcnirc:, displying bundnt fresh detritl feldspr nd scttercd white mic flkes, lclly cncentrtcd n the bedding pl;rnes in the finer-greined frctin. Lvers re up t severl tcns f cm-thick, mstl,v hmgeneus in grin siz-e but lclly displying rugh grding, either nrn-rl r inverse. Subrdintc intercltins f pelites, pvrclstics nd cnglmertes ccur (Fìg. 4F) Previling fine- t medium-grined, drk grs- r-ìcrnìc rcnites, in lyers few cm t less thn 2O cm-thick, fining upr.:rrds t blck pelites rich rn r.hite mic flkes (snd/nud rti > 1). A vriety f seclìmentrl- structures (chnnelised beds underlìneci by cly chips t theìr bse, nrmlly grded beds, prllel nd ls-ngle lmintin, climbing nd ld-csted ripples, lenticulr bedding, slumprnes, cnvlute lmintin, Jd structures evlving t blis nd pìllrvs) is displyed (Fìg. 4H) PebbÌe t cbble cnelmertes, lternting t crsegrined pebbly sndstnes, depsited ìn prximel fns (Fig. G). ln the Pizz. dei Tre Signri re this fcies ws frmlly intrduced s distinct unit, ccupying defìnite strtigrphic psitin (Pnternic Cnglmerte; Csti Er Gncclini 1965), wheres in the Trbuchell-C:rbinc Anticline the term "Mnte Ag Cngimerte" hs been recentl,v intrduced (Cdel et l ). The stcking pttern f fcies bserved in the field suggested their lumping int three mpping units: vlcnic member, in which fcies V1 is exclusive, n renceus-vlcniclstic member, enclsing ll fcies except S3, nd n upper renceus-pelitic member, in which fcies 52 is exclusive. These mpping units, expsed ll ver the study re nd esily identified even under pr exprrsure, crrespnd t the whle Clli Frmetin s described in the previus literture; fcies 53 crrespnds t the Pnternic Cnglmerte. Gechemistry. Mjr element gechemicl nlyses n vlcnic rcks where crried ut n pwder discs using n utmtic Philips P\í 1400 X-Ry flurescence spectrmeter. The results were crrected ccrding t wide rnge f interntinl nd nturl gestndrds; t lest five stndrds were used fr ech selected element. Lss n ignitin ws determined n pwders kept t 1000 'C vernight. Bth WDS (kv : 15.0, na * 300, livetime : secnds, nturl mphible nd rhdnite s stndrds) nd EDS (kv : 20.0, na : , livetime : 5O secnds, interntinl stndrds nd metllic cblt fr clibrtin) micrprbe nlyses were crried ut n plished thin sectin f the bsl ctclsite. Sndstne petrgrphy. 300 pints were cunted n ech stndrd thin sectin, nd pint-cunting dt were reclculted fllwing the Gzzi-Dickinsn methd (Dickinsn D7A; 1985). Grin size ws semiquntittively eyluted ccrding t Grznti et l. (2001). The Prdini Vlley sectin revisited. Tectnic bsl cnt.rcts n the crystliine bsement, severe Alpine defrmtin nd pr expsure f its sedimentry upper prt, cmmnly hmper prec;se thickne ss estimte f the Clli Frmtin frm bse t tp. One f the very few plces where cntinuus sectin is expsed is the Prdini Vlley tlweg (Fig. 5), n the suthern slpe f rhe Pizz dei Tre Signri nd n the nrthern limb f the Orbic Anticline (bse f sectin t 1490 m.s.l., Guss-Bg c-rdintes ). This sectin, m-thick, ws first mesured nd described in Csti & Gncclinr (1967).n the present pper, their intervl 1 is split int intervls 1-8. Twenty-five smples were cllected fr petrgrphic nd gechemicl nlyses frm the mesured sectin. The cmpsite sectin f the Ztt-Mnte Cvll Vlleys nrth f Mezzld (Csti 8r Gncclini 1967) cn be useful fr cmprisn. n bth sectins, hwever, the bsl cntct with the bsement is tectnised nd the thickness f intervl t hs t he req:rded s minimum vlue. The recgnised levels re, tp t bttm: - Verrucn Lmbrd. Orthcnglrnertes nd priìcnglmertes supprted b1' r.e.'...r" snd ntrix, in mlglmted beds with pebbiv lgs t their bse; ngulr bulders f Clli sedimentr,v rcks, up t 3O cm in length, re bserved t the very bse. Smple VP 20 (0.4 m br.e the bse). - Clli Fmtin. 20) nterbedded fìne t medium-grined sndstnes nd pelites, reddish in the prt, greenish t drh grey upwrds, with prllel t crss- nd trugh-beddìng, bundnt mudclsts nd ld structures. Thin intercltins f blck pelites re cmmn; sndstnes re nre bundnt t the bse. Svmmetricl ripples re bserved 5 m belw the tp. Smples VP 17 (3 m bve the bse), VP 18 (30 m belw the tp), VP 19 (0.4 m belw the tp) (196 rn); - Pnternic Cnglmerte. 19) Grey-greenìsh rthcnglmertes, prcnglmertes nd pebbly sndstnes, rughiy bedded t nrssive, with vìcnic nd subrdìntely metmrphic pebbles, up t 25 cm in size. Smpìes VP 15 (75 m bve the bse), VP 16 t the tp (185 m); - Clli Frmtin. 18) Greenish sndstnes, lclly cntining bund,rnt vlcnic pebbles, lternting t prllel-lminted pelites nd greenish tuffs

7 The Luu,'r Permin in the Orubic AnticÌine 53 2,3: (d y q: ;ó0) 990- = 99q) ;: 99!!1tr(l \ '- >. / c) (g >ú): A -F, U' ;89 c-; ;) (ú È <-: c: = cìi È ql* (Ú0 Y c ='rt ) tt) E (ú f L "'c P3 óx.> (Ú c) = c (ú : 6th (ú g + _,, : <! ^ ; - -; -; =TùùOùÈOLAC - ;-: =--^q x(d0=.:'6 è(6 g 6-0 ';=!LCC CPdd ().:'(ú > > 9.- L.9 (l E "9 c) (ú (ú () ie 6 {6 c! 'i-fé*$k 14k3ff*k 383:E eeel eecy cel s ee6{06é6 6 A e9o6oe e6o eqeca eóc O6gA eacag66a9a6 ee6o 66e N e ce e e e 66e 6: : &' : '6 : :^.-. cr), Elew3w crnvct (rî. \> \O\< q) G E 6 ' ā g) - - The Prdini Vllev sectin (A - r.ervìel.; B : redrr.r.r fter A: numbers in circles refer t the described interyls, dts indicte smpling sìtes; C : mcesured sectin). VL - Verrucn Lmbrd.

