THE LO\TER PERMIAN IN THE OROBIC ANTICLINE (SOUTHERN ALPS, LOMBARDY): A REVIE\T BASED ON NE\í STRATIGRAPHIC AND PETROGRAPHIC DATA

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "THE LO\TER PERMIAN IN THE OROBIC ANTICLINE (SOUTHERN ALPS, LOMBARDY): A REVIE\T BASED ON NE\í STRATIGRAPHIC AND PETROGRAPHIC DATA"

Transcription

1 Rivi't lt.rlienr di Plenrlgr e StrriSr[i.r \ttìnle tul pgrne 4Z-68 Aprile 2001 THE LO\TER PERMAN N THE OROBC ANTCLNE (SOUTHERN ALPS, LOMBARDY): A REVE\T BASED ON NE\í STRATGRAPHC AND PETROGRAPHC DATA DARO SCUNNACH Received. September 5, 200; ccepred Jnury 31, 2A01 Key urds: Suthern Alps, Permin, gelgicl mpping, vlcnic successins, s,rndstne petrgrphl', chrnstrtigrphy. Rissunt.Un rilevment gelgic dj fcies, eseguit in scl 1: nel Permin nferire dell'anticlinle Orbic nell'mbit del Prgett CARG, h cnsentit di ricstruire l':rrchitettur del bcin e di pervenire d un suddir'ìsine dell successine str:tign{icr rnegli clcumentt rispett l qudr dispnibile dell lertertur. All'eruzine prssistic di benmreiti nel nrembr vulcnic dell Frrnzinc di Clli seguì un'ttività vulcnic sinsedimentri dì tip plimdle (cmprendente lve mugeritiche e tufì rilitici), cncmitnte cn l depsizine del sprstnte membr rence-vulcnclstic. Dp l prgrdzine delle fcies dj delt-cnide prssimle del Cnglmert del Pntcrnic, un pssibììe ingressinc Lrrin e suggerir dr rri Frminiferi nel membr rence-pelitìc smmitle dell Frmz.ine di Clli. L'evluzine del mgmtism ben si inqudr in un scenrri plegedinmic dj trscrrenzr crstle; l'sscnz di riliti nel membr vulcnic induce ritenerc che 'ttività vulcnic:rl mrrqinc ccìdentle del Bcin del Clli (Anticlinle Orbic) fsse distint e/ nn cev:1 rispett l settre centr-ccidentle (dlì'anticlinle di Trbuchell-Cbinc ll'anticììnle Cmune). L petrgrfi delle renrie, che indic un sverchìnte prr-enienz c1e ree srgenti nevulcniche, è ssi unifrme in sens si verticle, si lterle, c sugeerisce trlti tssi di sedimentezine per l Frnzine di Clli, in ccrd cn l breve fincstr-temp recentemente ssegnt quest unità d dtzini rdimetriche rrenute rn Anticlinele Cmun. l, clìfferenz di crnpsizine tr le renrie delle Anticlinli Orbic c Cmun è un ltr elenrent: sfvre dell cntinuità fisic del Bcin del Clli. Abstct. Fcies mpping t the 1 : 1 0 0OO scle f the Ln er Perrnin in thc Orbic Anticline, crried ut in the frmewrk f the CARG Prject, llr.ed rccnstructin f the bsin rchìtecturc nd refined subdir-isin f the strtigrphic successin with respect t the vjlble frmer.rk. Prxl.snl effusìn f be.nmreites in the lwer r-lcnic member f the Clli Frmtin x.s fllrved bv r srn.c.limentryr pll-rndl vlcnic ctivltlr (mu lerite flu.s t rhylite tuffs) during depsitin f th. lcrlyini àrcnrccu\-\.lctrniclstic member. After prgrdtin f the Pnternic Cnglmerte pruxì rnl fen-delt fcies, pssìble mrine trnssressin is suggested br r:rre frminifers, ncr.lv-fund in the upper ren:rceus-pclitic member f the Clli Frm:tin. N4gm;rtìc evlutin fits int plegedynmic scenrì f cntinentl r.renching; lck f rhvlites in the lr.er r.lcnic member pints t distinct :nd/r nn-cevl rlcnic rcririty rt the western edge f the Clli Bsin (Orbic Anticline) with respect t the centrl-estern sectr (Trbuchell-Cbinc t Cmun Antìclines). Sndstne petrgrphy, indictrng prvennce frm verwhelming nevlcnic surces, is firly unrfrm bth verticlly nd lterll,v, nd thus sugsests high sediment;rtin rres fr the Clli Frmtin, in greement wìth the shrt time spn recently ssigned t this unit bv rdimetric dt frm the Cmun Anticline. Different sndstne cmpsitin in the Orbic nd Cmun Anticlincs is ànther line f evidence gìnst physicl cntinllitv f thc Cllj Bsin. ntrductin. The tlin prgrm fr gelgicl mpping t the 1: 50 O0O scle (CARG Prject: Ctencci 1995) cn be seen s n pprtunity t recnsider bth the lithstrtigrphic frmewrk nd the tectnic evlutin f the Lmbrdy Suthern Alps. A prminent structurl feture f the Suthlpine rnge is represented by the Orbic Anticlines, n lignment { three E-\fl trending nticlinri nmed Orbic strict sensu, Trbuchell-Cbinc nd Cedegl, west t est (Fig. 1); in ech nticlinrium, vlcnic t sedimentry successin spnning the Upper Crbniferus t the lwermst Anisin nn-cnfrmbly verlies the Hercynin crystlline bsement. The mst imprtnt prt f this successin in terms f viume, ecnmic interest nd pletectnic significnce is surely the Lwer Permin (Clli Frmtin nd heterpic cnglmertes: Fig. 2), depsited in strngly subsiding, fult-bunded cntinentl bsins nd cntining urnium minerls in the Nvzz-Vl Ve dell district (Cdel 1986; Cdel er. 1987). Mpping f this series shuld rely n detiled strtigrphic frmewrk, tht hwever hs turned ut difficult t estblish ll ver the utcrp re, mstly due t 1) strn l lterl vritins f fcies nd thickness f the clstic bdies, 2) scrcity f time-dignstic fssils nd - Struttur Anlisi e nfrmzjn j TerritriL, Regine Lrnb.rrdi.r, Pirzz Duc d'ast unn.reh,,, regin.. lnrb.rrdir.ir Miln (tly). E-mil ddrcss: Dri Sci-

2 48 D. Scìunnch N -0 f f7q r1g. r Lctin f the Lwer Permin utcrps in the Lmbrdy Suthern Alps (simplifìed:rfter Mntrsi 1990): slid, hrìzntìly stripped nd dtted res crrespnd, respectivcl,v, t vlcnic, :renceus-pelitic nd cnglmertic fcies. OA : Orbic Anticline, T-CA : Trbuchell-Cbinc Anticline, CeA : Cedegl Anticline, CA : Cmun Antìcline. The bx ìncludes the re f Fig. 3. G. z Í= 3< J(, <z (r^ i"''' F J ORG'CANÎCUNE TRABUCHELLOCABA\CAANNCLNE CEDEGOLOANNCUNE VERRUCANO LOMBARDO..,26 6', $ 6 '"6 -;_::-g sî: CAMUNAANTCLNE z. J LiJ,t À< <: Z JJ lo UJ F(9 zz Sedimentry 2 Upper Sedimeniry t.- Member (mp unìts 4 t 8 f Cdel et l., > 1 996) É. z upper Sedimentry F Member x DOSSO DE \=- O Upper Member ("Clli Beds") < É. = tn Lwer Vlcnic Member O (ìniervls LR1 t UR6+, mîn rnitc O t^ J '13 f Cdel c) et l., 1996) (J -() Lwer Vlcnic Member ^ r ṟ () - Lwer : Member g l - (J -.ì f É. U L z ( (J METAMORPHC BASEMENT C'f\GLOUERATO BASALE t CTAÍADDU',1 'u*=ilft;"t METAMORPHC BASEMENT Fig. 2 Avilble strtigrphic frmewrk fr the Lrver Permin in the Orbic t Cmun Anticlines (mstly fter D4, 1.935; Csti 8c Gncletters. VBG : Vl Bindi- c tnr7967; Cssìnis et l. 1988; Cdel et l. 1996). Frmtins re in ll cpitls, members:in cpitl/smli n Grndìrite nd sscitcd pst-vriscn plutns. Age cnstr.rint: fter Fig. l0 nd rcltcd discussìn in text. -s

3 The Lu,er Permin in the Orbic Anticlìne 49 mrker beds, 3) intense Alpine defrmtin. The type res nd best expsures f the Clli Frmtin ccur in the Cmun Anticline (Fig. 1); the present p.rper is fcused n strtigrphic nd petrgrphic results btined n the Lwer Permin f the Orbic Anticline during field nd lbrtry wrk crried ut in the frmewrk f the gelgicl mpping f the frthcming sheet 076 "Lecc" f Lhe ne* :50 OOO gelgicl mp f tly. Gelgicl frmewrk. The Orbic Anticline ("Vl Stbin Anticline" f Prr 1.932; "Mezzld Unit" f Schònbrn 1992) extends fr br-rt 25 km west t est, frm the Tcen district in Vlsssin (Sciunnch et l nd ref. therein) t the Mnte Pesherl crbnte ridge in the Brembn Vlley (Csti 8. Gncclini 1967), peking in ltitude with the Piz-z dertre Signri (2554 m.s.l.). At the cre f the fld, the Hercynin crystlline bsement is expsed in the Vlsssin, Ornic, Cprile (r Vln.rresc) nd Mezzld "windws". The metmrphic bsement cnsists f metpelites nd metpsmmites (phyllites, micschists nd prgneisses with minr qurtzites, mphiblites nd mrbles) in greenschist fcies ("Gneiss di Mrbegn" Auct.); relics f highergrde prgeneses (kynite, sturlite; Cdel et L.1996) xre 1clly preserved. Leuccrtic rthgneisses ("Gneiss Chiri di Crn Steli") re cmmnly fund t the nn-cnfrmble cntct n'ith the sedimentry successin (Brini & Clmb 1979).n Vlsssin, the metmrphic bsement is intruded by Ìte Hercynin plutns, cmmnly knwn s Vl Bindin Grndirite (Psquré 1967) nd Vle Bigi Grnite (De Sitter & De Sitter-Kmns 1949). Rdimetric rges (Tlrni et nd ref. therein) cnstrin these intrusins s lrgely Erly Permin. A swrm f rughly prllel'stcks nd dykes, striking but 60'N nd thus nrrtching l Permirn tectnic trend widespred in the Orbic Alps (Cdel 1986). represents the typicl ut-.rnn nrtrern /Fi l\ \- -b' " / ' The ldest sedimentr.. unii, nn-cnfrmbly verlying the crystlline bsement, is the Cnglmert Bsle, up t160 m-thick in the Trbuchell-Cbinc Anticline (Cdel et l. 1996) but very prly expsed in the Orbic Anticline. At le;rst three lithfcics r.ithin the Cnglmert Bsle re esìly recgnised in the field: 1) "eprphyric" phyllrenitic cnglnler;ìtes, with subngulr metmrphic pebbles previling r.er qurtzite pebbles nd cmmnlr'' supprted by crse-grined, prly-srted micceus sndy rntrix. Depsitin ccurred in tlus cnes t prximl lluviì frns; 2) "prphyric" qurtzse rthcnglmertes, prcnelmcrtes,rnd very crse-grined sndstnes with sprse grnules ;rnd pebbles ("typicl" fcies), in prìy distinct l1'ers l0 t ver 100 cmthick, cmmnly with imbricted pebbly lgs t their bse (estìmted pebble cmpsitin: mìlky qurtz: 9-99'L, metmrphic rcks n, r.lcnic rcks - tr.). Depsitin in elluvil fns nd high-energy brided strems is indjc;rted; 3) strngil' biturbted siltstnes t mediurn-grined sndstnes, wìne red jn clur nd rich in detritl mic flkes, ("Pietr Simn-like" fcies, lthugh much ìder). This finer-grined fcies, seemingl;' depsited by flds jn verbrnk sertings, supprts thc inference tht the describcd fcies re rernnnts f vst. rticulted lluviel system, dissected by subsequent ersin; t1'picl chnnel ìg t mernder plrn [cicr :re lcking. Cmpsitinlly similr clstics, nn-cnfrmbly verlying the metmrphic bsement west f Lke Cm (Mnn, Alpe Lgne, Bcchett di Sn Bernrd, Beder, nvri) re scribed t lte Westphlin t pssibly erly Stephnin times due t plnt remins (\funz & Mgli 1942; Jngmns 1960) ; hwever, n erly Cisurlin ge (Asselin t Skmrin) fr the unfssiliferus Cngimert Bsle cnnt be ruled ut due t strtigrphic psitin. n the Orbic Anticline, the nly utcrps f Cnglmert Bsle re fund t Cim dei Siitri nd Mnte Arele (Csti Ec Gncclrm 1967), nrth f the Mnte Pegherl ridge nd well utside the study re. Thus, in the present pper this unit will be discussed nly mrginlly. Tht pssibly huge vlumes f Cnglmert Bsle were ersed lng the tectnic surfce displcing the bse f the Clli Frmtin (see belw) is destined t remin n undemnstrted ssumptin. The Clli Frmtin (up t 1250 m-thick in the Orbic Anticline) verlies either the Cnglmert Bsle r, mre cmmnly, the crystlline bsement. n the frmer cse the bundry is shrp nd prcnfrmble; in the ltter, it typiclly crrespnds t blnket f blck ctcl:rsites, up t few metres-thick, yielding bundnt turmline (Zhng et l. t99+). n the three Orbic Anticlines, the Clli Frmtin is usully subdivided int lwer member, in which vlcnic prducts previl by fr ver sedimentry rcks ("Vlcnic Member" Auct.), nd rn upper member, minly cnsisting f clstic sedimentrl' rcks with vlcnic intercltins ("Sedimentry Member" Auct., "Arenceus-shley Member" Auct.); bth members hve t be regrded s infrml lithstrtig::phic units. At the western nd estern bundries i:the utcrp re, the "Sedimentry Member" psses lterlly nd upsectin i cnglmerte wedges (Pnternic nd Dss dei Glli Cnglmertes, respectively) tht rre insted frml lithstrtigrphic units f frmtin rnk. T the est, the Dss dei Glli Cnglmerte (which includes the Pietr Simn Member) is seled by the Aucci Vlcnics, in turn verlin with ngulr uncnfrmity by the Verrucn Lmbrd redbeds (Fig. Z). Strng lterl vribility f fcies nd lcl incrnpleteness f the strtigrphic successin re prbbly due t syndepsitinl ulift f fult-bunded blcks nd ersin in cn-

4 50 D. Sciunnch tinentl setting. These fctrs cuse the Clli Frmtin, lng with the bve-mentined sscited units, t be perceived by msr field gelgists simply s the strtl pckge brcketed between the crystlline bse* ment -t- the Bsl Cnglmerte t the bse nd the Verrucn Lmbrd t the tp. Under this respect, the whle Lwer Permin my be regrded s n uncnfrmity-bunded llstrtigrphic unit f grup rnk. Sedimentry structures nd the few fssils (lrge- 1y plnt remins nd tetrpd ftprints) dcumenr depsitin in endrheic lcustrine bsins in the Cmun (Cssinis 1966) nd Trbuchell-Cbinc Anticlines (Cssinis et l. 1986). Sndier fcies nd minr pelites re expsed in the Orbic Anticline, pinting t previling distl fn-delt envirnmenrs. Strngly vrible fcies nd thickness cn be seen s the result f syntectnic depsitin n the hnging wlls f fult-cntrlled bsins, ccmmdting the clstic sediments frm ftwll-surced fns; this rchitecture indictes tht the verticl slip rte f the fults utpced reginl subsidence (Dglini et l. tlls). Tectnic defrmtin prbbly strted lredy in the Permin nd peked during the Alpine Orgeny; it results in lrge-scle, pen flds nd u,'idespred fults, s well s in pervsive frcture t slty clevges develped in vlcnic t crse clstic nd pelitic rck types, respectively. Smll-scle plyhrmnic flds re cmmn in snd-mud cuplets, nd recumbent t isclinl flds - trnspsing the sedimentry bedding - ccur in ll the sedimentry fcies. The Verrucn Lmbrd, rnging in thickness frm 150 t nerly 450 m ver mst f its utcrp re (Asseret & Csti 1965), cnsists f pebble rth- nd prcnglmertes, crse-grined sndstnes nd micceus siltstnes cmmnly rrnged in decmetric FUcyclthems; runded vlcnic pebbles re rughly s bundnt s subngulr qrrtzite pebbles, wheres mermrphic pebbles re very rre. ln Vlsssin, ngulr cbbles f Gneiss Chiri re hwever bserved; rre grnphyre pebbles might hve been derived frm subvlcnic cidic rcks similr t the thse presenrly expsed t Cuss l Mnte (Buletti 1985), but their lcl cncentrtin might even suggest prvennce frm lcl surces nerby. Clur f ll the grin size frctins is typiclly wine red; greenish reductin spts re bserved nìy lclly. The Verrucn Lmbrd ws depsited in vst bridplin, pssing - est f the Giudicrie Line - t the Vl Grden Sndstne fldplin (Mssri er L 1994). Bth the nn-cnfrmble cntcts n the crystlline bsement bserved west f ntrbi (Grznti 8r Sciunnch 1.997; Sciunnch 2OO1) nd the ngulr uncnfrmity with the Clli Frmtin (Csti Ec Gncclini 1962) dcument prlnged hitus befre depsitin { the Verrucn Lmbrd nd mjr shift in the subsidence ptterns, seemingly pssing frm tectnicllydrìven nd lclised t therm-tectniclly driven nd widespred (Cssinis et l. 1988); the described rchitecture indictes tht reginl subsidence utpced the verticl slip rte f nrml fults (Dglini et ). Oxidtin nd pedgenesis re reprted frm bth bsement rcks (Sciunnch 2001) nd Clli sediments (Cdel et l. 1996) underlying the Verrucn Lmbrd redbeds. An intrfrmtinl hitus, nt esily perceived in the field, is suggested by the brupt cmpsitinl shift in sndstne cmpsitin frm Petrfcies P1 t P2 (Sciunnch et l. 1996). Methds f study. Fcies mpping. n the frmewrk f the CARG Prject, n re f but 75 km2 ws mpped t the 1: scle in the suthern Orbic Anticline (Fig. 3). Since the strtigrphic reference frmewrk (Csti 8e Gncclini 1962) cnsidered nly tw subdivisins in the Clli Frmtin ( vlcnic lwer member nd sedimentry upper member), cntrsting with much mre detiled subdivisins btined in the djcent Trbuchell-Cbinc Anticline (Cdel et. 7996), preliminry fcies mpping hs been crried ur, imed t defining sufficient number f mppble strtigrphic intervls. The cmplex prblems f strtigrphic nmenclture psed by the Lwer Permin in the Suthern Alps re beynd the scpe f this pper; the rnk f the C1- i Frmtin, lthugh needing recnsidertin, will nt be questined, nd ll the lithstrtigrphic nmes here prpsed hve t be regrded s infrml. Six lithfcies, systemriclly recgnised in the Lwer Permin f the Orbic Anticline, re described here belw (vlcnic lithfcies V1 t V3 nd sedimentry lithfcies S1 t 53). A similr, but wider, specrrum f fcies is prpsed in Frcell et l. (ZOOt) fr ll the three Orbic Anticlines. Fì l Selected fcìes f the Lwer Permin vlcnics nd cl:rstics in the Orbic Anticiine. Vlcnic member f the Clli Frmtin: A) r.elded lpillistne in u'hich nly subtle vritins in grin size nd degree f welding hint t the riginl plne bedding (V1 fcies, Cedrin Pss); B) lminted welded tr"iff (V1 fcies, Pizz dr Givnni); C) intrfrmtinl vlcnic brecci (V1 fcies, Pizz di Givnni); D) welded ccretinry lpìlli (V1 fcìes, Bindin Vllel- - pht by M.P Cnflnieri); E) erded pyrclstic t epìclstìc depsit (V2 fcìes, Pizz di Givnni). Lwer Permin clstics: F) vlcniclstic prcnglmertc (S1 fcies, Cusi - hnrmer hed n the left fr scle); G) Pnternic Cnglmerte (S3 fcìes, Bindin Vllev - pht by M.P Cnflnieri); H) medium-grined sndstne r.ith bundnt flttened :rnd imbricted mudclsts (S2 fcies, Przz. di Givnni).

5 Tlce Lter Permin in the Orbic Anticline 51 ry. m;. '*"4

6 52 D. Sciunnch V1 - ntermedite t cidic welded tuffs nd lpillstnes, with vrible mlìnt f prphyrcrvsts nd degree f welding (Fìg. A) up t n-rssive prphyries, rnging in clur frm whitish t deep red t brwnish-green; cmprtir.elv rre ignimbrites, displvins pumiccus lithics nd sheredfìmme, d hu'ever ccur. This fcies ws rnenr t inciude ls intrfrrntìnl breccis (Fig. 4C) cnsistìng f 100%' ngulr blcks rvelded in n.rphnitic mrtrix ("blck- nd sh-flr. clepsìts"sezs Cs & ${rright 1987), cmmnly t thin t be mpped t the 1: scie. A rugh bedding underlined by thin tuffceus interlvers (Fig. B) is lclly bserved, but in gencrl is pen'sively verprinted by the Alpine clevge. V2 - Vlcniclstic breccis nd renites t rewrked tuffs ("epiclstìcs"; Fisher 1961) rvith prly-srted, ngulr lpilli exclusivei,vvlcnic in rigìn embedded ìn "slt-nd-pepper" sndv mtrix (Fig. E); bundnt plgiclse is recgnised in the renites. V3 - Mssive, mstly bsic lv flws, deep green t lnst blck ìn clur. Blck femics nd sussurrìtìsed ple grccn plgiclse re lclly bserved; mygdlr vcules re n,idespred. S1 - Mcdium- t crse-grined, grev t pink vlc:nic rcnirc:, displying bundnt fresh detritl feldspr nd scttercd white mic flkes, lclly cncentrtcd n the bedding pl;rnes in the finer-greined frctin. Lvers re up t severl tcns f cm-thick, mstl,v hmgeneus in grin siz-e but lclly displying rugh grding, either nrn-rl r inverse. Subrdintc intercltins f pelites, pvrclstics nd cnglmertes ccur (Fìg. 4F) Previling fine- t medium-grined, drk grs- r-ìcrnìc rcnites, in lyers few cm t less thn 2O cm-thick, fining upr.:rrds t blck pelites rich rn r.hite mic flkes (snd/nud rti > 1). A vriety f seclìmentrl- structures (chnnelised beds underlìneci by cly chips t theìr bse, nrmlly grded beds, prllel nd ls-ngle lmintin, climbing nd ld-csted ripples, lenticulr bedding, slumprnes, cnvlute lmintin, Jd structures evlving t blis nd pìllrvs) is displyed (Fìg. 4H) PebbÌe t cbble cnelmertes, lternting t crsegrined pebbly sndstnes, depsited ìn prximel llur.il fns (Fig. G). ln the Pizz. dei Tre Signri re this fcies ws frmlly intrduced s distinct unit, ccupying defìnite strtigrphic psitin (Pnternic Cnglmerte; Csti Er Gncclini 1965), wheres in the Trbuchell-C:rbinc Anticline the term "Mnte Ag Cngimerte" hs been recentl,v intrduced (Cdel et l ). The stcking pttern f fcies bserved in the field suggested their lumping int three mpping units: vlcnic member, in which fcies V1 is exclusive, n renceus-vlcniclstic member, enclsing ll fcies except S3, nd n upper renceus-pelitic member, in which fcies 52 is exclusive. These mpping units, expsed ll ver the study re nd esily identified even under pr exprrsure, crrespnd t the whle Clli Frmetin s described in the previus literture; fcies 53 crrespnds t the Pnternic Cnglmerte. Gechemistry. Mjr element gechemicl nlyses n vlcnic rcks where crried ut n pwder discs using n utmtic Philips P\í 1400 X-Ry flurescence spectrmeter. The results were crrected ccrding t wide rnge f interntinl nd nturl gestndrds; t lest five stndrds were used fr ech selected element. Lss n ignitin ws determined n pwders kept t 1000 'C vernight. Bth WDS (kv : 15.0, na * 300, livetime : secnds, nturl mphible nd rhdnite s stndrds) nd EDS (kv : 20.0, na : , livetime : 5O secnds, interntinl stndrds nd metllic cblt fr clibrtin) micrprbe nlyses were crried ut n plished thin sectin f the bsl ctclsite. Sndstne petrgrphy. 300 pints were cunted n ech stndrd thin sectin, nd pint-cunting dt were reclculted fllwing the Gzzi-Dickinsn methd (Dickinsn D7A; 1985). Grin size ws semiquntittively eyluted ccrding t Grznti et l. (2001). The Prdini Vlley sectin revisited. Tectnic bsl cnt.rcts n the crystliine bsement, severe Alpine defrmtin nd pr expsure f its sedimentry upper prt, cmmnly hmper prec;se thickne ss estimte f the Clli Frmtin frm bse t tp. One f the very few plces where cntinuus sectin is expsed is the Prdini Vlley tlweg (Fig. 5), n the suthern slpe f rhe Pizz dei Tre Signri nd n the nrthern limb f the Orbic Anticline (bse f sectin t 1490 m.s.l., Guss-Bg c-rdintes ). This sectin, m-thick, ws first mesured nd described in Csti & Gncclinr (1967).n the present pper, their intervl 1 is split int intervls 1-8. Twenty-five smples were cllected fr petrgrphic nd gechemicl nlyses frm the mesured sectin. The cmpsite sectin f the Ztt-Mnte Cvll Vlleys nrth f Mezzld (Csti 8r Gncclini 1967) cn be useful fr cmprisn. n bth sectins, hwever, the bsl cntct with the bsement is tectnised nd the thickness f intervl t hs t he req:rded s minimum vlue. The recgnised levels re, tp t bttm: - Verrucn Lmbrd. Orthcnglrnertes nd priìcnglmertes supprted b1' r.e.'...r" snd ntrix, in mlglmted beds with pebbiv lgs t their bse; ngulr bulders f Clli sedimentr,v rcks, up t 3O cm in length, re bserved t the very bse. Smple VP 20 (0.4 m br.e the bse). - Clli Fmtin. 20) nterbedded fìne t medium-grined sndstnes nd pelites, reddish in the lr.er prt, greenish t drh grey upwrds, with prllel t crss- nd trugh-beddìng, bundnt mudclsts nd ld structures. Thin intercltins f blck pelites re cmmn; sndstnes re nre bundnt t the bse. Svmmetricl ripples re bserved 5 m belw the tp. Smples VP 17 (3 m bve the bse), VP 18 (30 m belw the tp), VP 19 (0.4 m belw the tp) (196 rn); - Pnternic Cnglmerte. 19) Grey-greenìsh rthcnglmertes, prcnglmertes nd pebbly sndstnes, rughiy bedded t nrssive, with vìcnic nd subrdìntely metmrphic pebbles, up t 25 cm in size. Smpìes VP 15 (75 m bve the bse), VP 16 t the tp (185 m); - Clli Frmtin. 18) Greenish sndstnes, lclly cntining bund,rnt vlcnic pebbles, lternting t prllel-lminted pelites nd greenish tuffs