8 J,+ D. Sciunncb with inversely-grded pumiceus lpilli. $lter-escpe structures re cmmn in snd-mud cuplets. Smples VP 8 (25 m belw the tp), VP 9 t the tp (86 m); 1Z) Grey sndstnes with blck pelite veneers, cmmnly displying prllel t crss-lmintin nd cntining bundnt mudclsts, with thin tuf{ceus intercltins. Smples VP 4 (15 m bve the bse), VP 5 (85 m bve the bse), VP 6 (0.3 m belw the tp), VP./ t tne tp (/uj mr; 16) Greenish sndstnes, frequently purple nd reddish in the lwer prt, pssing t prllel-lminted pebbly sndstnes with scured bse r less cmmnly t cnglmertes yielding vlcnic pebbles; up t 15 cm-thick intercltins f purple tuffs ls ccur. Bth nrmlly nd inversely grded beds re cmmn. Smple VP 3 (5 m belw the tp) (73.5 m); 15) Reddish sndstnes, pebbly sndstnes, tuffs nd vlcnic breccis. Smple VP 21 t the tp (1,1.5 m); 14) Deep green, mssive lv flws, with plgiclse micrliths nd sprse mygdlr cr.ities filled by crbnte crystls. Bsl cntct n the underlying sndstnes is shrp nd mildly ersinl; up t 0.7 m bve the bse, the lvs re frctured, vuggy nd smehw flited prllel t bedding. Smple ACVP 2 (4 m bve the bse) (20 m); 13) Grey sndstnes, lclly pebbly nd crse-grined, in beds 1 t 20 crn-thìck irnde : 6 cm) lternting t bick pelite veneers, cmmnly with prllel lmintin. Frctured micrcnglmertes, 10 cm-thick. r the r-cry bse. Smples VP 13 (0.6 m bve the bse), VP 12 (10 m belw the tp) (71 m); 12) Red t purpie prphyries. Smple ACVP 3 frrl-r the middle prr r5 mr: 1 1) Grey t brwnish sndstnes nd tulfs rich in plgiclse ("sìt-nd-pepper"). Srnple VP 1'l t the tp (9.5 m); 1O) Red t purple pyrclstic breccì. Smpìes VP 10 (2.5 m bve the bse), VP 11 (1.5 m belw the tp) (6 m); 9) Red t purple prphyries. Smple ACVP1 (4.3 m beln- the tp) (26 m); 8) Cliff-frming whitish t whitish-grey vlcnics (40.6 m); 7) \fhite t pink prphyries, with sprse tuffceus intercltins nd unflded qurtz veins (15.5 m); 6) Pinkish t reddish bedded prphyries n-ith cvities fìlled bv *,hit. l^l^-ir. r ì v R riil\ nr\. \? 5) Fine-grined, pseudndulr prphyries lternting with s.elded tuffs in up t 2 cm-thick beds (5.3 m); 4) Welded tuffs with flded qurtz veins (6 m); 3) Aphyric welded tuffs rnging in clur frm light grcy t pinkish t greenish, in thick, prly distinct beds, intensely flded nd cleved. Smple ACVP.1 t the tp (5.6 m); 2) Blck ctcirsite including thin slivers f tectnised vlcnrc.. Smplc Vl'2.rt thc tp (2 m): 1) Tectnised vlcnics, injected b;, blck ctclsite veins, encsing rnygdlid bsement blcks up t 60 cm in dimete r. Smple VP 1 t the bse (2.2 m); - mermrphic b:sement. Muscvite prgneisses with qurtz rds, injected by subprllel veins f blck ctclsites in the tpmst 2 metres. Petrgrphy nd gechemistry f the Clli vlcnics. Fur mjr element gechemicl nlyses were crried ut n smples frm the Prdini Vlley sectin (Tb. 1). Smples frm bth the bse (intervl 3, smple ACVP 4) nd tp (intervl 9, smple ACVP 1) f the lwer vlcnic member, ver 110 m-thick, cn be clssified s intermedite, N-lkline vlcnics (benmre- si2 Ti2 At2O3 FeOil MnO Mg CO N2O Kz Pzs t. L. ACVP4 ACVP1 ACVP3 ACVP2 58,35 na4 16,20 5,70,26 e 24 10,93 55,25 1,10 20,1 9 6,12 0,28 )24 3,80, ll 4,21, ,85 2,03 '1 6,40 18,02 6,49 10,02 0,05 0,14 0,55 4,44 0,43 7,93 3,89 5,07 3,61 0,95 0,1 B 0,53 2,00 8,53 Tt 99,54 99,30 99,48 Tb. t - Gechemistry f the Clli vlcnìcs in the Prdini Vlley sectin; smples re listed in strtigrphic rder..l. : jgnitin lss. ites), yielding reltively high Ai nd lw Mg cntent. Prximl strtigrphic psitin f smple ACVP 4 t the bsi ctclsites results in strnger ltertin, testified by high.l. vlues, but nt in severe disruptin f the rigini texture. Similr gechemistry f the tw smpies des nt llw t recgnise differentitìn trends, frm bse t tp, within the thick vicnic successin extending frm intervls 3 t 9. The lwer vlcnic member is cpped by pyrclstic brecci (intervl 10) where deeply ltered nd resrpted plgiclse phencrysts re hrdly distinguished frm the feisitic t phnitic grundmss f individul clsts. Jpsectin, prphyries in thinner lyers (ACVP 3) lternting t vlcnic renites (intervl 12), cn be clssified s cidic, high-k clc-lkline vlcnics (dcites) with 1w Mg cntent. The silic excess due t qlrrrz veins might explin the shifting f this smple wy frm rhe N-lkline suite. Next, intervl 14 cnsists f 4O m-thick mugerite lv flw (ACVP 2,25.9.1). These bsic vlcnics, belnging t the N-lk1ine suite, yielded high Al nd Ti nd lw Mg cntent; in thin sectin, they disply hmgeneus intersertl texture, where felted plgiclse lths (250 pm n the verge) re enclsed in n ltered mtrix cnsisting f chlrite nd ferrn dlmite (Fig. 6C). n utcrp, n evidence hs been fund f subqueus depsitin f the ndesitic lvs (breccis t pillw-structures); cntct n the underlying sediments is shrp, mildly ersinl, nd underlined by flw textures nd cvities. Still upsectin, thin tuffceus beds, in which q::l^rtz, plgiclse nd cmmnly spherulitic felsitic frgments re enclsed in n phyric mtrix, re interclted t the previling sndstnes nd pelites (smple VP 4; intervls 15-18).

9 The L'u.rcr Permìn in the Orbic Anticline 55 '',r;.r;tr.::r$.:lr:li::: ì"]:il:ii:,..,.:r.iì:r::' ii."',r!!s ',,,,.:l'.,.-'l.,& s*f- * : ".-,%" 'qf* -s' " î {,, :,i.,,tit-.,, *' ''i l:l' '..,"':.t;,1*rll.. : :*litr,'... rri:'1.ì.,i::1. ' :r::. : ::': Fig. 6 lepresenttive phtmìcrgrphs f fcies described in the Prdini Vlley sectin. A - bsl ct:rclsite, n'ith clyey mtrix (C1, lrgcl,v cnsisting f illite) encsing tectsilicte lithns wjth felsitic texture (Lt) prt\. replced by nkerite ptches (Ank) srwn in versized secndrv pres (VP2; pine plriscd light,27x); B : wethered intermedite wclded tuff (benmreite; fcies V1) displying feldspr phencrl'5t5 lclly tr:rnsfrmed int chessbrd-lbite (ChAb) (ACVP1; crss-plrised light,27x); C : sericitised lr- llw (mugcrìtc; fcies V3) with e plgiclse lthn-rk enc:rsing lrge clcite-chlrite pseudnrrphs (Ps) fter fen'ric phencrysts (mphibles?) (ACVP2; crss-plrrised light, 27x);D : ver,v crse-elrined, mderteiy srted vlcnic renitc (Pnternic Cnglmerte; fcies 53) rich in vlcnic lithics displving spherulitìc textures (Sph) nd cntinìns emb,ved qurtz (B-Qz) :rs rvell s lcched bititc (Bt) phcncr,vsts (VP 1 5; crss-plrised light, 2Zr); ll : blck shle (fecies 52) includìng imbrictecl crl:n-rich chips (VP Z; crssplerised light,25r); F, G - biclsts in mediurn-grined, mdertely srted vlcnic rcnìte (VP 18; plne plrised lìght); F - sn.rll g,rstrpd fr,rgment, 12'{x; G : furmjnjfer fr.rsmcnt 1cl. Hemigrdiur sp.; dct. bv R. Rettri),260x.

10 56 D. Sciunnch -: U E Orc =! >-É -E dx ^ -Ò - ).9r tr.9f = v!; tî): vi-=,>=p=-t=e.= v > - - = ;?-r<" rr 9+:"F. -7l"2tit-2.*'t rq4---stllf-!*.- *:l. x;" d *K - -> é *.^ O- d.:i 2.v 'E,À "- _î.= F.t,^ -Eh.ì > (r-lll d 3 -:\{9r;=zi"- ie:e=?2t.4.,3; :Ì;.- - t: =' -:.=- EZÚ6.:-;Èl-í : = i 'r i /. = / = P í= 9 i: : r y. í il - Y = ui.=:_.; ó=,=.:x {-sí"-i;==*ét i-:i=-rit=zr= g 3 5 ic- > -e ' t. ltr;{:---'1-.==. -=--lf-.9i.ù3 E -E rr -- É;; ::.=^".6===^= -"jf7.=9-t-ó-; : = --",2=v+'='==_;=>+ L.= ;! - ^ - ' 4==');ó;l3t:= + 1eùl=1ÉL: u. =-=- =2 EE ".& *., =ú:===',,=-;<.::i.::'^- Éi! r 5! i'::t+==-> TiiiiÉ;ò'7Y. ù - O- L -- c t -;..J=i+12ti=.3 =:;=+-í.j?,*'.t,= / : - ;.. ' :1, - *.:-=.?,y+:'=..! F=..J'--^ > == >= * / =;-, ' =? 7 E+.? í J ; ==7 í --^sv.= 9-e = == 9 3.l =,r* :Eî,'- -'ó:'"i^) ==>=:,;=&-= -.==-qís^'):<tt ú ll,. - "^7tv:'J=:?Et: ';: -42=ó;.:F-=Z*!= -u =.= ; = c-.. =^j = :E.9.i úe Ei i z* le +É - -^ b;:3 = -",yíf!+ El r: É v_ E Rj,Ff:ì )'r u i ó= il.= ù - =- ==- - = - - ^ A e 9 (:,' j i- : ; * '6;.E-<:*6-:u = -.,-1, u E Y :: t u 5 ì N =à '?tf,-è=ià 7i; ;= :E 7:. il<: >i XJ c - Y < r.! r C : u -- :.rc=?-':=!í-->ì; Or-gr;-r ó -D r:; F É (, È J F E O 6 O z À M F À È É É E É È N -- ts N ó-? Eàóó u[è r, N- N- N- O- N- 6- O- N- O- ó- d N, - - ÉÉÉÉÉ RRRRRRF EdEd{== >;>>> R33&3PB -qlj; _ - NOTN n-n-n--n NNt O- m- -- O- O- ó- -- ó sn 6òis NrN -N-N-O-qS sf$n6 s-\ N: $ N -r-óó-ns ú^i6nj -Q--ó-N--ó-\ -rs óórn r N N.. È È -O+OF NÓO óó NOOr OÓNÓONN -rttjnj ÈNs-ss NOOO_óO ÉÉÉqÉÉÉrÉss PÉ=.;{PddrdQd "t 96n Ntsqqi,6\N-N-NN-N E r NN 66ÈOOOO dctcic; Nú606s r- N- ó- O- O- -- N- O- O- O- s- N- O- O- - N N- ó- - - ts- - N ús-nt-s NFróNF6rN r60-ónts -9Sc.iN-jrj<js -s Ps-99-rinN.-sr\s--\ 33.;J9"tRÈg\ NNNNó J-vri ONNÈÓN È- s ó- ó- s N- ó- N-.? - r?^sè^i6;nn '! NOONTNOtsOóOOó NNrO-+OO-O tsnnn JJrJts N r- - - ó- ó N Oró--NN-N-N- JGi' rí-sf-)(r(-.r$c') (- cd- \ cr)- - r- c!- r- - _ c{ Ot-LOO$O-c.)OO) \t c! in -N-È-È-Nró6-N N+ NNNO--óóOOr NNOONvN$NO- '-N-N cdr.-rc0$)$n) -i-i-i;-i.^;_;^i; NC' L O -È-N-N-O-N- -ss O-O ónrn-sss-è-s nisct:ósctd99só CtCDONCDcOt-TCDOO Cr)- r^ r- cd- t-_ \ st- ro- O- (O- O- rc\t*! È NN ;c.i --òi NNOÈONONOOóóO -NisN-d-d-- crc9-cdcr)o)o(ocdo)oo cd- -^ -- CD- N- \ r- sf_ - tr)- O- O- OOOOOTl)cOTOc{OO r(\$ È È È N-- xs- *-S ONNNONO Nsòi ó- O-rrNv ó- r-, ó ó - - ó- - ó- ó- ó- - - rnr-n-ooìnov N- S- N- NOóONNSóS6 ó-n--n-ts-órsrn- ÓÈOOÓNÓÓON N--;J tsnóots -rn-o óónn --,- ddr?? g? 3"*dq tr<ù>>òz:<-cf) -,(Ú E -j N- - NONNO ON-N s:v is;'cr5 È- - N- N- ó- O- O- O- N- r- O- O- O- O- NNNNSSONNO-NNO

11 The Lter Permin in the Orbic Anticline 57 F,DS nd \lds nlyses were crried ut n the bsl ctcl.isite VP 2t. indicting the clyey cmp'itin (illite) fr the drk, phnitic mtrix encsing vlcnic lithns (Fig. 6A), s well s the ccurrence f lrge ptches f nerly stichimetric nkerite (Tb. 2), but filing t revel turmlinistin (cmpre with Zhng et L.1994). Petrgrphy f the Lwer Permin sndstnes. Al1 the studied sndstne smples frm the Clli Frmtin (n : 19) nd the Pnternic Cnglmerte (" : 6) cn be clssified s mstly medium-grined, mdertely t ver)- prly-srted vlcnic renrtes (verge detritl mdes: Q : 10*5, F :2A-r7,L: 70-r8;Trb.3) end c;ìn thus be described cmprehensively. Mdertely srted sndstnes re medium- t very crse-grined. Qurtz is minlv mncrystlline, lthugh pl.u-crystlline grins re ls cmmn (C/Q : )i ernbyed pseud-hexrnl crystls f vlcnic rigin (Fig. 6D) represent nerlv 207. f ttl mncrvstlline qurtz. Plycrystlline gr:ins dìsply sutured bundries, elngted nd isricntecl crystllites nd cmmn phyl- silicte inclusins, suggesting mstly metmrphic rigìn. Feldsprs cmprise previling plgiclse nd subrdinte lklifeldsper (P/F : ). Plgiclse cmmnly ccurs in fresh, nsulr t subnsulr erins prcsening twinning % n ttl plticlse) nd zning ( ""), thus hinting t prvennce frm ne"lcnic rcks (Zuff 1985) expsed nt fr frm the bsin. Amng elklifeldsprs, chessbrd lbite ìs n-idespred, ls pinting t vlcnic surce; mìcrcline is insted negligible. Pervsively sericitised feldsprs re fund nly in deeply dìgenised smplcs, where epimtrìx (Dickinsn l97o) crss-cuts the bundries f unstble grins. Vicnic lithics rc mstly vitric ( % f rck vlune), but ls frgments f felsite ( %) nd micrlitic lv ( %) re cmmn (Fig. 6D). Hypbyssl lithics derived frm subvlcnic rcks re ls r.idesprecl ( % f rck vlume),;rs grnitid rck frgments re scnty. n generl, prmetmrphic lithics previl ver gneissìc rck frgments, tht re insted mre bund;rnt in the crser-grined smples (.r - A.7A6, sign. ler'. < 0.1%). Sndstne r.elire {rrqme.ts r'crrr 1.1g1s25 the bsence f crbnte lithic grins fils t supprt cnniblism f crbnte crusts s n inrprtnt prcess (Cssinis ct l. 1986). Thc bundrnce f pseudnrphic grins nd rnstly vlc;rnic pseudmtrix (Dickinsn 197A; "k l rck viume) hmpers ssessment f the riginl snd cmp.itin. tht my be nrisinterpreted if pseudm;rtrix is verlked. Accessry minerls crnprise previling rric flkes (muscvite t prgnite nd "leched" bitite) nd subrdin.rre zircn, ptìtc. rutìle, turmline nd sphene. ntrfrmtinll versized mudclsts (up t 3% f rck vlurre) lclly disply slty clevges,rs n effect f pst-depsitinl nchimetmrphism. Sprse phsphte ndules re bserved nly in smple VP 18, where rre biclsts (frminifers nd smll gstrpds) ls ccur. Epìmtrix, ìncluding celdnite, is bundnt ( % f rck vlurne) nd s intensely recrystellised tht phyllsilicte flkes cmmnly crss-cut grin bundries. Erly dìgenetic qurtzse t fejdsprthic cenrent is minr (2.5l. f rck v- Lume n the verge), cnsistent with pr snd srting (Winn et l. 1984): rnximum bundnce is recrded in mdertell-srted sndstnes. Pr preservtin f primry pres under rpid buril nd sediment cmpctin is ls indicted. Qurtz veins nd ferrn dlmite ptches re widespred (B.A+n.5'/,' f rck vlume); precipittin f these uthigenic crbntes in secndry pres shuld hve ccurred during buril digenesis, thrugh the leching f C nd Mg ins frm the vlcnic detritus. The djining Trissic dlstnes nd limestnes, lf ing in tectnic cntct wìth the Orbic Anticlìne lng the Vltrt Line (Fig. 3), re unl:ikely t hve pervsively fed with crbnte the Permin successin, tht hd lredy experienced strng cmpctin nd prsìty lss t depth; mrever, n Alpine ge fr the precìpittin f the uthigenìc ferrn dlmite u.uld nt explin why the verlying Verrucn Lmbrd is lmst crbntefree (Sciunnch et. ir.1996). Cmpsitin f the Lwer Permin sndstnes is cnsistent with prvennce f detritus frm verwheiming vlcnic surces, lng with subrdinte input frm the Hercynin crystlline bsement (metmrphic nd grnitid rcks) nd minr supply frm lder clstic units (e.g., Cnglmert Bsle). Ttl qurtz, grdully incresing up$/rds in the Prdini Vlley sectin (r : A.773, sign. ev. < 1'h), recrds stepwise increse pssing frm intervl 17 t 18. Hwever, this petrgrphic signl is in generl t grdul t llw discrimintin f petrlgic intervls within the Permin sndstnes, tht cluster int single Petrfcies P0 (Fig. Z). Since the pineering wrk f Dickinsn 8r Rich (1972), perrlgic intervls identified by mens f peculir petrfcies hve been successfuily emplyed s crreltin tls in sterile clstic successins (Zuff et nd ref. therein). Despite mrked lterl vribility f fcies nd wide grin size rnge f the nlysed smples, cmpsitin f the Lwer Permin sndstnes is remrkbly unifrm in bth the Orbic nd the Trbuchell-Cbinc Anticlines, tht is, ver n re extending fr ver 35 km west t est (Sciunnch et. 1999).n the Cmun Anticline, rksic nd mre qurtzse cmpsitins re insted reprted (Cssinis et ), suggesting greter cntributin frm unrfed bsement rcks. Strtigrphy f the Lwer Permin in the Orbic Anticline. The verticl rgnistin f fcies recgnised ll ver the study re llwed cnstructin f refined strtigrphic frmewrk fr the Lwer Permin in the Orbic Anticline (Fig. S). Ech f the lithstrtigrphic units listed belw in scending strtigrphic rder,,ì.- D^-,-..-;,,.c Cnglmerte, needs t be regrded s n infrml member f lcl significnce, but ls reflects distinct stge f vlcnic ectivity vs. sedimenttin. 1. Vlcnic member f the Clli Frmtin. 1. n the lwer prt, bserved in ll sectins, welded tuffs nd lpillistnes (whitish in clur in the lwer prt, reddish t the tp prbbly due t xidtin in cntinentl setting) re sscited t prphyric ign-