7 The Luu,'r Permin in the Orubic AnticÌine 53 2,3: (d y q: ;ó0) 990- = 99q) ;: 99!!1tr(l \ '- >. / c) (g >ú): A -F, U' ;89 c-; ;) (ú È <-: c: = cìi È ql* (Ú0 Y c ='rt ) tt) E (ú f L "'c P3 óx.> (Ú c) = c (ú : 6th (ú g + _,, : <! ^ ; - -; -; =TùùOùÈOLAC - ;-: =--^q x(d0=.:'6 è(6 g 6-0 ';=!LCC CPdd ().:'(ú > > 9.- L.9 (l E "9 c) (ú (ú () ie 6 {6 c! 'i-fé*$k 14k3ff*k 383:E eeel eecy cel s ee6{06é6 6 A e9o6oe e6o eqeca eóc O6gA eacag66a9a6 ee6o 66e N e ce e e e 66e 6: : &' : '6 : :^.-. cr), Elew3w crnvct (rî. \> \O\< q) G E 6 ' ā g) - - The Prdini Vllev sectin (A - r.ervìel.; B : redrr.r.r fter A: numbers in circles refer t the described interyls, dts indicte smpling sìtes; C : mcesured sectin). VL - Verrucn Lmbrd.

8 J,+ D. Sciunncb with inversely-grded pumiceus lpilli. $lter-escpe structures re cmmn in snd-mud cuplets. Smples VP 8 (25 m belw the tp), VP 9 t the tp (86 m); 1Z) Grey sndstnes with blck pelite veneers, cmmnly displying prllel t crss-lmintin nd cntining bundnt mudclsts, with thin tuf{ceus intercltins. Smples VP 4 (15 m bve the bse), VP 5 (85 m bve the bse), VP 6 (0.3 m belw the tp), VP./ t tne tp (/uj mr; 16) Greenish sndstnes, frequently purple nd reddish in the lwer prt, pssing t prllel-lminted pebbly sndstnes with scured bse r less cmmnly t cnglmertes yielding vlcnic pebbles; up t 15 cm-thick intercltins f purple tuffs ls ccur. Bth nrmlly nd inversely grded beds re cmmn. Smple VP 3 (5 m belw the tp) (73.5 m); 15) Reddish sndstnes, pebbly sndstnes, tuffs nd vlcnic breccis. Smple VP 21 t the tp (1,1.5 m); 14) Deep green, mssive lv flws, with plgiclse micrliths nd sprse mygdlr cr.ities filled by crbnte crystls. Bsl cntct n the underlying sndstnes is shrp nd mildly ersinl; up t 0.7 m bve the bse, the lvs re frctured, vuggy nd smehw flited prllel t bedding. Smple ACVP 2 (4 m bve the bse) (20 m); 13) Grey sndstnes, lclly pebbly nd crse-grined, in beds 1 t 20 crn-thìck irnde : 6 cm) lternting t bick pelite veneers, cmmnly with prllel lmintin. Frctured micrcnglmertes, 10 cm-thick. r the r-cry bse. Smples VP 13 (0.6 m bve the bse), VP 12 (10 m belw the tp) (71 m); 12) Red t purpie prphyries. Smple ACVP 3 frrl-r the middle prr r5 mr: 1 1) Grey t brwnish sndstnes nd tulfs rich in plgiclse ("sìt-nd-pepper"). Srnple VP 1'l t the tp (9.5 m); 1O) Red t purple pyrclstic breccì. Smpìes VP 10 (2.5 m bve the bse), VP 11 (1.5 m belw the tp) (6 m); 9) Red t purple prphyries. Smple ACVP1 (4.3 m beln- the tp) (26 m); 8) Cliff-frming whitish t whitish-grey vlcnics (40.6 m); 7) \fhite t pink prphyries, with sprse tuffceus intercltins nd unflded qurtz veins (15.5 m); 6) Pinkish t reddish bedded prphyries n-ith cvities fìlled bv *,hit. l^l^-ir. r ì v R riil\ nr\. \? 5) Fine-grined, pseudndulr prphyries lternting with s.elded tuffs in up t 2 cm-thick beds (5.3 m); 4) Welded tuffs with flded qurtz veins (6 m); 3) Aphyric welded tuffs rnging in clur frm light grcy t pinkish t greenish, in thick, prly distinct beds, intensely flded nd cleved. Smple ACVP.1 t the tp (5.6 m); 2) Blck ctcirsite including thin slivers f tectnised vlcnrc.. Smplc Vl'2.rt thc tp (2 m): 1) Tectnised vlcnics, injected b;, blck ctclsite veins, encsing rnygdlid bsement blcks up t 60 cm in dimete r. Smple VP 1 t the bse (2.2 m); - mermrphic b:sement. Muscvite prgneisses with qurtz rds, injected by subprllel veins f blck ctclsites in the tpmst 2 metres. Petrgrphy nd gechemistry f the Clli vlcnics. Fur mjr element gechemicl nlyses were crried ut n smples frm the Prdini Vlley sectin (Tb. 1). Smples frm bth the bse (intervl 3, smple ACVP 4) nd tp (intervl 9, smple ACVP 1) f the lwer vlcnic member, ver 110 m-thick, cn be clssified s intermedite, N-lkline vlcnics (benmre- si2 Ti2 At2O3 FeOil MnO Mg CO N2O Kz Pzs t. L. ACVP4 ACVP1 ACVP3 ACVP2 58,35 na4 16,20 5,70,26 e 24 10,93 55,25 1,10 20,1 9 6,12 0,28 )24 3,80, ll 4,21, ,85 2,03 '1 6,40 18,02 6,49 10,02 0,05 0,14 0,55 4,44 0,43 7,93 3,89 5,07 3,61 0,95 0,1 B 0,53 2,00 8,53 Tt 99,54 99,30 99,48 Tb. t - Gechemistry f the Clli vlcnìcs in the Prdini Vlley sectin; smples re listed in strtigrphic rder..l. : jgnitin lss. ites), yielding reltively high Ai nd lw Mg cntent. Prximl strtigrphic psitin f smple ACVP 4 t the bsi ctclsites results in strnger ltertin, testified by high.l. vlues, but nt in severe disruptin f the rigini texture. Similr gechemistry f the tw smpies des nt llw t recgnise differentitìn trends, frm bse t tp, within the thick vicnic successin extending frm intervls 3 t 9. The lwer vlcnic member is cpped by pyrclstic brecci (intervl 10) where deeply ltered nd resrpted plgiclse phencrysts re hrdly distinguished frm the feisitic t phnitic grundmss f individul clsts. Jpsectin, prphyries in thinner lyers (ACVP 3) lternting t vlcnic renites (intervl 12), cn be clssified s cidic, high-k clc-lkline vlcnics (dcites) with 1w Mg cntent. The silic excess due t qlrrrz veins might explin the shifting f this smple wy frm rhe N-lkline suite. Next, intervl 14 cnsists f 4O m-thick mugerite lv flw (ACVP 2,25.9.1). These bsic vlcnics, belnging t the N-lk1ine suite, yielded high Al nd Ti nd lw Mg cntent; in thin sectin, they disply hmgeneus intersertl texture, where felted plgiclse lths (250 pm n the verge) re enclsed in n ltered mtrix cnsisting f chlrite nd ferrn dlmite (Fig. 6C). n utcrp, n evidence hs been fund f subqueus depsitin f the ndesitic lvs (breccis t pillw-structures); cntct n the underlying sediments is shrp, mildly ersinl, nd underlined by flw textures nd cvities. Still upsectin, thin tuffceus beds, in which q::l^rtz, plgiclse nd cmmnly spherulitic felsitic frgments re enclsed in n phyric mtrix, re interclted t the previling sndstnes nd pelites (smple VP 4; intervls 15-18).

9 The L'u.rcr Permìn in the Orbic Anticline 55 '',r;.r;tr.::r$.:lr:li::: ì"]:il:ii:,..,.:r.iì:r::' ii."',r!!s ',,,,.:l'.,.-'l.,& s*f- * : ".-,%" 'qf* -s' " î {,, :,i.,,tit-.,, *' ''i l:l' '..,"':.t;,1*rll.. : :*litr,'... rri:'1.ì.,i::1. ' :r::. : ::': Fig. 6 lepresenttive phtmìcrgrphs f fcies described in the Prdini Vlley sectin. A - bsl ct:rclsite, n'ith clyey mtrix (C1, lrgcl,v cnsisting f illite) encsing tectsilicte lithns wjth felsitic texture (Lt) prt\. replced by nkerite ptches (Ank) srwn in versized secndrv pres (VP2; pine plriscd light,27x); B : wethered intermedite wclded tuff (benmreite; fcies V1) displying feldspr phencrl'5t5 lclly tr:rnsfrmed int chessbrd-lbite (ChAb) (ACVP1; crss-plrised light,27x); C : sericitised lr- llw (mugcrìtc; fcies V3) with e plgiclse lthn-rk enc:rsing lrge clcite-chlrite pseudnrrphs (Ps) fter fen'ric phencrysts (mphibles?) (ACVP2; crss-plrrised light, 27x);D : ver,v crse-elrined, mderteiy srted vlcnic renitc (Pnternic Cnglmerte; fcies 53) rich in vlcnic lithics displving spherulitìc textures (Sph) nd cntinìns emb,ved qurtz (B-Qz) :rs rvell s lcched bititc (Bt) phcncr,vsts (VP 1 5; crss-plrised light, 2Zr); ll : blck shle (fecies 52) includìng imbrictecl crl:n-rich chips (VP Z; crssplerised light,25r); F, G - biclsts in mediurn-grined, mdertely srted vlcnic rcnìte (VP 18; plne plrised lìght); F - sn.rll g,rstrpd fr,rgment, 12'{x; G : furmjnjfer fr.rsmcnt 1cl. Hemigrdiur sp.; dct. bv R. Rettri),260x.

10 56 D. Sciunnch -: U E Orc =! >-É -E dx ^ -Ò - ).9r tr.9f = v!; tî): vi-=,>=p=-t=e.= v > - - = ;?-r<" rr 9+:"F. -7l"2tit-2.*'t rq4---stllf-!*.- *:l. x;" d *K - -> é *.^ O- d.:i 2.v 'E,À "- _î.= F.t,^ -Eh.ì > (r-lll d 3 -:\{9r;=zi"- ie:e=?2t.4.,3; :Ì;.- - t: =' -:.=- EZÚ6.:-;Èl-í : = i 'r i /. = / = P í= 9 i: : r y. í il - Y = ui.=:_.; ó=,=.:x {-sí"-i;==*ét i-:i=-rit=zr= g 3 5 ic- > -e ' t. ltr;{:---'1-.==. -=--lf-.9i.ù3 E -E rr -- É;; ::.=^".6===^= -"jf7.=9-t-ó-; : = --",2=v+'='==_;=>+ L.= ;! - ^ - ' 4==');ó;l3t:= + 1eùl=1ÉL: u. =-=- =2 EE ".& *., =ú:===',,=-;<.::i.::'^- Éi! r 5! i'::t+==-> TiiiiÉ;ò'7Y. ù - O- L -- c t -;..J=i+12ti=.3 =:;=+-í.j?,*'.t,= / : - ;.. ' :1, - *.:-=.?,y+:'=..! F=..J'--^ > == >= * / =;-, ' =? 7 E+.? í J ; ==7 í --^sv.= 9-e = == 9 3.l =,r* :Eî,'- -'ó:'"i^) ==>=:,;=&-= -.==-qís^'):<tt ú ll,. - "^7tv:'J=:?Et: ';: -42=ó;.:F-=Z*!= -u =.= ; = c-.. =^j = :E.9.i úe Ei i z* le +É - -^ b;:3 = -",yíf!+ El r: É v_ E Rj,Ff:ì )'r u i ó= il.= ù - =- ==- - = - - ^ A e 9 (:,' j i- : ; * '6;.E-<:*6-:u = -.,-1, u E Y :: t u 5 ì N =à '?tf,-è=ià 7i; ;= :E 7:. il<: >i XJ c - Y < r.! r C : u -- :.rc=?-':=!í-->ì; Or-gr;-r ó -D r:; F É (, È J F E O 6 O z À M F À È É É E É È N -- ts N ó-? Eàóó u[è r, N- N- N- O- N- 6- O- N- O- ó- d N, - - ÉÉÉÉÉ RRRRRRF EdEd{== >;>>> R33&3PB -qlj; _ - NOTN n-n-n--n NNt O- m- -- O- O- ó- -- ó sn 6òis NrN -N-N-O-qS sf$n6 s-\ N: $ N -r-óó-ns ú^i6nj -Q--ó-N--ó-\ -rs óórn r N N.. È È -O+OF NÓO óó NOOr OÓNÓONN -rttjnj ÈNs-ss NOOO_óO ÉÉÉqÉÉÉrÉss PÉ=.;{PddrdQd "t 96n Ntsqqi,6\N-N-NN-N E r NN 66ÈOOOO dctcic; Nú606s r- N- ó- O- O- -- N- O- O- O- s- N- O- O- - N N- ó- - - ts- - N ús-nt-s NFróNF6rN r60-ónts -9Sc.iN-jrj<js -s Ps-99-rinN.-sr\s--\ 33.;J9"tRÈg\ NNNNó J-vri ONNÈÓN È- s ó- ó- s N- ó- N-.? - r?^sè^i6;nn '! NOONTNOtsOóOOó NNrO-+OO-O tsnnn JJrJts N r- - - ó- ó N Oró--NN-N-N- JGi' rí-sf-)(r(-.r$c') (- cd- \ cr)- - r- c!- r- - _ c{ Ot-LOO$O-c.)OO) \t c! in -N-È-È-Nró6-N N+ NNNO--óóOOr NNOONvN$NO- '-N-N cdr.-rc0$)$n) -i-i-i;-i.^;_;^i; NC' L O -È-N-N-O-N- -ss O-O ónrn-sss-è-s nisct:ósctd99só CtCDONCDcOt-TCDOO Cr)- r^ r- cd- t-_ \ st- ro- O- (O- O- rc\t*! È NN ;c.i --òi NNOÈONONOOóóO -NisN-d-d-- crc9-cdcr)o)o(ocdo)oo cd- -^ -- CD- N- \ r- sf_ - tr)- O- O- OOOOOTl)cOTOc{OO r(\$ È È È N-- xs- *-S ONNNONO Nsòi ó- O-rrNv ó- r-, ó ó - - ó- - ó- ó- ó- - - rnr-n-ooìnov N- S- N- NOóONNSóS6 ó-n--n-ts-órsrn- ÓÈOOÓNÓÓON N--;J tsnóots -rn-o óónn --,- ddr?? g? 3"*dq tr<ù>>òz:<-cf) -,(Ú E -j N- - NONNO ON-N s:v is;'cr5 È- - N- N- ó- O- O- O- N- r- O- O- O- O- NNNNSSONNO-NNO