12 58 D. Sciunnch P2 (n=14) P1 (n= 4) P0 (n=25) Verrucn Lmbrd Verrucn Lmbrd Clli Frmtin, Pnntrnin Cnglmerte vr/r CflP (n=s) Cnglmert Bsle PROVENANCE CATEGORES llxj cntinentlblck Mgrtic rc f-l W.tH ecycled rgen Fig.7 - QrF di.rgrrm rdickin'n i985) fr the Lwer Permin sndstnes f the Orbic Anticline (Petrfcies PO) cmpred t the Crbniferus-lwermst Permin? Cnglmert Bsle (Petrfcies CflP) nd t the lrgely Upper Permin Verrucn Lmbrd sndstnes (Petrfcies P1, P2). Mdified iter Sciunnch et l. (1999). Pìygns re ne stndàrd devitin cch side { the men; n : number f smpìes. F L imbrites, drk bedded tuffs nd grded pyrclstic flws. Mssive phyric vlcnics with drk-green glssy pste, in bdies f prly-defined gemetry, lclly ccur. Accretinry lpilli (Mre & Peck 1962) were fund in cbbles frm the Clli vlcnics in the Bindin Vlley (Fig. D; Cnflnieri 1993). These cnstituents re prticulrly cmmn - lthugh nt exclusive - in pyrclstic flw depsits nd re relible indictrs f suberil erllptin (Cs & Wright 1987). 1b. n the upper prt, bserved nly under fvurble utcrp cnditins nd seemingly discntinuus, intrfrmtinl vlcnic breccis, cnsisting fr nerlv 100% f vlcnic clsts, disply highly vri.rble thickness. This mpping unit crrespnds t intervls 1-1O f the Prdini Vlley sectin (thickness : 113 m; 1 : 707 m, 1b : 6 m), t intervls 1-8 f the ZttYlley sectin (thickness : 128 rn;1:81.5 m, 1f :96.5 m) nd invribly displys V1 fcies; thickness pssibly exceeds 25 m in the Ornic re. ' The bsl vlcnic successin (1) ws prbbly depsited t very high ccumultin rtes during stge f prxysml vlcnic ctivity pssibly lsting just few thusnd yers; the tpmst vicniclstic breccis (1b) re likely t hve been ccumulted during ctstrphic intrclderic cllpses. A very shrt timc sprn fr the whle member wuld be cnsistent with bth the hmgeneus gechemistry f the welded tuffs frm bse t tp nd the incnspicuus nn-vlcnic clsts in the verlying breccis. 2. Arenceus-vlcniclstic member f the Clli Frmtin. Previling crse-grined renites with minr pelites, lternting t epiclstics, cmmnly welded tuffs, nd bsic lv flws. Bsl cntct n the underlying member is prcnfrmble in the Prdini Vlley sectin, lthugh reginl uncnfrmity is suggested in mp view. Vlcnism ccurred cpisdiclly nd lternted t prlnged stges f vlcnic quiescence during which clstic sedimenttin tk plce. This member cn be further subdividcd, esily in cntinuus sectlns but hrdly where utcrps re spjrse. in tw prts: 2. Previling fine-grined, thin-bedded sndstnes with subrdinte siltstnes nd rre cnglmertes: ll rck types re typiclly drk grey in clur. This lwer prt crrespnds t intervls f the Prdini Vlley sectin (thickness : 85.5 m), t interr-ls 9-13 l the Ztt vrlley sectin (thickness : 76.5 m) nd includes fcies S1, 52. 2b. Preriling fine-grined, thin-bedded grel sndstnes lternte with greenish tuffs, epiclstics, lv flws, ignimbrites end blck siltstnes (Fig. 6F,); inversely-grded pumiceus pvrclstic flws re pxrticulrly well preserved n the suthern slpe f thepizz dei Tre Signri. This lithzne crrespnds t intervls f the Prdini Vlley sectin (thickness : 397 m), t intervls 14-2 f theztt Vlley sectin (thickness :295.2 m) nd includes fcies Vi, V2, V3, S1 nd 52. A fssiliferus hrizn ws fund n the Averr- Vlmresc rd cut (689.6 m.s.l.). Defrmed cmpsite mulds f smth-shelled bivlves (Fig. l) were cllected frm grey t brwnish, fine-grined rnicceus sndstne verlin by thin intervl f welded tuff; tectnic cntct with the Verrucn Lmbrd shrtly fllws upwrds. This member ws depsited s whle in rpidly subsiding, newly-frmed sedimentry bsin. Occurrence f bth mssive, structureless depsits f grnulr sediment nd plne bed, hrizntlly-lminted depsits, dcuments either suberil (sheetflds) r subqueus (slurry rnss flws) fn-delt prcesses. Dcitic vlcnics in the lwer prt seem t suggest

13 The Lzer Permin in tbe Orbic Anticline 59 -!> j 9! :!- 3" s. =ó f,.4 : :. S N óée 3339 VERRUCANO $ LOMBARDO 3 d.cpce,.,:-.-agq,,&"&e. s*eg# ARENACEOUS.PELTC wt.^^j"","",,ffi**l*l g tl my:\fitrffiff rlfl :=bsl ctclsil t \ nrml fuli l;*fl *Éli3ll :=- bsr ctcrsite r,.lk-rì\-f-:r< s -'.?^Al l'-*?gl \ F l{{{l \HlètH ",,iltlii,,l,t,i''"' inf erred Permi ':i:; l$$rl iaal b F?31 tjns t,e,rpdr,prn, 'N[.tNr,'ir:l{tl L H, ;ié':"1%%%1..", 1.,""..1 d ì ll = l,*u.*" l$$$l, \ rrminirers r0 Ò: \ l;"$! r lsl lel È l-^^l li??l J*'.gr, lrrrl t sl- bivlves r,{,i,\.. smpres rrm sp lliijl mugerile, "ndesite" ' smpresrrmmesuredsect' ns \ " _ \ t \., l%??l 1.,%*,1 l.:,:.:l l e qlp-..--*i#f l..f..l t --"':::j:"::::"" t'l-.1..él 1;-- fe&el j-*:j -ll -- l ** :*" : F.îJ l;i;;;i; --- lsndstne,siltstne r,ffi ' lt tl werded rurr, isnimbrire l""'l :il:[,1""';j;ytt -îàè l l* N!M-' METAMRPHTc r-vm ^^^hi^_ f;t;l crse-grlne ij(ix\b] prgnerss' mrcscnlst l.;;- sndstne, epiclstite BASEMENT s s e s s g -tr Fig. 8 - Strrtigrhic frmenrk fr the Cllì Frmtin in the Orbic Anticline, s btined frm crreltin f mesured sectjns (the Prdini Vlley sectin ner Vltrt nd the Mnte Cvll-Ztt Vlleys ner Mezzld) nd 8 strtimetric lgs. Lclistin f the mjr inferred Permin nrml fults, s well s thickness f the vlcnic nd sedimentry bsin fill, tend t indicte the Ornic re s depcentre. Bx displying SiOl cntent refers t smples ACVPl-1. mgm differentitin with respect t the underlying vlcnic member, lthugh bsic lv flws, up t 2O m- thick'nd fund 92 m bve the bse f the member in the Prdini Vlley sectin, shrtly mrk n inversin f the trend. Similr smll "ndesite" flws re reprted frm the lwer prt f the "Sedimentry Member" f the Clli Frmtin ls in the Trbuchell-Cbinc Anticline (Cdei et L. 1987). The renceus-vlcniclstic member is likely t hve been depsited t vrible ccumultin rtes (higher under episdic vlcnic input, lwer when clstic rcks were depsited during stges f vlcnic quiescence). 3. Pnternic Cnglmerte (Csti & Gncclini 1965; 1 967). Sndstnes nd pelites f the "Sedimentry Member" pss lterlly t cnglmertes f similr cmpsitin: vlcnic clsts (75+80%) previl in fct ver metmrphic rck frgments (10+15%) nd milky qurtz (5+ 10%). Mstly prly-srted, pebbly t cbbly cnglmertes lternte t crse-grined sndstnes in thick, prly-defined beds. A prximl fn-delt envirnment is indicted. Clur, rnging frm purple t pinkish t deep green due t vrible xidising cnditins, is invribly purple west f the Cmisl ridge, suggesting emergence f the fn-delt, tht ws insted in prt r episdiclly submerged t the est. Threedimensinlly nd exceptinlly well-preser-ved plnt remins re fund nrth f the study re, lthugh t present they d nt prvide bistrtigrphic infrmtin (Kerp et l ). This mpping unit crrespnds t intervl 19 f the Prdini Vlley sectin (thickness : 185 m) nd t fcies 53. Cmpsitin f crse-grined sndstnes interclted t the cnglmertic red beds f the Acqudur Vlley, suth-est f ntrbi (Fig. 3), is cnsistent with the Lwer Permin petrfcies PO (Sciunnch et l.

14 60 D. Sciunncb 1999; Sciunnch 2001). These red beds, displirying lwer texturl mturity nd minerlgicl stbility thn the Verrucn Lmbrd, re thus crrelted with the Pnternic Cnglmerte, nd re restred t the western edge f clstic wedge tht pinches ut twrds structurl high (Sciunnch 2001). They,'rre in turn seled by cntinuus blnket f Verrucn Lmbrd red beds, nt lwys bviusly discriminted: criterir riginlly prpsed in Csti & Gncclini (1965) hvc been integrted with further bservtins in Tb. 4. These previusly Llnrecgnised utcrps f Pnter;rnic Cnglmerte crrespnd t the cbble cnglmertes displying crystlline cmpnents nd mtrix "clssified s sr,rbngulr crse s:rndstne r fine cnglmerte" described by Schónbrn (1992) in the ntrbi re. There, the Pnternic Cnglnlerte verlies intrfrmtinl breccis "cnsisting cmpletely f vlcnics" (Schónbrn 1992) scribcd herein t the vlcnic member f the Clli Frmtin (1b), s re the underlying bedded cinerites, up t but 2O m-thrck in the Acqudur Vlley (Fig. 8) nd mentined in Getni ct l. (1987) s sedimentry fcies f the Clli Frmtin. As wh1e, the Pnternic Cnglmerte recrds stge f fn prgrdtin t the end f vlcnic ctivity in the Orbic Anticline re. 4. Upper renceus-pelitic member f the Clli Frmtin. Previling grey t greenish sndstnes, lrgely medium t fine-grined nd rich in sedimcntry structures, re interpreted s depsited in perennil lke bsins (Cssinis et l. 1986; Cdel et l. 1996). Tetrpd ftprints were in the Scic Vlley (Ornic), frr.r.r wl.rere they hd been reprted ls in Csti Ec Gncclini (1967:- plte 8, fies. 1,2), few metres belw the uncnfrmble cntct with the Verrucn Lmbrd.'Rccentl;r, tetrpd ftprints frm the sme strtrgrphic level hve been fund in the nfern Lke surrundings, but 2 km nrth f the study re (Snti & Krieger 2000). Rre fr;rr.ninifers with clcreus tests (Mililce) nd sn-rll gstrpd frgments re reprted here fr the first time frm the upper prt f thc Prdini Vl1e1'sectin (Fig. 6F, G). This mpping unrt crrespnds t intervl 20 f tl-re Prdini Vllcl- sectin (thickness : 196 m), t inten'1 21 f the Ztt Vlle,v (thickness : 246 n't) nd t fcies 52; it is heterpic, t lcrst ìn prrt, s'ith the Pnternic Cnglmerte nd ppcrs t hr.e been depsited t lwer sedimentrtin rtcs ît thc cnd i the vlc.rnic,rcrivity. Clrstic input seeminglv utp:1ced subsidencc, s suggested b1' pr-,rressive infillini' f the lke bsin nd reductin f the t]'."'''''''.'.''''b.-..'' wter bdy dcumented by ftprints nd mud-crcks twrds the tp. fig. 9 - Defrmcd cmpsite mulcls f smth-shelled bir.lves,,\'err:r. lv{ulds A, C seen cmprble t the scnus Anthrcnut (Pprth 1966), r.heres ne;.lrl1- equil.rtenl mulds B, D, E resemble the undeteririned fresh-r.ter Discussin. bivirlves pictured bv Berruti (1962). Scele br in cm. Mgmtic evlutin. Gechemic:rl nlyses f the Clli r-lcnics in the study :rre indicte benmreitic cmpsitin fr the lwer pyrclstic flw depsits, er-lving t mre l:f,-^-,:,.. rrlrjrlu L 1..:.: -) \ujllrrl/ cnruririn ip rh,. l*errnst :ìrenceus-vlcniclstic member. These mrqmrtìc prducts re hwever bruptly fllwed upsectin by mugerite lv flws nd rhylite tuffs. n the Trbuchell-Cbinc nd Cmun Anticlines, previling rhylites nd subrdinete "ndesites" rrc reprted (Peyrnel Pglini 1965; Cdel 1986), lthugh intermcdite lkline vlcnics ls ccur (Crtesgn et l. 1998). n generl, Erlv Permin mgmtism in the Suthern Alps displys prevlent clc-lkiine signrture, lthueh subductin cntext cn be ruled ut bscd n the reginl tectnic scenri. Prtil me lting is likely t hve ccurrcd t the mntle/crust trnsitin (Crtes-

15 The Lzer Permirt in the Orbic Anticline E E 9 C' z 2 F z cmpsitin gr n size vlcn c - 75./., metmrphic = 15À, quttz = 10Yó verge cm, mximum 60 cm qutlz , vlcnic 30+60%, metmrphìc < 1% verge cm, mximum 20 cm srtrng pr t very pr mderte t pr r u nd ness ngulr t subrunded subngulr t runded cluf detritl mes cmpsite vs vilet t pink t wine re d (g reenish n reductin) F Q35+68 F5+15 L )lgiclse vs tt. feldspr srting merle Ì very pf m e rte ru ndness ngulr t subnoulf subngulr t subrunded clur PONTERANCA CONGLO\,4EMTE grey r eep green VERRUCANO LO\,4BARDO wine red (greenish n reductin) PELTE ccurrence negl gible cycircl Tb. 4 - Distinctive fcics chrcters f the Pnternic Cnslmerte vs. Verrucn Lrnbrd. gn et l. 1998). Self-lìmitìng mgmr;c srping f the cntinentl crust, resulting in bth mixing nd mingling f different mgms, s well s in their high Al cntent, ccurred during the scent f mgms stred t different lithspheric levels; their lcl underplting - cnsisrenr with the lrv Mg cntent in the studied smpies - cused vrible degree f differentitin even mng plutns nd vlcnic centres clse either in spce r time. A system f "leky" wrench fults, cutting thrugh the whle lithsphere nd mrking trnscurrent plre bundry, is the mst likely tectnic setting fr mgmtism (Mssri 1988; Rttur er r ). Bth the distributin f the vlcnic districts nd the gemetry f single plutns, in which subprliel stcks nd dyke swrms previl ver.:ntrl necks (e.g. Vl Bindin), re cnsistent with fissure -guided rther thn centr.rl mgmtism. Liner culdrn bundries, striking pprximtely 60'N, hve been reprted frm the Nvzz-Vl Vedell district (Cdel 1986 nd ref. therein). Other tectn-mgmtic mdels re less vible. Rising nd prtil melting f the sthensphere relted t n brted rifting des nt mtch the clse time reltinships between reginl frulting rnd vlcnism (Fvre Er Stmpfli 1992; Breitkreutz & Kennedy 1999), s well s the wide rnge f luminus mgmtic prducts deriving frm the lithspheric mntle, lthugh it might explin the "Texn lng-hrn" crss-sectinl pttern chrcterisine the Permin bsin fills in the Suthern Alps (Cssinis et ). A mntle plume surce finds n ctulistic nlgue becuse mgmtism is scttered ver n exceedingly wide re; hwever. it might ccunt t lest in prt fr the rpid uplift f the Hercynin rnge nd widespred vlcnism shrtly pre-dting nrml fulting. The culdrn subsidence mdel is clerly insufficient t ccunt fr the gemetry f vlcnic bdies t bsin scle, lthugh it cn be successful t justify the gemetric reltinships between vlcnics nd epiclstics r mre lcl scle (Cdel 1986; Cdel et. 1996). The mgmtic evlutin recrded by the Clli Frmtin in the Orbic Anticline cn be frmed in tw-step reginl trend f vlcrnic rcrivity: 1. prxysml eruptin f lithspheric mntle mgms enriched in Al nd lklis by crustl cntmintin, finding their wy t the surfce thrugh "leky" wrench fults; 2. isthe rm upwelling, enhnced by stretching nd unlding f the upper crust, cusing the scent f deeper-seted, less differentited mgms; emplcement f bsic lv flws, cupled with nging eruptin f re sidul cidic mgms, seemingly determined lte stge f 'ri lt-like" bimd.ri vlc.rnism. The hypthesis ccrding t which the Vlsssin intrusins wuld represent the mgm chmbers f the Clli vlcnics (Merl 1933; Cdel 1986), lthugh resnble, is nt supprted by utcrp evidence. A review f the gechemicl dt vilble in the literture n the Vl Bindin plutnic crnplex (De Cpitni 1982; De Cpitni Ec Libri 1988) nd the Clli vlcnics (Origni Gibbi et l. 1981; Cdel 1986; Crtesgn et l. 1998) fils t supprr derivtin f the tw mgmric bdies frm cmmn prent mgm. Substntil lck f rhylites in the vlcnic member f the Orbic Anticline is first line f evidence ginst physicl cntinuity f the Clli bsl vlcnics; rhylites re in fct the dminnt vlcnic rck type in the Trbuchell- Cbinc (Cdel 1986) nd Cmun Anticlines (Peyrnel Pglin;1965). Sedimentry cycles. The Upper Plezic successin f the Suthern Alps cn be subdivided int three sedimentry cycles, crrespnding t distinct lithstrtigrphic units bunded - either t the bse r tp - by mjr uncnfrmities (Cnglmert Bsle, Clli Frmtin nd Verrucn Lmbrd) s weil s dcumenting different pletectnic nd plegegrphic scenris (Sciunnch et l. 1999). The subdivisin int just tw cycles (Cnglmert Bsle + C11i Frmtin vs. Verrucn Lmbrd: Cssinis et l. 1988) seems insufficient t explin the strng differences between the Cnglmert Bsle phyllrenitic subrkses nd qurtz cnglmertes,