11 The Lter Permin in the Orbic Anticline 57 F,DS nd \lds nlyses were crried ut n the bsl ctcl.isite VP 2t. indicting the clyey cmp'itin (illite) fr the drk, phnitic mtrix encsing vlcnic lithns (Fig. 6A), s well s the ccurrence f lrge ptches f nerly stichimetric nkerite (Tb. 2), but filing t revel turmlinistin (cmpre with Zhng et L.1994). Petrgrphy f the Lwer Permin sndstnes. Al1 the studied sndstne smples frm the Clli Frmtin (n : 19) nd the Pnternic Cnglmerte (" : 6) cn be clssified s mstly medium-grined, mdertely t ver)- prly-srted vlcnic renrtes (verge detritl mdes: Q : 10*5, F :2A-r7,L: 70-r8;Trb.3) end c;ìn thus be described cmprehensively. Mdertely srted sndstnes re medium- t very crse-grined. Qurtz is minlv mncrystlline, lthugh pl.u-crystlline grins re ls cmmn (C/Q : )i ernbyed pseud-hexrnl crystls f vlcnic rigin (Fig. 6D) represent nerlv 207. f ttl mncrvstlline qurtz. Plycrystlline gr:ins dìsply sutured bundries, elngted nd isricntecl crystllites nd cmmn phyl- silicte inclusins, suggesting mstly metmrphic rigìn. Feldsprs cmprise previling plgiclse nd subrdinte lklifeldsper (P/F : ). Plgiclse cmmnly ccurs in fresh, nsulr t subnsulr erins prcsening twinning % n ttl plticlse) nd zning ( ""), thus hinting t prvennce frm ne"lcnic rcks (Zuff 1985) expsed nt fr frm the bsin. Amng elklifeldsprs, chessbrd lbite ìs n-idespred, ls pinting t vlcnic surce; mìcrcline is insted negligible. Pervsively sericitised feldsprs re fund nly in deeply dìgenised smplcs, where epimtrìx (Dickinsn l97o) crss-cuts the bundries f unstble grins. Vicnic lithics rc mstly vitric ( % f rck vlune), but ls frgments f felsite ( %) nd micrlitic lv ( %) re cmmn (Fig. 6D). Hypbyssl lithics derived frm subvlcnic rcks re ls r.idesprecl ( % f rck vlume), r.here;rs grnitid rck frgments re scnty. n generl, prmetmrphic lithics previl ver gneissìc rck frgments, tht re insted mre bund;rnt in the crser-grined smples (.r - A.7A6, sign. ler'. < 0.1%). Sndstne r.elire {rrqme.ts r'crrr 1.1g1s25 the bsence f crbnte lithic grins fils t supprt cnniblism f crbnte crusts s n inrprtnt prcess (Cssinis ct l. 1986). Thc bundrnce f pseudnrphic grins nd rnstly vlc;rnic pseudmtrix (Dickinsn 197A; "k l rck viume) hmpers ssessment f the riginl snd cmp.itin. tht my be nrisinterpreted if pseudm;rtrix is verlked. Accessry minerls crnprise previling rric flkes (muscvite t prgnite nd "leched" bitite) nd subrdin.rre zircn, ptìtc. rutìle, turmline nd sphene. ntrfrmtinll versized mudclsts (up t 3% f rck vlurre) lclly disply slty clevges,rs n effect f pst-depsitinl nchimetmrphism. Sprse phsphte ndules re bserved nly in smple VP 18, where rre biclsts (frminifers nd smll gstrpds) ls ccur. Epìmtrix, ìncluding celdnite, is bundnt ( % f rck vlurne) nd s intensely recrystellised tht phyllsilicte flkes cmmnly crss-cut grin bundries. Erly dìgenetic qurtzse t fejdsprthic cenrent is minr (2.5l. f rck v- Lume n the verge), cnsistent with pr snd srting (Winn et l. 1984): rnximum bundnce is recrded in mdertell-srted sndstnes. Pr preservtin f primry pres under rpid buril nd sediment cmpctin is ls indicted. Qurtz veins nd ferrn dlmite ptches re widespred (B.A+n.5'/,' f rck vlume); precipittin f these uthigenic crbntes in secndry pres shuld hve ccurred during buril digenesis, thrugh the leching f C nd Mg ins frm the vlcnic detritus. The djining Trissic dlstnes nd limestnes, lf ing in tectnic cntct wìth the Orbic Anticlìne lng the Vltrt Line (Fig. 3), re unl:ikely t hve pervsively fed with crbnte the Permin successin, tht hd lredy experienced strng cmpctin nd prsìty lss t depth; mrever, n Alpine ge fr the precìpittin f the uthigenìc ferrn dlmite u.uld nt explin why the verlying Verrucn Lmbrd is lmst crbntefree (Sciunnch et. ir.1996). Cmpsitin f the Lwer Permin sndstnes is cnsistent with prvennce f detritus frm verwheiming vlcnic surces, lng with subrdinte input frm the Hercynin crystlline bsement (metmrphic nd grnitid rcks) nd minr supply frm lder clstic units (e.g., Cnglmert Bsle). Ttl qurtz, grdully incresing up$/rds in the Prdini Vlley sectin (r : A.773, sign. ev. < 1'h), recrds stepwise increse pssing frm intervl 17 t 18. Hwever, this petrgrphic signl is in generl t grdul t llw discrimintin f petrlgic intervls within the Ls.er Permin sndstnes, tht cluster int single Petrfcies P0 (Fig. Z). Since the pineering wrk f Dickinsn 8r Rich (1972), perrlgic intervls identified by mens f peculir petrfcies hve been successfuily emplyed s crreltin tls in sterile clstic successins (Zuff et nd ref. therein). Despite mrked lterl vribility f fcies nd wide grin size rnge f the nlysed smples, cmpsitin f the Lwer Permin sndstnes is remrkbly unifrm in bth the Orbic nd the Trbuchell-Cbinc Anticlines, tht is, ver n re extending fr ver 35 km west t est (Sciunnch et. 1999).n the Cmun Anticline, rksic nd mre qurtzse cmpsitins re insted reprted (Cssinis et ), suggesting greter cntributin frm unrfed bsement rcks. Strtigrphy f the Lwer Permin in the Orbic Anticline. The verticl rgnistin f fcies recgnised ll ver the study re llwed cnstructin f refined strtigrphic frmewrk fr the Lwer Permin in the Orbic Anticline (Fig. S). Ech f the lithstrtigrphic units listed belw in scending strtigrphic rder,,ì.- D^-,-..-;,,.c Cnglmerte, needs t be regrded s n infrml member f lcl significnce, but ls reflects distinct stge f vlcnic ectivity vs. sedimenttin. 1. Vlcnic member f the Clli Frmtin. 1. n the lwer prt, bserved in ll sectins, welded tuffs nd lpillistnes (whitish in clur in the lwer prt, reddish t the tp prbbly due t xidtin in cntinentl setting) re sscited t prphyric ign-

12 58 D. Sciunnch P2 (n=14) P1 (n= 4) P0 (n=25) Verrucn Lmbrd Verrucn Lmbrd Clli Frmtin, Pnntrnin Cnglmerte vr/r CflP (n=s) Cnglmert Bsle PROVENANCE CATEGORES llxj cntinentlblck Mgrtic rc f-l W.tH ecycled rgen Fig.7 - QrF di.rgrrm rdickin'n i985) fr the Lwer Permin sndstnes f the Orbic Anticline (Petrfcies PO) cmpred t the Crbniferus-lwermst Permin? Cnglmert Bsle (Petrfcies CflP) nd t the lrgely Upper Permin Verrucn Lmbrd sndstnes (Petrfcies P1, P2). Mdified iter Sciunnch et l. (1999). Pìygns re ne stndàrd devitin cch side { the men; n : number f smpìes. F L imbrites, drk bedded tuffs nd grded pyrclstic flws. Mssive phyric vlcnics with drk-green glssy pste, in bdies f prly-defined gemetry, lclly ccur. Accretinry lpilli (Mre & Peck 1962) were fund in cbbles frm the Clli vlcnics in the Bindin Vlley (Fig. D; Cnflnieri 1993). These cnstituents re prticulrly cmmn - lthugh nt exclusive - in pyrclstic flw depsits nd re relible indictrs f suberil erllptin (Cs & Wright 1987). 1b. n the upper prt, bserved nly under fvurble utcrp cnditins nd seemingly discntinuus, intrfrmtinl vlcnic breccis, cnsisting fr nerlv 100% f vlcnic clsts, disply highly vri.rble thickness. This mpping unit crrespnds t intervls 1-1O f the Prdini Vlley sectin (thickness : 113 m; 1 : 707 m, 1b : 6 m), t intervls 1-8 f the ZttYlley sectin (thickness : 128 rn;1:81.5 m, 1f :96.5 m) nd invribly displys V1 fcies; thickness pssibly exceeds 25 m in the Ornic re. ' The bsl vlcnic successin (1) ws prbbly depsited t very high ccumultin rtes during stge f prxysml vlcnic ctivity pssibly lsting just few thusnd yers; the tpmst vicniclstic breccis (1b) re likely t hve been ccumulted during ctstrphic intrclderic cllpses. A very shrt timc sprn fr the whle member wuld be cnsistent with bth the hmgeneus gechemistry f the welded tuffs frm bse t tp nd the incnspicuus nn-vlcnic clsts in the verlying breccis. 2. Arenceus-vlcniclstic member f the Clli Frmtin. Previling crse-grined renites with minr pelites, lternting t epiclstics, cmmnly welded tuffs, nd bsic lv flws. Bsl cntct n the underlying member is prcnfrmble in the Prdini Vlley sectin, lthugh reginl uncnfrmity is suggested in mp view. Vlcnism ccurred cpisdiclly nd lternted t prlnged stges f vlcnic quiescence during which clstic sedimenttin tk plce. This member cn be further subdividcd, esily in cntinuus sectlns but hrdly where utcrps re spjrse. in tw prts: 2. Previling fine-grined, thin-bedded sndstnes with subrdinte siltstnes nd rre cnglmertes: ll rck types re typiclly drk grey in clur. This lwer prt crrespnds t intervls f the Prdini Vlley sectin (thickness : 85.5 m), t interr-ls 9-13 l the Ztt vrlley sectin (thickness : 76.5 m) nd includes fcies S1, 52. 2b. Preriling fine-grined, thin-bedded grel sndstnes lternte with greenish tuffs, epiclstics, lv flws, ignimbrites end blck siltstnes (Fig. 6F,); inversely-grded pumiceus pvrclstic flws re pxrticulrly well preserved n the suthern slpe f thepizz dei Tre Signri. This lithzne crrespnds t intervls f the Prdini Vlley sectin (thickness : 397 m), t intervls 14-2 f theztt Vlley sectin (thickness :295.2 m) nd includes fcies Vi, V2, V3, S1 nd 52. A fssiliferus hrizn ws fund n the Averr- Vlmresc rd cut (689.6 m.s.l.). Defrmed cmpsite mulds f smth-shelled bivlves (Fig. l) were cllected frm grey t brwnish, fine-grined rnicceus sndstne verlin by thin intervl f welded tuff; tectnic cntct with the Verrucn Lmbrd shrtly fllws upwrds. This member ws depsited s whle in rpidly subsiding, newly-frmed sedimentry bsin. Occurrence f bth mssive, structureless depsits f grnulr sediment nd plne bed, hrizntlly-lminted depsits, dcuments either suberil (sheetflds) r subqueus (slurry rnss flws) fn-delt prcesses. Dcitic vlcnics in the lwer prt seem t suggest