16 62 D. Sciunnch depsited in cmplex lluvil system including tìus cne t fldplin fcies nd fed by crystlline surces, nd the Clli Frmtin vlcniclstics, depsited in cnfined lcustrine bsins under ctive tectnic cntrl nd fed by the newly-emplced vlcnic successin. Bsl ctclsite. Mjr interprettin prblems re psed by the belt, lclly ver fur metres-thick, f blck ctclsites mrking the tectnic bundry between the crystlline bsement nd the Clli vlcnics. Simiir fult cntcts re nt bserved nywhere t the bsement/cnglmert Bsle, Cnglmert Bsle/Clli vlcnics r bsement/verrucn Lmbrd cntcts. T dte n cnclusive evidence hs been prduced t btin n estimte f the ffset lng this ctclstic surfce, which hs lng been disputed (Dzy 1935; Csti 1968). An Alpine displcement, lthugh mre r less implicitly dmitted by Vennekers (1932), Csti Ec Gncclini (1967) nd Csti (1968), is t dds with the strtigrphic reltinships bserved between ntrbi nd Primlun (Vlsssin), where the ctclstic belt is uncnfrmbly seled by the Verrucn Lmbrd (Figs. 3, 8) nd des nt cntinue int mjr fults rund the bsement/verrucn Lmbrd bundry. Turmlinistin f the bsl ctclsites in the TrbucheÌl-Cbinc Anticline hs been explined in terms f penecntemprneus metsmtism f the Clli sediments (Zhng et l. 7994). Turmiine ws ls fund in fult rcks pre-dting the Verrucn Lmbrd in Vlsssin (Sciunnch 2001). n the Nvzz-Vl Vedell district, fult znes seled by the Verrucn Lmbrd were minerlised during the Lte Permin (Origni Gibbi et l. 1981; Cdel 1986), nd grins f turmline-bering ctclsite ccur in the very first Verrucn Lmbrd beds in the Pizz dei Tre Signrr re. All these lines f evidence cnstrin the ge f ctclstic defrmtin s Artinskin (ge f the yunger defrmed rcks: see the chrnstrtigrphy prgrph belw) t Middle?-Upper Permin (ge f the lder undefrmed rcks), nd suggest tht fulting ws sscited with mjr phse f metsmtic minerliztin f the hst rcks. Bsin histry. The lwer vlcnic member, reginlly frming mrphlgic plteu (Cdel 1986; Cdel et \. 1996), extended well utside the bundries f the tectnic trughs ccmmdting the Cili sediments. t is nerly OO m-thick in the Mnz 1 AGP weli (Csti & Plini 1986), lcted tdy but 50 km suth f the Clli Bsin. This distnce cn be restred t ttl 130 km t the suth ccrding t the vlues f Alpine shrtening suggested by Schònbrn (1992). Under this respect, the vlume (150 km3) nd surfce (600 km2) estimtes fr the lwer Clli Frmtin vlcnic plteu reprted by Cdel (1986) re likely t represent minimum figures. Thickness f the verlying intrfrmtinl breccis (1b), cpping t vrius plces the vlcnic fcies (1), strngly vries (6 t nerly 1OO m between the Prdini Vlley nd Ztt Viley sectins) s n effect f depsitin in smll fult-cntrlled bsins. These breccis cn be interpreted s cevl with bth the end f the erly stge f prxysml vlcnism, nd the mjr phse f widespred nrml fulting f the Lwer Permin vlcnic plteu, which creted the endrheic bsins ccmmdting the subqueus nd much finergrined sediments f the renceus-vlcniclstic member. At tht time, the vicnic cps { the uplifted ftwlls were intensely erded. The thickest bsin fill, set in rugh plemrphlgy cntrlled by blck-fulting, crrespnds t the renceus-vicniclstic member. Shrp superpsitin n fcies 1b f fine-grined sndstnes nd mudrcks (2), yielding bivlve remins ner Averr, seemingly pints t mmentrily reduced clstic input nd/r t the spreding f shllw bsin flrs. Lter (2b), tectnic subsidence exceeding 100 m/my ws mtched by depsitin f thick pile f crser-grined, suberil t subqueus inss flw vlcniclstics. Onging vlcnism is suggested by bimdl, "rift-like" sscitin fstered by lithspheric thinning thrugh the ctive wrench fults, ls cusing extensive ersin f the hnging-wll surce res. Cntrsting sndstne cmpsitin in the Orbic nd Cmun Anticlines is secnd line f evidence ginst physicl cntinuity f the Clli Bsin, lthugh it my be ccunted fr ls by deeper dissectin f the estern bsement highs nd/r lesser cntributin frm the vlcnic plteux expsed there. The Pnternic Cnglmerte) s well s the cevl crse-grined clstics frm ther lclities f the Orbic Alps, mrks stge f prgrdtin f immture, cbbly fcies, depsited in fn-delt setting t lest prtly belw lke 1eve1. Vhether this event ws triggered by climtic trends (incresed rinfll) r renewed tectnic ctivity (reltive uplift f surce res) cn be nly tenttively inferred. Preservtin f fresh feldspr in the interbedded sndstnes is t dds with humid climte, wheres the invribly psìtive - lthugh very lw - crreltin cefficients f plycrystlline qurtz nd lklifeldspr, s well s f grnitid nd rthgneissic rck frgments, vs. strtigrphy (r : , sign. lev. > 10%) hint t unrfing f bsement rcks. The secnd line f evidence, hwever, is nt unequivcl becuse ll the mentined grin types - with the pssible exceptin f lklifeldspr - re riginlly crse-grined

17 The Luer Permin in tbe Orbic Anticline 63 TATARAN LOPNGAN Fig. i0 - Cmpiltin f the vilble gechrnlgicl nd mgnetstrtigrphic dt fr the Permin f the Orbic t Cmun Anticlines. Tìme scle fter Mennìng (1995); petrlgic intervls (Dickin- T lllwrr Reve rsl (Menning, 1 995) sn & Rich 1972) s in Fig. Z re displyed ìnsted f,'.''.-_"*.'b'*r,',' lirhsr r:r'r:'rhic unìrs. LVM : lwer vlcnic member f the Clli Frmtin; AV : Auccì Vlcnìcs _2nn 6 (Schltegger & Brck ) _ ce -"" Brck,1999) (Schltegger & L 297 (Cder, 1986; Hunziker in Cssinis et l.,1988) ASSELAN nd their bundnce is psitively crrelted with grin size; crreltin cefficients rnge frm (plycrystlline qurtz; sign. lev. (rthgneissic rck frgments; sign. lev. < 0.1%). V1- cnic ctivity seemingly cesed t this stge, s suggested by the lck f vlcnic intercltins. During depsitin f the finer-grined uppcr renceus-pelitic member, subsidence ws mre widespred nd reduced, s dcumented by firly cnsrnt strtigrphic thickness; this is cnsistent with cesing nrml fult ctivity. Occurrence f tetrpd ftprints, s well s f shllw-wter sedimentry structures (wve ripples, cly chips) in the upper prt f the member suggests prgressive infilling f the lke bsin nd reductin f the *ter bdy even under reduced clsric input. Preservtin f bundnt fresh detritl feldsprs is cnsistent with bth shrt trnsprt nd rid climte. Arid climtes wuld ls explin the ccurrence f ferrn crbnte lyers, crusts nd ndules, interpreted s pseudmrphs fter evprites, in the upper "Sedimentry Member" f the Trbuchell-Cbinc nd Cedegl Anticlines (Cssinis et l. 1986). There, cnspicuus ftprints re fund pprxin-rtely t the sme srrtigrphic level s the ferrn crbnte nd C-sulphte lenses (Frcell et l. 2001). An lterntive explntin might be the encrchment f cstl envirnments nt the frmer lke bsin. Actully, mrine trnsgressin in the Clli Bsin wuld explin bth reduced clstic input nd finer grin size f the clstic sediments, s well s the remrkble input f C nd SO4 ins, depsited s evprites in sbkh settings. The ccurrence f benthic frminifers is the mst imprtnt line f evidence supprting the mrine trnsgressin mdel, which, n the ther hnd, is nt indicted by ny significnt chnge in sndstne mdes nd is prly dcumented by sedimentry structures (symmetricl ripple-mrks my ccur in lcustrine s well s in shllw-mrine settings). The mrrne trnsgressin mdel, if crrect, wuld imply tht 1) the Clli bsin ws nt nly hypersline, but ls cstl lke; it ws eventully reched by n t lest temprry sewy s result f either prnunced eusttic rise r rpid subsidence/ersin f its dmming ridge, nd 2) ltitude f the lte Clli lke level cnnt hve exceeded the mqlitude f first-rder se-level rise, tht is, ' ^^ Dut luu m. The hitus t the tp f the Clli Frmtin my be s lng s 1O My (see belw). This ngulr uncnfrmity hs been trditinlly interpreted s dcumenting the effects f ctive tectnics in terms f strike-slip fulting, intrplte wrenching, nd inversin f the Lte Crbniferus-Erly Permin bsins (Cdel et l. 1,996). Criticl revisin f the pprent tilting directins f the Clli Frmtin with respect t the verlying Verru-