13 The Lzer Permin in tbe Orbic Anticline 59 -!> j 9! :!- 3" s. =ó f,.4 : :. S N óée 3339 VERRUCANO $ LOMBARDO 3 d.cpce,.,:-.-agq,,&"&e. s*eg# ARENACEOUS.PELTC wt.^^j"","",,ffi**l*l g tl my:\fitrffiff rlfl :=bsl ctclsil t \ nrml fuli l;*fl *Éli3ll :=- bsr ctcrsite r,.lk-rì\-f-:r< s -'.?^Al l'-*?gl \ F l{{{l \HlètH ",,iltlii,,l,t,i''"' inf erred Permi ':i:; l$$rl iaal b F?31 tjns t,e,rpdr,prn, 'N[.tNr,'ir:l{tl L H, ;ié':"1%%%1..", 1.,""..1 d ì ll = l,*u.*" l$$$l, \ rrminirers r0 Ò: \ l;"$! r lsl lel È l-^^l li??l J*'.gr, lrrrl t sl- bivlves r,{,i,\.. smpres rrm sp lliijl mugerile, "ndesite" ' smpresrrmmesuredsect' ns \ " _ \ t \., l%??l 1.,%*,1 l.:,:.:l l e qlp-..--*i#f l..f..l t --"':::j:"::::"" t'l-.1..él 1;-- fe&el j-*:j -ll -- l ** :*" : F.îJ l;i;;;i; --- lsndstne,siltstne r,ffi ' lt tl werded rurr, isnimbrire l""'l :il:[,1""';j;ytt -îàè l l* N!M-' METAMRPHTc r-vm ^^^hi^_ f;t;l crse-grlne ij(ix\b] prgnerss' mrcscnlst l.;;- sndstne, epiclstite BASEMENT s s e s s g -tr Fig. 8 - Strrtigrhic frmenrk fr the Cllì Frmtin in the Orbic Anticline, s btined frm crreltin f mesured sectjns (the Prdini Vlley sectin ner Vltrt nd the Mnte Cvll-Ztt Vlleys ner Mezzld) nd 8 strtimetric lgs. Lclistin f the mjr inferred Permin nrml fults, s well s thickness f the vlcnic nd sedimentry bsin fill, tend t indicte the Ornic re s depcentre. Bx displying SiOl cntent refers t smples ACVPl-1. mgm differentitin with respect t the underlying vlcnic member, lthugh bsic lv flws, up t 2O m- thick'nd fund 92 m bve the bse f the member in the Prdini Vlley sectin, shrtly mrk n inversin f the trend. Similr smll "ndesite" flws re reprted frm the lwer prt f the "Sedimentry Member" f the Clli Frmtin ls in the Trbuchell-Cbinc Anticline (Cdei et L. 1987). The renceus-vlcniclstic member is likely t hve been depsited t vrible ccumultin rtes (higher under episdic vlcnic input, lwer when clstic rcks were depsited during stges f vlcnic quiescence). 3. Pnternic Cnglmerte (Csti & Gncclini 1965; 1 967). Sndstnes nd pelites f the "Sedimentry Member" pss lterlly t cnglmertes f similr cmpsitin: vlcnic clsts (75+80%) previl in fct ver metmrphic rck frgments (10+15%) nd milky qurtz (5+ 10%). Mstly prly-srted, pebbly t cbbly cnglmertes lternte t crse-grined sndstnes in thick, prly-defined beds. A prximl fn-delt envirnment is indicted. Clur, rnging frm purple t pinkish t deep green due t vrible xidising cnditins, is invribly purple west f the Cmisl ridge, suggesting emergence f the fn-delt, tht ws insted in prt r episdiclly submerged t the est. Threedimensinlly nd exceptinlly well-preser-ved plnt remins re fund nrth f the study re, lthugh t present they d nt prvide bistrtigrphic infrmtin (Kerp et l ). This mpping unit crrespnds t intervl 19 f the Prdini Vlley sectin (thickness : 185 m) nd t fcies 53. Cmpsitin f crse-grined sndstnes interclted t the cnglmertic red beds f the Acqudur Vlley, suth-est f ntrbi (Fig. 3), is cnsistent with the Lwer Permin petrfcies PO (Sciunnch et l.

14 60 D. Sciunncb 1999; Sciunnch 2001). These red beds, displirying lwer texturl mturity nd minerlgicl stbility thn the Verrucn Lmbrd, re thus crrelted with the Pnternic Cnglmerte, nd re restred t the western edge f clstic wedge tht pinches ut twrds structurl high (Sciunnch 2001). They,'rre in turn seled by cntinuus blnket f Verrucn Lmbrd red beds, nt lwys bviusly discriminted: criterir riginlly prpsed in Csti & Gncclini (1965) hvc been integrted with further bservtins in Tb. 4. These previusly Llnrecgnised utcrps f Pnter;rnic Cnglmerte crrespnd t the cbble cnglmertes displying crystlline cmpnents nd mtrix "clssified s sr,rbngulr crse s:rndstne r fine cnglmerte" described by Schónbrn (1992) in the ntrbi re. There, the Pnternic Cnglnlerte verlies intrfrmtinl breccis "cnsisting cmpletely f vlcnics" (Schónbrn 1992) scribcd herein t the vlcnic member f the Clli Frmtin (1b), s re the underlying bedded cinerites, up t but 2O m-thrck in the Acqudur Vlley (Fig. 8) nd mentined in Getni ct l. (1987) s sedimentry fcies f the Clli Frmtin. As wh1e, the Pnternic Cnglmerte recrds stge f fn prgrdtin t the end f vlcnic ctivity in the Orbic Anticline re. 4. Upper renceus-pelitic member f the Clli Frmtin. Previling grey t greenish sndstnes, lrgely medium t fine-grined nd rich in sedimcntry structures, re interpreted s depsited in perennil lke bsins (Cssinis et l. 1986; Cdel et l. 1996). Tetrpd ftprints were bserr.cd in the Scic Vlley (Ornic), frr.r.r wl.rere they hd been reprted ls in Csti Ec Gncclini (1967:- plte 8, fies. 1,2), few metres belw the uncnfrmble cntct with the Verrucn Lmbrd.'Rccentl;r, tetrpd ftprints frm the sme strtrgrphic level hve been fund in the nfern Lke surrundings, but 2 km nrth f the study re (Snti & Krieger 2000). Rre fr;rr.ninifers with clcreus tests (Mililce) nd sn-rll gstrpd frgments re reprted here fr the first time frm the upper prt f thc Prdini Vl1e1'sectin (Fig. 6F, G). This mpping unrt crrespnds t intervl 20 f tl-re Prdini Vllcl- sectin (thickness : 196 m), t inten'1 21 f the Ztt Vlle,v (thickness : 246 n't) nd t fcies 52; it is heterpic, t lcrst ìn prrt, s'ith the Pnternic Cnglmerte nd ppcrs t hr.e been depsited t lwer sedimentrtin rtcs ît thc cnd i the vlc.rnic,rcrivity. Clrstic input seeminglv utp:1ced subsidencc, s suggested b1' pr-,rressive infillini' f the lke bsin nd reductin f the t]'."'''''''.'.''''b.-..'' wter bdy dcumented by ftprints nd mud-crcks twrds the tp. fig. 9 - Defrmcd cmpsite mulcls f smth-shelled bir.lves,,\'err:r. lv{ulds A, C seen cmprble t the scnus Anthrcnut (Pprth 1966), r.heres ne;.lrl1- equil.rtenl mulds B, D, E resemble the undeteririned fresh-r.ter Discussin. bivirlves pictured bv Berruti (1962). Scele br in cm. Mgmtic evlutin. Gechemic:rl nlyses f the Clli r-lcnics in the study :rre indicte benmreitic cmpsitin fr the lwer pyrclstic flw depsits, er-lving t mre l:f,-^-,:,.. rrlrjrlu L 1..:.: -) \ujllrrl/ cnruririn ip rh,. l*errnst :ìrenceus-vlcniclstic member. These mrqmrtìc prducts re hwever bruptly fllwed upsectin by mugerite lv flws nd rhylite tuffs. n the Trbuchell-Cbinc nd Cmun Anticlines, previling rhylites nd subrdinete "ndesites" rrc reprted (Peyrnel Pglini 1965; Cdel 1986), lthugh intermcdite lkline vlcnics ls ccur (Crtesgn et l. 1998). n generl, Erlv Permin mgmtism in the Suthern Alps displys prevlent clc-lkiine signrture, lthueh subductin cntext cn be ruled ut bscd n the reginl tectnic scenri. Prtil me lting is likely t hve ccurrcd t the mntle/crust trnsitin (Crtes-

15 The Lzer Permirt in the Orbic Anticline E E 9 C' z 2 F z cmpsitin gr n size vlcn c - 75./., metmrphic = 15À, quttz = 10Yó verge cm, mximum 60 cm qutlz , vlcnic 30+60%, metmrphìc < 1% verge cm, mximum 20 cm srtrng pr t very pr mderte t pr r u nd ness ngulr t subrunded subngulr t runded cluf detritl mes cmpsite vs vilet t pink t wine re d (g reenish n reductin) F Q35+68 F5+15 L )lgiclse vs tt. feldspr srting merle Ì very pf m e rte ru ndness ngulr t subnoulf subngulr t subrunded clur PONTERANCA CONGLO\,4EMTE grey r eep green VERRUCANO LO\,4BARDO wine red (greenish n reductin) PELTE ccurrence negl gible cycircl Tb. 4 - Distinctive fcics chrcters f the Pnternic Cnslmerte vs. Verrucn Lrnbrd. gn et l. 1998). Self-lìmitìng mgmr;c srping f the cntinentl crust, resulting in bth mixing nd mingling f different mgms, s well s in their high Al cntent, ccurred during the scent f mgms stred t different lithspheric levels; their lcl underplting - cnsisrenr with the lrv Mg cntent in the studied smpies - cused vrible degree f differentitin even mng plutns nd vlcnic centres clse either in spce r time. A system f "leky" wrench fults, cutting thrugh the whle lithsphere nd mrking trnscurrent plre bundry, is the mst likely tectnic setting fr mgmtism (Mssri 1988; Rttur er r ). Bth the distributin f the vlcnic districts nd the gemetry f single plutns, in which subprliel stcks nd dyke swrms previl ver.:ntrl necks (e.g. Vl Bindin), re cnsistent with fissure -guided rther thn centr.rl mgmtism. Liner culdrn bundries, striking pprximtely 60'N, hve been reprted frm the Nvzz-Vl Vedell district (Cdel 1986 nd ref. therein). Other tectn-mgmtic mdels re less vible. Rising nd prtil melting f the sthensphere relted t n brted rifting des nt mtch the clse time reltinships between reginl frulting rnd vlcnism (Fvre Er Stmpfli 1992; Breitkreutz & Kennedy 1999), s well s the wide rnge f luminus mgmtic prducts deriving frm the lithspheric mntle, lthugh it might explin the "Texn lng-hrn" crss-sectinl pttern chrcterisine the Permin bsin fills in the Suthern Alps (Cssinis et ). A mntle plume surce finds n ctulistic nlgue becuse mgmtism is scttered ver n exceedingly wide re; hwever. it might ccunt t lest in prt fr the rpid uplift f the Hercynin rnge nd widespred vlcnism shrtly pre-dting nrml fulting. The culdrn subsidence mdel is clerly insufficient t ccunt fr the gemetry f vlcnic bdies t bsin scle, lthugh it cn be successful t justify the gemetric reltinships between vlcnics nd epiclstics r mre lcl scle (Cdel 1986; Cdel et. 1996). The mgmtic evlutin recrded by the Clli Frmtin in the Orbic Anticline cn be frmed in tw-step reginl trend f vlcrnic rcrivity: 1. prxysml eruptin f lithspheric mntle mgms enriched in Al nd lklis by crustl cntmintin, finding their wy t the surfce thrugh "leky" wrench fults; 2. isthe rm upwelling, enhnced by stretching nd unlding f the upper crust, cusing the scent f deeper-seted, less differentited mgms; emplcement f bsic lv flws, cupled with nging eruptin f re sidul cidic mgms, seemingly determined lte stge f 'ri lt-like" bimd.ri vlc.rnism. The hypthesis ccrding t which the Vlsssin intrusins wuld represent the mgm chmbers f the Clli vlcnics (Merl 1933; Cdel 1986), lthugh resnble, is nt supprted by utcrp evidence. A review f the gechemicl dt vilble in the literture n the Vl Bindin plutnic crnplex (De Cpitni 1982; De Cpitni Ec Libri 1988) nd the Clli vlcnics (Origni Gibbi et l. 1981; Cdel 1986; Crtesgn et l. 1998) fils t supprr derivtin f the tw mgmric bdies frm cmmn prent mgm. Substntil lck f rhylites in the vlcnic member f the Orbic Anticline is first line f evidence ginst physicl cntinuity f the Clli bsl vlcnics; rhylites re in fct the dminnt vlcnic rck type in the Trbuchell- Cbinc (Cdel 1986) nd Cmun Anticlines (Peyrnel Pglin;1965). Sedimentry cycles. The Upper Plezic successin f the Suthern Alps cn be subdivided int three sedimentry cycles, crrespnding t distinct lithstrtigrphic units bunded - either t the bse r tp - by mjr uncnfrmities (Cnglmert Bsle, Clli Frmtin nd Verrucn Lmbrd) s weil s dcumenting different pletectnic nd plegegrphic scenris (Sciunnch et l. 1999). The subdivisin int just tw cycles (Cnglmert Bsle + C11i Frmtin vs. Verrucn Lmbrd: Cssinis et l. 1988) seems insufficient t explin the strng differences between the Cnglmert Bsle phyllrenitic subrkses nd qurtz cnglmertes,