18 D. Sciunnch cn Lmbrd might suggest tht flding. nd nt simple tilting, ccurred t this stge (Cdel et. 1996). Perinin chrnstrtigrphy in the Orbic Alps: review. A lrgely Erly Permin (Autunin) ge fr the Clli sediments is indicted by rncrflrl remins (Cssinis 1966; Csti 8r Gnccliní,l967; Remy Ec Remy 1928). U/Pb zircn ges frm the lwer vlcnics rnge frm (Cdel 1986) t 283'r1l My (Schltegger & Brck 1999). Rb/Sr nd K/Ar ges frm the bsl vlcnics re 287 My (J.K. Hunziker, unpublished dt in Cssinis et l. tlss). Plynmrphs frm the Clli sediments re scribed t the Artinskin-Rdin (Cssinis & Dubinger 1991). U/Pb zircn ges f f l My were btined frm the Aucci vlcnics (Schltegger & Brck 1999). All f these ge cnstrints fit in the time scle f Menning (1995), plcing the Skmrin/Artinskin bundry t 283 My (Fig. 10). f s, the whle Clli Frmtin shuld hve been depsited in the ltest Skmrin (Tstubin) t mid- Artinskin, during time spn pssibly s shrt s 5 My r less. Slightly lder ges (Cdel 1986; Cssinis et l. 1988) might prtly reflect plyphse cling histry f the lrte hercynin mgms, resulting in inherited ztcn cres. Very high sedimenttin rtes fr the Clli clstics re cnsistent n'ith the single petrfcies chrcterising r cmplete sndsrne sectin. cmmnly exceeding 800 m in thickness, independent f fcies lritins nd grin size. Ech petrfcies reflects in fct peculir, temprry blnce f interplying fctrs such s surce rcks, tectnic cntext, climte, sedimentry prcesses nd dringe ptterns (Jhnssn 1993). Such n equilibrium is unlikely t lst fr mre thn sme My, becuse significnt vritins f just ne f the fctrs mentined bve (e.g., unrfing f bsement rcks; blckfulting; incresing rinfll; reltive se-level rise; river cdptures) my cuse cnspicuus nd systemàtic chnges in snd minerlgy. Cncurrent vritins f ts/ r mre fctrs re unlikely t cmpenste, nd will rther result in new temprry equilibrium. n the Upper Permin t Crnin successin f the Suthern Alps, the estimted lifetime f ech petrfcies is but 4-t1 My n the verge. Tw petrfcies re recgnised in fct in the Upper Permin, three in the Lwer Trissic, three in the Anisin (Sciunnch et l. 1996) nd three t five in the Crnin (Grznti et l. 2001). A similr durtin fr petrlgic inter-vl P0 wuld mtch the time cnstrints indicted in Schltegger & Brck (1999). A mjr unnswered questin is the durtin f the hitus mrking the Clli Frmtin/Verrucn Lmbrd bundry. The suppsed ltest Permin rge f the Verrucn Lmbrd, tenttively cnfined t the Lpingin in recent wrks (e.g., Cssinis 8c Neri 1999), seemingly cntrsts with: 1. reprted ccurrence f the llwrr reversl within the rughly cevl Vl Grden sndstnes f the estern Suthern Alps (Dchrth 1,976: Muritsch & Becke 1983; Dchrth 1988). This mjr plemgnetic event ccurred during the erly Tterin (Khrmv 1963; Gilnell et l. 1997), the bse f which hs been extended t ges s id s 267 My nd - ccrdingly - rund the Vbrdin/Cpitnin bundry in the new Permin time scles (Menning 1995; Menning Ee Jin 1998; Glenister et L.7999). 2. ccurrence f hitus t the bundry with the Lwer Trissic Servin Frmtin, dcumented by nther, brupt increse in minerlgicl stbility nd texturl mturity frm Petrfcies P2 t Petrfcies S1 (Sciunnch et l. 1996), s well s by prgressive nlp f tidl flt fcies nt the Verrucn Lmbrd cntinentl fldpiin (Sciunnch et l. 1999b). Such hitus is likely t be cnfined lmst entirely t the uppermst Permin, s suggested by fcies crreltin f the Prs litic limestne f estern Lmbrdy with the Teser Hrizn f the Dlmites (Cssinis et l. 1993), nd by the ccurrence l Clri bivlves f ltest Griesbchin-erly Dienerin ge in the C' Sn Mrc Member f the Servin Frmtin (Psent et l. 1996; Sciunnch et l. 1999b). A further line f evidence - lthugh less cnclusive - is the ccurrence f n intrfrmtinl hitus within the Verrucn Lmbrd, dcumented by the shrp increse in minerlgicl stbility frm Petrfcies P1 t Petrfcies P2 (Sciunnch et l.1996). The tectnic event dcumented by the ngulr uncnfrmity between the Clli Frmtin nd the Verrucn Lmbrd hs lng been cnsidered cevl with the Slin "phse". Actully, nt nly reginl crreltin f tectnic phses is questinble stillen cncept (Sengór 1990), but in this cse pses ls timing prblems. The Slin "phse" wrs in fct riginlly scribed t the hitus between the lwer nd upper Rtiiegendes. Such hitus, :rccrding t recent Permin tirne scles, wuld fll rund the Asselin-Skmrin, prbbly befre the Clli Frmtin strted t be clepsited. The hitus between the Cili Frmtin nd the Verrucn Lmbrd (Kungurin-Wrdin) wuld rther crrelte with mjr uncnfrmity within the upper Rtliegendes, recgnised between the Mùritz nd Hvel-Elbe subgrups nd spnning time intervl f 8 t 20 My (Ufirnin t Kznin fter Menning 1995; Kungurin t Kznin fter Pkrski \997; Kiersnwskr 1997). This event surely cincides in time with the end f the Erly Permin vlcnism (thin vlcnic ìntercltins in the lwer Verrucn Lmbrd re reprted nly by Cdel 1986) nd with mjr shift in the subsidence ptterns, frm lclised t reginl. Mrever, it

19 The L-,er Permin in the Orbic Anticline 65 might crrespnd t stge f widespred fult-bund minerliztin f the Lwer Permin rcks. Cnclusins. 1. Field mpping t the 1: scle f the Lwer Permin in the Orbic Anticline llwed recgnitin f systemticlly superpsed fcies, better defined subdir.isin f the strtigrphic successin with respect t the vilble frmewrk, nd recnstructin f the bsin rchitecture, including inferred lctin f the depcentre nd f the mjr mster fults. Esily-recgnised mpping units ls crrespnd t distinct, subsequent stges f vlcnic ctivity vs. tectnic subsidence nd sedimenttin ptterns. 2. Gechemistry f the vlcnic rcks, previling in the lwer prt f the Clli Frmtin, is highly vrible lng sectin. Erly prxysml effusin f intermedite welded tuffs (benmreites) ws fllwed by synsedimentryr, plymdl vlcnic ctivity chrcterised by bth differentited (dcites t rhylites) nd primitive prducts (mugerite flws). Such n evlutin seemingly cntrsts with fetures f the Erly Permin vlcnism in the Trbuchell-Cbinc nd Cmun Anticlines, where "ndesites" re fund t the bse f the vlcnic plteu, nd rhydcites t rhylites previl by fr ver ther vlcnic rck types. Seemingly, the vlcnic centres feeding the western edge f the Clli Bsin were thus distinct nd/r nn-cevl with thse in the centrl-estern sectr; ccurrence f rre clsts f intermedite vlcnics in the lwermst rhyelils5 sf th. Nvzz-Vl Vedell district (G. Cdel, pers. cmm \ m:v sltql'esr rh:t the vlcnic member f the Orbic Anticline (intervls 1-9 f the Prdini Vlley sectin) ws lder. 3. Petrgrphy f sndstnes, firly unifrm bth verticlly nd lterlly, invribly flls in the "r'lcnic rc" field f Dickinsn (1985). This des nt imply, f curse, tht the Clli clstics were derived strictll. frm vlcnic rc, but surely frm n verwhelming nevlcnic surce (ZuÍf 1985), represented by the Lwer Permin vlcnic plteux. Hmgeneus petrgrphy f clstic successin pprching looo m in thickness, independent f strng vribility in sndstne fcies :rnd grin size, cntrsts with the number f petrfcies recgnised in the verlying nd thinner clstic units f Lte Permin t Crnin ge, nd suggests high sedirnenttin rtes fr the Clli Frmtin, in greement with the shrt time spn recently ssigned t this unit by rdimetric dt btined in tl-re Cmun Anticline (Schltegger Er Brck 1999). Unfrtuntely, t dte ny bistrtigrphic cntrl n rdimetric qes hs been hmpered by the pr fssil cntent f the unit nd by the scrce bistrtigrphic vlue f the discvered tx. The remrkble difference in sndstne cmpsitin between the Orbic nd Cmun Anticlines (Cssinis et l. 1978) is nther line f evidence ginst physicl cntinuity f the Clli Bsin. 4. Fcies rchitecture, gechemistry f the mrgmtic prducts nd sedimentry evlutin fit int plegedynmic scenri f cntinentl wrenching (Arthud Ee Mtte 1977). By Skmrin-Artinskin times the Flercynin rgen ws being disrupted by trnstensinl fults bunding strngly subsiding cntinentl bsins. The mjr fults were "leky" (Mssri 1988) nd drve t the surfce clc-lkline mgms prduced by prtil melting f lithspheric mntle metsmt;sed by the Hercynin subductin (Crtesgn er l. 1998). Stretching nd unlding f the cntinentl crust in wrench settings ls fvured lter, limited upwelling f less differentited mgmrtic prducts. 5. An entirely cntinentl setting fr the upper Clli Frmtin in the Orbic Anticline cn be quertined in the light r 'r- r: Ul Lllq Ul)!Uvql) - " Ul 'r ',b,'l clcrreut frminifers (Mililce) 3O m belw the Clli/Verrucn uncnfrmity, in beds depsited under reducinq cnditins nd displying symmetricl wr-e ripples. Frminifers dpted t nrml slinity ctuliy fit in the slt lke mdel (Cssinis et l. 1986), br.rt rhey d require n t lest temprry sewy. A mrine trnsgressìn et this stge is prly supprted by ther sedirnentry evidence nd is t dds with ll the plegegrphic recnstructins prpsed t dte, lthugh cevl fusulinid limestnes re fund in the surrunding res f the Crnic Alps (Trgkfel Grup), the nrthern Adritic ffshre (Amnd lbis well: Srtri & Venturini 1988), nd Tirscny (Klher & Klher 1969; Engelbrecht et l. tlss). Perhps the present-dy Sltn Se (n intrmntne slt lke, cnfined t r tectnic depressin cntrlled by the Sn Andres strike-slip fult svstem, nd seprted frm the Clifrni Gulf by the Cird River delt) might represent gd ctulistic nlgue fr the lte Clli Bsin. Acknledgenents. Mucb f the field u'rk ws crriecl ut nith G.B. Silctt, A. Pjccin nd students (U. Acerbni, D. trttilni, M. Milesi, M. Mgginì, T. Pzz,, M. Ricttj, ìv1. Rt). The uthr is deeply indebted t M.P Cnflnieri fr hclp durins sme field trips, t A. Grcgnnin fr prviding nd dìscussing the gechemicl d:t, nd t F. Mssri nd M. Menning fr prvidìng rre bibligrph,v. Useful discussins with C. Breitkreutz, G. Cssinis, F. Frcell, G. Gss, R. Rettri nd L.A. Rnchi re ls cknwledged. Technicl ssist:rnce ws prvided by D. Bindelli (VDS micrniysis), R. Crespi (phtmicrgrphs), C. Mlinvern (thìn sectins), G. Mnrll (fssil preprtin), S. Renest (issil phtgrphs) nd A. Rizzi (EDS micrnli.sis). An erli cr drrlt f rhc rlrnuscript h,rs been rcmrhbly imprved by the cnstructive criticism f G. Cdel, M. Getni nd E. Grznti. Field.rnd lbrtry n.rk supprted by CARG grnts. Priect MURST-1999 "L'eredità litsferic meszic tetide nei prcessi subduttivi e cllisinli del Mediterrne centr-rientle".

20 66 D. Sciunnch RE,FERENCES Arthud F. Ec Mtte P. (1977) - Lte Plezic strike-slip fulting in suthern Eurpe nd nrthern Afric: Result f right-lterl sher zne between the Applchins nd the Urls. Gel. Sc. Am. Bull.88: , Bulder. Asseret R. & Csti P (1965) - Revisine dell srrtigrfi perm-trissic dell Vl Cmnic meridinle (Lmbrdi). Rie. t. Pl. Strt.71: , Miln. Berruti G. (1967) - Nt preliminre su un "rizznte" Lmellibrnchi nel Permin di Cl1i. Nt. Brescin,,{: 86, Bresci. Brini A. & Clmb A. (1979) - Gli Gneiss Chiri tr l Vlsesi e il Lg di Cm. Rend. Sc. t. Min. Petr , Pis. Breitkreutz C. Ec Kennedy A. (1999) - Mgmtic flre-up.rt the Crbniferus/Permin bundry in the NE Germn Bsin reveled by SHRMP zircn ges. Tectn- pq)slcs. Jll: Jv/-Jlb, Amslerm. Buletti M. (1985) - Petrgrphisch-gechemische Untersuchungen im Lugner Prphyrgebiet. Ph.D. Thesis, r,'. f 15l pp., Bern. Cdel G. (1986) - Gelgy nd urnium minerliztin f the Clli bsin (centrl Suthern Alps, tly). tjrniwm,2: ll)-z+4, Amsterd.tnì. Cdel G., Fuchs Y & Meneghel L. (1987) - Urnium minerliztin sscited with the evlutin f Perm-Crbniferus vlcnic field - Exmples frm Nvzz nd Vl Vedell (nrthern kly). Urnium, 3: 4A7-421, Amsterdm. Cdel G., Csi M., Penncchini G. & Spll M.. (1996) - A new mp f the Perm-Crbniferus nd Vriscn metrnrphic bsement in the Centrl Suthern Alps - tly. Structurl nd strtigrphìc dt. Mem. Sci. Gel.48: 1-53, Pdv. Cs R.A.F. Ec Vright J.V (198/) - Vlcnic successins. Unvzin & Hymn, v. f 528 pgg., Lndn. Csti P (1968) - Rpprti tr il bsment cristllin e le frmzini del Permin press ntrbi in Vlsssin (Lmbrdi). Rend. Sc. st. Lmb., A1O1 (1967): 866- B22, Miln. Csti P & Gncclini M. (1965) - ljn nuv frmzine plezic dell'lt Vl Brembn: l Frmzine del Pnternic. Riv. t. Pl. Strt., , Miln. Csti P & Gncclini M. (1967) - Gelgi delle Alpi Orbie ccidentli. Ri. t. Pl. Strt.,73: , Miln. Csti P & Plini G. (1986) - L cstituzine e 1 srrurrur gelgic del sttsul e i fluidi in ess cntenuti. n Csti P (ed.), L'cqu nel territri di Mnz: psst, presente, futur. Stmp Brghi, v. f 21.4 pp., Mnz. Cssinis G. (1966) - L Frmzine di Clli nell're-tip dell'lt Vl Trmpi (Permin inferire brescin). Rtu. t. Pl. Strt.72:5A7-588, Miln. Cssinis G. 8r Dubinger J. (1991) - Artinskin t Ufimin plynmrphs ssemblges frm the centrl Suthern Alps, tly nd their reginl strtigrphic implictins. nterntindl Cngress n the Permín System f the Wrld,Prt 1: 9-18, Perm. Cssinis G. & Neri C. (1999) - Outline f the Permin strtigrphy in the Suthern Alps. nterntinl Cngress n the Cntinentl Permin f the Suthern Alps nd Srdini (tly), field trip guidebk, 7-10, Bresci. Cssinis G., Mttvelli L. & Mrelli G.L. (1978) - Studi petrgrfic e minerlgic dell Frmzine di Clli nel Permin nferire dell'lt Vl Trmpi (Prelpi brescine). Mem. Sci. Gectl. 32:4-13, Pdv. Cssinis G., Dl Piz G. V, Eusebi A., Gss G., Mrtintti G., Mssri F., Miln P F., Penncchini G., Perill M., Pessin C. M., Rmn E., Spll M.., Tsett S. tt Zerbt M. (1986) - Reprt n structurl nd sedimentlgicl nlysis in the ljrnium Prvince f the Orbic Alps, tly. Urnium, 2: , Amsterdm. Cssinis G., Mssri F., Neri C. & Venturini C. (1988) - The cntinentl Permin in the Suthern Alps (tly). A review. Z. Gel. Wiss. 76: , Berlin. Cssinis G., Neri C. & Pertti C.R. (1993) - The Permin:rnd Permin-Trissic bundry in Estern Lmbrdy nd \ilestern Trentin (Suthern Alps, tly). n Lucs S.G. & Mrles X{. (eds.) - The nnmrine Trissic. Net, Mex. Mus. Nt. Hist. Sci. Bull.3: 51-63, Albuquerque. Ctencci V (1995) - l prgett di relizzzine dell nuv crtgrfi gelgic ufficile del territri nzinle. Bll. Sc. Gel. t. 114: , Rm. Cnflnieri M.P. (1993) - Petrgrfi delle renerie permtrissiche in sezini selezinte delle Prelpi lrnbrde. Diplm thesis, v. f z5z pp., Miln. Crtesgn L., Cssinis G., Dllgivnn G., Ggger L., Oggin G., Rnchi L.A., Sen S. & Vnssi M. (1998) - The Vriscn pst-cllisinl vlcnism in Lte Crbniferus-Permin sequences f Lieurin Alps, Suthern Alps nd Srdini (tly): synthesis. Liths, 45: , Amsterdm. Dchrth \il (1976) - Gesteinsmgnetische Mrken irn Perm Mitteleurps (Ein Beitrg zur Anwendung gesteinsmgnetischer Dten in der Strtigrphie). Gel. Jb., È,10: 3-63, Hnnver. Dchrth \( (1988) - Gesteinsmgnetischer Vergleich permischer Schichtenfc,lgen in Mitteler.rrp. Z, Gel..\X/iss. 16: , Berlin. De Cpitni L. (1982) - Cntribut ll cnscenz dei plutni sudlpini:le msse intrusive dell Vl Bindin (Cm). Rencl. Sc. t. Mìn. Petr , Pis. De Cpitni L. & Libri G. (1988) - Trce element bundnce in the Vl Bindin Plutn (Suthern Alps,kly). Mem. Sci. Gel. 40: , Pdv. De Sitter L.U. & De Sitter-Kmns C.M. (1949) - The gelgy f the bergn-rsc Alps, Lmbrdi, tly. Leid. Gel. Med. 11B:1.-257, Leiden. Dickinsn \ír. (1970) - nterpreting detritl mdes f gr)ryrcke.ìncl àrkse.j/. J?d. 'elrl. +u: by5-lu/. lul\j. Dickinsn \(R. (1985) - nterpreting prvennce reltins frm detritl mdes f sndstnes. n G.G. Zúf (ed.), Prvennce f renites, NATO-AS Series, Reidel, , Drdrecht.



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