16 62 D. Sciunnch depsited in cmplex lluvil system including tìus cne t fldplin fcies nd fed by crystlline surces, nd the Clli Frmtin vlcniclstics, depsited in cnfined lcustrine bsins under ctive tectnic cntrl nd fed by the newly-emplced vlcnic successin. Bsl ctclsite. Mjr interprettin prblems re psed by the belt, lclly ver fur metres-thick, f blck ctclsites mrking the tectnic bundry between the crystlline bsement nd the Clli vlcnics. Simiir fult cntcts re nt bserved nywhere t the bsement/cnglmert Bsle, Cnglmert Bsle/Clli vlcnics r bsement/verrucn Lmbrd cntcts. T dte n cnclusive evidence hs been prduced t btin n estimte f the ffset lng this ctclstic surfce, which hs lng been disputed (Dzy 1935; Csti 1968). An Alpine displcement, lthugh mre r less implicitly dmitted by Vennekers (1932), Csti Ec Gncclini (1967) nd Csti (1968), is t dds with the strtigrphic reltinships bserved between ntrbi nd Primlun (Vlsssin), where the ctclstic belt is uncnfrmbly seled by the Verrucn Lmbrd (Figs. 3, 8) nd des nt cntinue int mjr fults rund the bsement/verrucn Lmbrd bundry. Turmlinistin f the bsl ctclsites in the TrbucheÌl-Cbinc Anticline hs been explined in terms f penecntemprneus metsmtism f the Clli sediments (Zhng et l. 7994). Turmiine ws ls fund in fult rcks pre-dting the Verrucn Lmbrd in Vlsssin (Sciunnch 2001). n the Nvzz-Vl Vedell district, fult znes seled by the Verrucn Lmbrd were minerlised during the Lte Permin (Origni Gibbi et l. 1981; Cdel 1986), nd grins f turmline-bering ctclsite ccur in the very first Verrucn Lmbrd beds in the Pizz dei Tre Signrr re. All these lines f evidence cnstrin the ge f ctclstic defrmtin s Artinskin (ge f the yunger defrmed rcks: see the chrnstrtigrphy prgrph belw) t Middle?-Upper Permin (ge f the lder undefrmed rcks), nd suggest tht fulting ws sscited with mjr phse f metsmtic minerliztin f the hst rcks. Bsin histry. The lwer vlcnic member, reginlly frming mrphlgic plteu (Cdel 1986; Cdel et \. 1996), extended well utside the bundries f the tectnic trughs ccmmdting the Cili sediments. t is nerly OO m-thick in the Mnz 1 AGP weli (Csti & Plini 1986), lcted tdy but 50 km suth f the Clli Bsin. This distnce cn be restred t ttl 130 km t the suth ccrding t the vlues f Alpine shrtening suggested by Schònbrn (1992). Under this respect, the vlume (150 km3) nd surfce (600 km2) estimtes fr the lwer Clli Frmtin vlcnic plteu reprted by Cdel (1986) re likely t represent minimum figures. Thickness f the verlying intrfrmtinl breccis (1b), cpping t vrius plces the vlcnic fcies (1), strngly vries (6 t nerly 1OO m between the Prdini Vlley nd Ztt Viley sectins) s n effect f depsitin in smll fult-cntrlled bsins. These breccis cn be interpreted s cevl with bth the end f the erly stge f prxysml vlcnism, nd the mjr phse f widespred nrml fulting f the Lwer Permin vlcnic plteu, which creted the endrheic bsins ccmmdting the subqueus nd much finergrined sediments f the renceus-vlcniclstic member. At tht time, the vicnic cps { the uplifted ftwlls were intensely erded. The thickest bsin fill, set in rugh plemrphlgy cntrlled by blck-fulting, crrespnds t the renceus-vicniclstic member. Shrp superpsitin n fcies 1b f fine-grined sndstnes nd mudrcks (2), yielding bivlve remins ner Averr, seemingly pints t mmentrily reduced clstic input nd/r t the spreding f shllw bsin flrs. Lter (2b), tectnic subsidence exceeding 100 m/my ws mtched by depsitin f thick pile f crser-grined, suberil t subqueus inss flw vlcniclstics. Onging vlcnism is suggested by bimdl, "rift-like" sscitin fstered by lithspheric thinning thrugh the ctive wrench fults, ls cusing extensive ersin f the hnging-wll surce res. Cntrsting sndstne cmpsitin in the Orbic nd Cmun Anticlines is secnd line f evidence ginst physicl cntinuity f the Clli Bsin, lthugh it my be ccunted fr ls by deeper dissectin f the estern bsement highs nd/r lesser cntributin frm the vlcnic plteux expsed there. The Pnternic Cnglmerte) s well s the cevl crse-grined clstics frm ther lclities f the Orbic Alps, mrks stge f prgrdtin f immture, cbbly fcies, depsited in fn-delt setting t lest prtly belw lke 1eve1. Vhether this event ws triggered by climtic trends (incresed rinfll) r renewed tectnic ctivity (reltive uplift f surce res) cn be nly tenttively inferred. Preservtin f fresh feldspr in the interbedded sndstnes is t dds with humid climte, wheres the invribly psìtive - lthugh very lw - crreltin cefficients f plycrystlline qurtz nd lklifeldspr, s well s f grnitid nd rthgneissic rck frgments, vs. strtigrphy (r : , sign. lev. > 10%) hint t unrfing f bsement rcks. The secnd line f evidence, hwever, is nt unequivcl becuse ll the mentined grin types - with the pssible exceptin f lklifeldspr - re riginlly crse-grined

17 The Luer Permin in tbe Orbic Anticline 63 TATARAN LOPNGAN Fig. i0 - Cmpiltin f the vilble gechrnlgicl nd mgnetstrtigrphic dt fr the Permin f the Orbic t Cmun Anticlines. Tìme scle fter Mennìng (1995); petrlgic intervls (Dickin- T lllwrr Reve rsl (Menning, 1 995) sn & Rich 1972) s in Fig. Z re displyed ìnsted f,'.''.-_"*.'b'*r,',' lirhsr r:r'r:'rhic unìrs. LVM : lwer vlcnic member f the Clli Frmtin; AV : Auccì Vlcnìcs _2nn 6 (Schltegger & Brck ) _ ce -"" Brck,1999) (Schltegger & L 297 (Cder, 1986; Hunziker in Cssinis et l.,1988) ASSELAN nd their bundnce is psitively crrelted with grin size; crreltin cefficients rnge frm (plycrystlline qurtz; sign. lev. (rthgneissic rck frgments; sign. lev. < 0.1%). V1- cnic ctivity seemingly cesed t this stge, s suggested by the lck f vlcnic intercltins. During depsitin f the finer-grined uppcr renceus-pelitic member, subsidence ws mre widespred nd reduced, s dcumented by firly cnsrnt strtigrphic thickness; this is cnsistent with cesing nrml fult ctivity. Occurrence f tetrpd ftprints, s well s f shllw-wter sedimentry structures (wve ripples, cly chips) in the upper prt f the member suggests prgressive infilling f the lke bsin nd reductin f the *ter bdy even under reduced clsric input. Preservtin f bundnt fresh detritl feldsprs is cnsistent with bth shrt trnsprt nd rid climte. Arid climtes wuld ls explin the ccurrence f ferrn crbnte lyers, crusts nd ndules, interpreted s pseudmrphs fter evprites, in the upper "Sedimentry Member" f the Trbuchell-Cbinc nd Cedegl Anticlines (Cssinis et l. 1986). There, cnspicuus ftprints re fund pprxin-rtely t the sme srrtigrphic level s the ferrn crbnte nd C-sulphte lenses (Frcell et l. 2001). An lterntive explntin might be the encrchment f cstl envirnments nt the frmer lke bsin. Actully, mrine trnsgressin in the Clli Bsin wuld explin bth reduced clstic input nd finer grin size f the clstic sediments, s well s the remrkble input f C nd SO4 ins, depsited s evprites in sbkh settings. The ccurrence f benthic frminifers is the mst imprtnt line f evidence supprting the mrine trnsgressin mdel, which, n the ther hnd, is nt indicted by ny significnt chnge in sndstne mdes nd is prly dcumented by sedimentry structures (symmetricl ripple-mrks my ccur in lcustrine s well s in shllw-mrine settings). The mrrne trnsgressin mdel, if crrect, wuld imply tht 1) the Clli bsin ws nt nly hypersline, but ls cstl lke; it ws eventully reched by n t lest temprry sewy s result f either prnunced eusttic rise r rpid subsidence/ersin f its dmming ridge, nd 2) ltitude f the lte Clli lke level cnnt hve exceeded the mqlitude f first-rder se-level rise, tht is, ' ^^ Dut luu m. The hitus t the tp f the Clli Frmtin my be s lng s 1O My (see belw). This ngulr uncnfrmity hs been trditinlly interpreted s dcumenting the effects f ctive tectnics in terms f strike-slip fulting, intrplte wrenching, nd inversin f the Lte Crbniferus-Erly Permin bsins (Cdel et l. 1,996). Criticl revisin f the pprent tilting directins f the Clli Frmtin with respect t the verlying Verru-

18 D. Sciunnch cn Lmbrd might suggest tht flding. nd nt simple tilting, ccurred t this stge (Cdel et. 1996). Perinin chrnstrtigrphy in the Orbic Alps: review. A lrgely Erly Permin (Autunin) ge fr the Clli sediments is indicted by rncrflrl remins (Cssinis 1966; Csti 8r Gnccliní,l967; Remy Ec Remy 1928). U/Pb zircn ges frm the lwer vlcnics rnge frm (Cdel 1986) t 283'r1l My (Schltegger & Brck 1999). Rb/Sr nd K/Ar ges frm the bsl vlcnics re 287 My (J.K. Hunziker, unpublished dt in Cssinis et l. tlss). Plynmrphs frm the Clli sediments re scribed t the Artinskin-Rdin (Cssinis & Dubinger 1991). U/Pb zircn ges f f l My were btined frm the verll.ing Aucci vlcnics (Schltegger & Brck 1999). All f these ge cnstrints fit in the time scle f Menning (1995), plcing the Skmrin/Artinskin bundry t 283 My (Fig. 10). f s, the whle Clli Frmtin shuld hve been depsited in the ltest Skmrin (Tstubin) t mid- Artinskin, during time spn pssibly s shrt s 5 My r less. Slightly lder ges (Cdel 1986; Cssinis et l. 1988) might prtly reflect plyphse cling histry f the lrte hercynin mgms, resulting in inherited ztcn cres. Very high sedimenttin rtes fr the Clli clstics re cnsistent n'ith the single petrfcies chrcterising r cmplete sndsrne sectin. cmmnly exceeding 800 m in thickness, independent f fcies lritins nd grin size. Ech petrfcies reflects in fct peculir, temprry blnce f interplying fctrs such s surce rcks, tectnic cntext, climte, sedimentry prcesses nd dringe ptterns (Jhnssn 1993). Such n equilibrium is unlikely t lst fr mre thn sme My, becuse significnt vritins f just ne f the fctrs mentined bve (e.g., unrfing f bsement rcks; blckfulting; incresing rinfll; reltive se-level rise; river cdptures) my cuse cnspicuus nd systemàtic chnges in snd minerlgy. Cncurrent vritins f ts/ r mre fctrs re unlikely t cmpenste, nd will rther result in new temprry equilibrium. n the Upper Permin t Crnin successin f the Suthern Alps, the estimted lifetime f ech petrfcies is but 4-t1 My n the verge. Tw petrfcies re recgnised in fct in the Upper Permin, three in the Lwer Trissic, three in the Anisin (Sciunnch et l. 1996) nd three t five in the Crnin (Grznti et l. 2001). A similr durtin fr petrlgic inter-vl P0 wuld mtch the time cnstrints indicted in Schltegger & Brck (1999). A mjr unnswered questin is the durtin f the hitus mrking the Clli Frmtin/Verrucn Lmbrd bundry. The suppsed ltest Permin rge f the Verrucn Lmbrd, tenttively cnfined t the Lpingin in recent wrks (e.g., Cssinis 8c Neri 1999), seemingly cntrsts with: 1. reprted ccurrence f the llwrr reversl within the rughly cevl Vl Grden sndstnes f the estern Suthern Alps (Dchrth 1,976: Muritsch & Becke 1983; Dchrth 1988). This mjr plemgnetic event ccurred during the erly Tterin (Khrmv 1963; Gilnell et l. 1997), the bse f which hs been extended t ges s id s 267 My nd - ccrdingly - rund the Vbrdin/Cpitnin bundry in the new Permin time scles (Menning 1995; Menning Ee Jin 1998; Glenister et L.7999). 2. ccurrence f hitus t the bundry with the Lwer Trissic Servin Frmtin, dcumented by nther, brupt increse in minerlgicl stbility nd texturl mturity frm Petrfcies P2 t Petrfcies S1 (Sciunnch et l. 1996), s well s by prgressive nlp f tidl flt fcies nt the Verrucn Lmbrd cntinentl fldpiin (Sciunnch et l. 1999b). Such hitus is likely t be cnfined lmst entirely t the uppermst Permin, s suggested by fcies crreltin f the Prs litic limestne f estern Lmbrdy with the Teser Hrizn f the Dlmites (Cssinis et l. 1993), nd by the ccurrence l Clri bivlves f ltest Griesbchin-erly Dienerin ge in the C' Sn Mrc Member f the Servin Frmtin (Psent et l. 1996; Sciunnch et l. 1999b). A further line f evidence - lthugh less cnclusive - is the ccurrence f n intrfrmtinl hitus within the Verrucn Lmbrd, dcumented by the shrp increse in minerlgicl stbility frm Petrfcies P1 t Petrfcies P2 (Sciunnch et l.1996). The tectnic event dcumented by the ngulr uncnfrmity between the Clli Frmtin nd the Verrucn Lmbrd hs lng been cnsidered cevl with the Slin "phse". Actully, nt nly reginl crreltin f tectnic phses is questinble stillen cncept (Sengór 1990), but in this cse pses ls timing prblems. The Slin "phse" wrs in fct riginlly scribed t the hitus between the lwer nd upper Rtiiegendes. Such hitus, :rccrding t recent Permin tirne scles, wuld fll rund the Asselin-Skmrin, prbbly befre the Clli Frmtin strted t be clepsited. The hitus between the Cili Frmtin nd the Verrucn Lmbrd (Kungurin-Wrdin) wuld rther crrelte with mjr uncnfrmity within the upper Rtliegendes, recgnised between the Mùritz nd Hvel-Elbe subgrups nd spnning time intervl f 8 t 20 My (Ufirnin t Kznin fter Menning 1995; Kungurin t Kznin fter Pkrski \997; Kiersnwskr 1997). This event surely cincides in time with the end f the Erly Permin vlcnism (thin vlcnic ìntercltins in the lwer Verrucn Lmbrd re reprted nly by Cdel 1986) nd with mjr shift in the subsidence ptterns, frm lclised t reginl. Mrever, it

19 The L-,er Permin in the Orbic Anticline 65 might crrespnd t stge f widespred fult-bund minerliztin f the Lwer Permin rcks. Cnclusins. 1. Field mpping t the 1: scle f the Lwer Permin in the Orbic Anticline llwed recgnitin f systemticlly superpsed fcies, better defined subdir.isin f the strtigrphic successin with respect t the vilble frmewrk, nd recnstructin f the bsin rchitecture, including inferred lctin f the depcentre nd f the mjr mster fults. Esily-recgnised mpping units ls crrespnd t distinct, subsequent stges f vlcnic ctivity vs. tectnic subsidence nd sedimenttin ptterns. 2. Gechemistry f the vlcnic rcks, previling in the lwer prt f the Clli Frmtin, is highly vrible lng sectin. Erly prxysml effusin f intermedite welded tuffs (benmreites) ws fllwed by synsedimentryr, plymdl vlcnic ctivity chrcterised by bth differentited (dcites t rhylites) nd primitive prducts (mugerite flws). Such n evlutin seemingly cntrsts with fetures f the Erly Permin vlcnism in the Trbuchell-Cbinc nd Cmun Anticlines, where "ndesites" re fund t the bse f the vlcnic plteu, nd rhydcites t rhylites previl by fr ver ther vlcnic rck types. Seemingly, the vlcnic centres feeding the western edge f the Clli Bsin were thus distinct nd/r nn-cevl with thse in the centrl-estern sectr; ccurrence f rre clsts f intermedite vlcnics in the lwermst rhyelils5 sf th. Nvzz-Vl Vedell district (G. Cdel, pers. cmm \ m:v sltql'esr rh:t the vlcnic member f the Orbic Anticline (intervls 1-9 f the Prdini Vlley sectin) ws lder. 3. Petrgrphy f sndstnes, firly unifrm bth verticlly nd lterlly, invribly flls in the "r'lcnic rc" field f Dickinsn (1985). This des nt imply, f curse, tht the Clli clstics were derived strictll. frm vlcnic rc, but surely frm n verwhelming nevlcnic surce (ZuÍf 1985), represented by the Lwer Permin vlcnic plteux. Hmgeneus petrgrphy f clstic successin pprching looo m in thickness, independent f strng vribility in sndstne fcies :rnd grin size, cntrsts with the number f petrfcies recgnised in the verlying nd thinner clstic units f Lte Permin t Crnin ge, nd suggests high sedirnenttin rtes fr the Clli Frmtin, in greement with the shrt time spn recently ssigned t this unit by rdimetric dt btined in tl-re Cmun Anticline (Schltegger Er Brck 1999). Unfrtuntely, t dte ny bistrtigrphic cntrl n rdimetric qes hs been hmpered by the pr fssil cntent f the unit nd by the scrce bistrtigrphic vlue f the discvered tx. The remrkble difference in sndstne cmpsitin between the Orbic nd Cmun Anticlines (Cssinis et l. 1978) is nther line f evidence ginst physicl cntinuity f the Clli Bsin. 4. Fcies rchitecture, gechemistry f the mrgmtic prducts nd sedimentry evlutin fit int plegedynmic scenri f cntinentl wrenching (Arthud Ee Mtte 1977). By Skmrin-Artinskin times the Flercynin rgen ws being disrupted by trnstensinl fults bunding strngly subsiding cntinentl bsins. The mjr fults were "leky" (Mssri 1988) nd drve t the surfce clc-lkline mgms prduced by prtil melting f lithspheric mntle metsmt;sed by the Hercynin subductin (Crtesgn er l. 1998). Stretching nd unlding f the cntinentl crust in wrench settings ls fvured lter, limited upwelling f less differentited mgmrtic prducts. 5. An entirely cntinentl setting fr the upper Clli Frmtin in the Orbic Anticline cn be quertined in the light r 'r- r: Ul Lllq Ul)!Uvql) - " Ul 'r ',b,'l clcrreut frminifers (Mililce) 3O m belw the Clli/Verrucn uncnfrmity, in beds depsited under reducinq cnditins nd displying symmetricl wr-e ripples. Frminifers dpted t nrml slinity ctuliy fit in the slt lke mdel (Cssinis et l. 1986), br.rt rhey d require n t lest temprry sewy. A mrine trnsgressìn et this stge is prly supprted by ther sedirnentry evidence nd is t dds with ll the plegegrphic recnstructins prpsed t dte, lthugh cevl fusulinid limestnes re fund in the surrunding res f the Crnic Alps (Trgkfel Grup), the nrthern Adritic ffshre (Amnd lbis well: Srtri & Venturini 1988), nd Tirscny (Klher & Klher 1969; Engelbrecht et l. tlss). Perhps the present-dy Sltn Se (n intrmntne slt lke, cnfined t r tectnic depressin cntrlled by the Sn Andres strike-slip fult svstem, nd seprted frm the Clifrni Gulf by the Cird River delt) might represent gd ctulistic nlgue fr the lte Clli Bsin. Acknledgenents. Mucb f the field u'rk ws crriecl ut nith G.B. Silctt, A. Pjccin nd students (U. Acerbni, D. trttilni, M. Milesi, M. Mgginì, T. Pzz,, M. Ricttj, ìv1. Rt). The uthr is deeply indebted t M.P Cnflnieri fr hclp durins sme field trips, t A. Grcgnnin fr prviding nd dìscussing the gechemicl d:t, nd t F. Mssri nd M. Menning fr prvidìng rre bibligrph,v. Useful discussins with C. Breitkreutz, G. Cssinis, F. Frcell, G. Gss, R. Rettri nd L.A. Rnchi re ls cknwledged. Technicl ssist:rnce ws prvided by D. Bindelli (VDS micrniysis), R. Crespi (phtmicrgrphs), C. Mlinvern (thìn sectins), G. Mnrll (fssil preprtin), S. Renest (issil phtgrphs) nd A. Rizzi (EDS micrnli.sis). An erli cr drrlt f rhc rlrnuscript h,rs been rcmrhbly imprved by the cnstructive criticism f G. Cdel, M. Getni nd E. Grznti. Field.rnd lbrtry n.rk supprted by CARG grnts. Priect MURST-1999 "L'eredità litsferic meszic tetide nei prcessi subduttivi e cllisinli del Mediterrne centr-rientle".

20 66 D. Sciunnch RE,FERENCES Arthud F. Ec Mtte P. (1977) - Lte Plezic strike-slip fulting in suthern Eurpe nd nrthern Afric: Result f right-lterl sher zne between the Applchins nd the Urls. Gel. Sc. Am. Bull.88: , Bulder. Asseret R. & Csti P (1965) - Revisine dell srrtigrfi perm-trissic dell Vl Cmnic meridinle (Lmbrdi). Rie. t. Pl. Strt.71: , Miln. Berruti G. (1967) - Nt preliminre su un "rizznte" Lmellibrnchi nel Permin di Cl1i. Nt. Brescin,,{: 86, Bresci. Brini A. & Clmb A. (1979) - Gli Gneiss Chiri tr l Vlsesi e il Lg di Cm. Rend. Sc. t. Min. Petr , Pis. Breitkreutz C. Ec Kennedy A. (1999) - Mgmtic flre-up.rt the Crbniferus/Permin bundry in the NE Germn Bsin reveled by SHRMP zircn ges. Tectn- pq)slcs. Jll: Jv/-Jlb, Amslerm. Buletti M. (1985) - Petrgrphisch-gechemische Untersuchungen im Lugner Prphyrgebiet. Ph.D. Thesis, r,'. f 15l pp., Bern. Cdel G. (1986) - Gelgy nd urnium minerliztin f the Clli bsin (centrl Suthern Alps, tly). tjrniwm,2: ll)-z+4, Amsterd.tnì. Cdel G., Fuchs Y & Meneghel L. (1987) - Urnium minerliztin sscited with the evlutin f Perm-Crbniferus vlcnic field - Exmples frm Nvzz nd Vl Vedell (nrthern kly). Urnium, 3: 4A7-421, Amsterdm. Cdel G., Csi M., Penncchini G. & Spll M.. (1996) - A new mp f the Perm-Crbniferus cr.er nd Vriscn metrnrphic bsement in the Centrl Suthern Alps - tly. Structurl nd strtigrphìc dt. Mem. Sci. Gel.48: 1-53, Pdv. Cs R.A.F. Ec Vright J.V (198/) - Vlcnic successins. Unvzin & Hymn, v. f 528 pgg., Lndn. Csti P (1968) - Rpprti tr il bsment cristllin e le frmzini del Permin press ntrbi in Vlsssin (Lmbrdi). Rend. Sc. st. Lmb., A1O1 (1967): 866- B22, Miln. Csti P & Gncclini M. (1965) - ljn nuv frmzine plezic dell'lt Vl Brembn: l Frmzine del Pnternic. Riv. t. Pl. Strt., , Miln. Csti P & Gncclini M. (1967) - Gelgi delle Alpi Orbie ccidentli. Ri. t. Pl. Strt.,73: , Miln. Csti P & Plini G. (1986) - L cstituzine e 1 srrurrur gelgic del sttsul e i fluidi in ess cntenuti. n Csti P (ed.), L'cqu nel territri di Mnz: psst, presente, futur. Stmp Brghi, v. f 21.4 pp., Mnz. Cssinis G. (1966) - L Frmzine di Clli nell're-tip dell'lt Vl Trmpi (Permin inferire brescin). Rtu. t. Pl. Strt.72:5A7-588, Miln. Cssinis G. 8r Dubinger J. (1991) - Artinskin t Ufimin plynmrphs ssemblges frm the centrl Suthern Alps, tly nd their reginl strtigrphic implictins. nterntindl Cngress n the Permín System f the Wrld,Prt 1: 9-18, Perm. Cssinis G. & Neri C. (1999) - Outline f the Permin strtigrphy in the Suthern Alps. nterntinl Cngress n the Cntinentl Permin f the Suthern Alps nd Srdini (tly), field trip guidebk, 7-10, Bresci. Cssinis G., Mttvelli L. & Mrelli G.L. (1978) - Studi petrgrfic e minerlgic dell Frmzine di Clli nel Permin nferire dell'lt Vl Trmpi (Prelpi brescine). Mem. Sci. Gectl. 32:4-13, Pdv. Cssinis G., Dl Piz G. V, Eusebi A., Gss G., Mrtintti G., Mssri F., Miln P F., Penncchini G., Perill M., Pessin C. M., Rmn E., Spll M.., Tsett S. tt Zerbt M. (1986) - Reprt n structurl nd sedimentlgicl nlysis in the ljrnium Prvince f the Orbic Alps, tly. Urnium, 2: , Amsterdm. Cssinis G., Mssri F., Neri C. & Venturini C. (1988) - The cntinentl Permin in the Suthern Alps (tly). A review. Z. Gel. Wiss. 76: , Berlin. Cssinis G., Neri C. & Pertti C.R. (1993) - The Permin:rnd Permin-Trissic bundry in Estern Lmbrdy nd \ilestern Trentin (Suthern Alps, tly). n Lucs S.G. & Mrles X{. (eds.) - The nnmrine Trissic. Net, Mex. Mus. Nt. Hist. Sci. Bull.3: 51-63, Albuquerque. Ctencci V (1995) - l prgett di relizzzine dell nuv crtgrfi gelgic ufficile del territri nzinle. Bll. Sc. Gel. t. 114: , Rm. Cnflnieri M.P. (1993) - Petrgrfi delle renerie permtrissiche in sezini selezinte delle Prelpi lrnbrde. Diplm thesis, v. f z5z pp., Miln. Crtesgn L., Cssinis G., Dllgivnn G., Ggger L., Oggin G., Rnchi L.A., Sen S. & Vnssi M. (1998) - The Vriscn pst-cllisinl vlcnism in Lte Crbniferus-Permin sequences f Lieurin Alps, Suthern Alps nd Srdini (tly): synthesis. Liths, 45: , Amsterdm. Dchrth \il (1976) - Gesteinsmgnetische Mrken irn Perm Mitteleurps (Ein Beitrg zur Anwendung gesteinsmgnetischer Dten in der Strtigrphie). Gel. Jb., È,10: 3-63, Hnnver. Dchrth \( (1988) - Gesteinsmgnetischer Vergleich permischer Schichtenfc,lgen in Mitteler.rrp. Z, Gel..\X/iss. 16: , Berlin. De Cpitni L. (1982) - Cntribut ll cnscenz dei plutni sudlpini:le msse intrusive dell Vl Bindin (Cm). Rencl. Sc. t. Mìn. Petr , Pis. De Cpitni L. & Libri G. (1988) - Trce element bundnce in the Vl Bindin Plutn (Suthern Alps,kly). Mem. Sci. Gel. 40: , Pdv. De Sitter L.U. & De Sitter-Kmns C.M. (1949) - The gelgy f the bergn-rsc Alps, Lmbrdi, tly. Leid. Gel. Med. 11B:1.-257, Leiden. Dickinsn \ír. (1970) - nterpreting detritl mdes f gr)ryrcke.ìncl àrkse.j/. J?d. 'elrl. +u: by5-lu/. lul\j. Dickinsn \(R. (1985) - nterpreting prvennce reltins frm detritl mdes f sndstnes. n G.G. Zúf (ed.), Prvennce f renites, NATO-AS Series, Reidel, , Drdrecht.

Suffix Tree for a Sliding Window: An Overview

Suffix Tree for a Sliding Window: An Overview WDS'05 Prceedings f Cntributed Ppers, Prt I, 41 46, 2005. ISBN 80-86732-59-2 MATFYZPRESS Suffix Tree fr Sliding Windw: An Overview M. Senft Chrles University, Fculty f Mthemtics nd Physics, Mlstrnské náměstí

More information

1.- L a m e j o r o p c ió n e s c l o na r e l d i s co ( s e e x p li c a r á d es p u é s ).

1.- L a m e j o r o p c ió n e s c l o na r e l d i s co ( s e e x p li c a r á d es p u é s ). PROCEDIMIENTO DE RECUPERACION Y COPIAS DE SEGURIDAD DEL CORTAFUEGOS LINUX P ar a p od e r re c u p e ra r nu e s t r o c o rt a f u e go s an t e un d es a s t r e ( r ot u r a d e l di s c o o d e l a

More information

TESTING THE CORMIX2 AND VISJET MODELS TO PREDICT THE DILUTION OF SAN FRANCISCO OUTFALL

TESTING THE CORMIX2 AND VISJET MODELS TO PREDICT THE DILUTION OF SAN FRANCISCO OUTFALL Diffuse Pllutin Cnference Dublin 3 ECSA 7 ixing/delling: TESTING THE CORIX AND VISJET ODELS TO PREDICT THE DILUTION OF SAN FRANCISCO OUTFALL A.Etemd-Shhidi * nd A.H. Azimi Deprtment f Civil Engineering,

More information

Regulatory Impact Statement

Regulatory Impact Statement Regultry Impct Sttement Extending py-perid ssessments t slries nd wges f ll student ln brrwers Agency Disclsure Sttement Inlnd Revenue hs prepred this Regultry Impct Sttement. The Sttement nlyses the prblem

More information

Model for a three-dimensional optical illusion

Model for a three-dimensional optical illusion Perceptin & Psychphysics 976, Vl. 20 (6), 438-444 Mdel fr three-dimensinl pticl illusin M. E. JERNGAN nd M. EDEN Reserch LbrtryfElectrnics Msschusetts nstituteftechnlgy Cmbridge, Msschusetts 0239 A hmgeneus

More information

Retirement Planning Options Annuities

Retirement Planning Options Annuities Retirement Planning Optins Annuities Everyne wants a glden retirement. But saving fr retirement is n easy task. The baby bmer generatin is graying. Mre and mre peple are appraching retirement age. With

More information

TRAINING GUIDE. Crystal Reports for Work

TRAINING GUIDE. Crystal Reports for Work TRAINING GUIDE Crystal Reprts fr Wrk Crystal Reprts fr Wrk Orders This guide ges ver particular steps and challenges in created reprts fr wrk rders. Mst f the fllwing items can be issues fund in creating

More information

System Business Continuity Classification

System Business Continuity Classification Business Cntinuity Prcedures Business Impact Analysis (BIA) System Recvery Prcedures (SRP) System Business Cntinuity Classificatin Cre Infrastructure Criticality Levels Critical High Medium Lw Required

More information

Summary of online survey on contributions

Summary of online survey on contributions Summary f nline survey n cntributins Frm June 20 th t July 14 th an nline-based cnsultatin was pened fr feedback n key questins cncerning the legal acts fr cntributins f credit institutins t reslutin financing

More information

PLANNING AND HOUSING POLICY ADVISORY PANEL. 30 October 2012

PLANNING AND HOUSING POLICY ADVISORY PANEL. 30 October 2012 PLANNING AND HOUSING POLICY ADVISORY PANEL 30 Octber 2012 Held at Training Rm 1 - Elizabeth Huse, Stratfrd-upn-Avn Meeting cmmenced: 2.00 p.m. Meeting ended: 3.43 p.m. MINUTES Present: Aplgies: Cuncillr

More information

WINDOW REPLACEMENT Survey

WINDOW REPLACEMENT Survey WINDOW REPLACEMENT Prperty wners and develpers undertaking rehabilitatin prjects fr bth Tax Act Certificatin and Sectin 106 Cmpliance are encuraged t repair and retain existing histric windws. Hwever,

More information

4370.4 REV-1. cash flows from operating activities, cash flows from investing activities, and cash flows from financing activities.

4370.4 REV-1. cash flows from operating activities, cash flows from investing activities, and cash flows from financing activities. CHAPTER 5 STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS IN DETAIL 5-1 Cash is the lifebld f any nging cncern. Cash is INTRODUCTION the fuel that keeps the business aflat. As was stated in Chapter 2, the Balance Sheet and the

More information

Graphs on Logarithmic and Semilogarithmic Paper

Graphs on Logarithmic and Semilogarithmic Paper 0CH_PHClter_TMSETE_ 3//00 :3 PM Pge Grphs on Logrithmic nd Semilogrithmic Pper OBJECTIVES When ou hve completed this chpter, ou should be ble to: Mke grphs on logrithmic nd semilogrithmic pper. Grph empiricl

More information

Treatment Spring Late Summer Fall 0.10 5.56 3.85 0.61 6.97 3.01 1.91 3.01 2.13 2.99 5.33 2.50 1.06 3.53 6.10 Mean = 1.33 Mean = 4.88 Mean = 3.

Treatment Spring Late Summer Fall 0.10 5.56 3.85 0.61 6.97 3.01 1.91 3.01 2.13 2.99 5.33 2.50 1.06 3.53 6.10 Mean = 1.33 Mean = 4.88 Mean = 3. The nlysis of vrince (ANOVA) Although the t-test is one of the most commonly used sttisticl hypothesis tests, it hs limittions. The mjor limittion is tht the t-test cn be used to compre the mens of only

More information

Reliability Comparison Study. HP Inkjet Print Cartridges vs. Refilled Brands. Cartridge Reliability Print Quality

Reliability Comparison Study. HP Inkjet Print Cartridges vs. Refilled Brands. Cartridge Reliability Print Quality Reliability Cmparisn Study HP Inkjet Print Cartridges vs. Refilled Brands Cartridge Reliability Print Quality September 2005 Fr distributin in Eurpe, Middle East, and Africa 5401 Tech Circle Mrpark, CA

More information

Atom Insight Business Solution Bundles www.atominsight.com

Atom Insight Business Solution Bundles www.atominsight.com Atm Insight Business Slutin Bundles V1.1 Feb 2011 CONTENTS Figures... 2 Abstract... 3 Capability stages... 4 Capability levels... 6 Imprving capabilities walking befre yu run... 7 Shrt term targeted slutins...

More information

How much life insurance do I need? Wrong question!

How much life insurance do I need? Wrong question! Hw much life insurance d I need? Wrng questin! We are ften asked this questin r sme variatin f it. We believe it is NOT the right questin t ask. What yu REALLY need is mney, cash. S the questin shuld be

More information

The ad hoc reporting feature provides a user the ability to generate reports on many of the data items contained in the categories.

The ad hoc reporting feature provides a user the ability to generate reports on many of the data items contained in the categories. 11 This chapter includes infrmatin regarding custmized reprts that users can create using data entered int the CA prgram, including: Explanatin f Accessing List Screen Creating a New Ad Hc Reprt Running

More information

FINANCE SCRUTINY SUB-COMMITTEE

FINANCE SCRUTINY SUB-COMMITTEE REPORT FOR: PERFORMANCE AND FINANCE SCRUTINY SUB-COMMITTEE Date f Meeting: 6 January 2015 Subject: Staff Survey and Sickness Absence Mnitring Results and Actin plans Respnsible Officer: Scrutiny Lead Member

More information

Succession Planning & Leadership Development: Your Utility s Bridge to the Future

Succession Planning & Leadership Development: Your Utility s Bridge to the Future Successin Planning & Leadership Develpment: Yur Utility s Bridge t the Future Richard L. Gerstberger, P.E. TAP Resurce Develpment Grup, Inc. 4625 West 32 nd Ave Denver, CO 80212 ABSTRACT A few years ag,

More information

Appendix 1A. ASX Listing Application and Agreement. Appendix ra. Contango Income Generator Limited

Appendix 1A. ASX Listing Application and Agreement. Appendix ra. Contango Income Generator Limited ASX Listing pplictin nd greement Appendix 1A Rules r.r Cnd j, t7 ASX Listing Applictin nd Agreement This frm is required by listing rule t.7 t be used by n entity seeking dmissin t the +ffcil list s n

More information

Change Management Process

Change Management Process Change Management Prcess B1.10 Change Management Prcess 1. Intrductin This plicy utlines [Yur Cmpany] s apprach t managing change within the rganisatin. All changes in strategy, activities and prcesses

More information

Guidelines on Data Management in Horizon 2020

Guidelines on Data Management in Horizon 2020 Guidelines n Data Management in Hrizn 2020 Versin 1.0 11 December 2013 Guidelines n Data Management in Hrizn 2020 Versin 16 December 2013 Intrductin In Hrizn 2020 a limited pilt actin n pen access t research

More information

Research Findings from the West Virginia Virtual School Spanish Program

Research Findings from the West Virginia Virtual School Spanish Program Research Findings frm the West Virginia Virtual Schl Spanish Prgram Funded by the U.S. Department f Educatin Cnducted by R0cKMAN ETAL San Francisc, CA, Chicag, IL, and Blmingtn, IN Octber 4, 2006 R0cKMAN

More information

The Velocity Factor of an Insulated Two-Wire Transmission Line

The Velocity Factor of an Insulated Two-Wire Transmission Line The Velocity Fctor of n Insulted Two-Wire Trnsmission Line Problem Kirk T. McDonld Joseph Henry Lbortories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 Mrch 7, 008 Estimte the velocity fctor F = v/c nd the

More information

Venous wall function in the pathogenesis of

Venous wall function in the pathogenesis of -'.' D Venus wll functin in the pthgenesis f vncse vems G. Hether Clrke, PhD, S. N. Vsdekis, MD, J. T. Hbbs, FRCS, nd A. N. Niclides, MS, Lndn, U.K., nd,i\.felburne, Austrli the cuse i uricse ueins, citing

More information

Conduction in the Cylindrical Geometry

Conduction in the Cylindrical Geometry Cnductin in the Cylindrical Gemetry R. Shankar Subramanian Department f Chemical and Bimlecular Engineering Clarksn University Chemical engineers encunter cnductin in the cylindrical gemetry when they

More information

What is the phase sequence of a balanced three-phase circuit for which V an = 160 30 V and V cn = 160 90 V? Find V bn.

What is the phase sequence of a balanced three-phase circuit for which V an = 160 30 V and V cn = 160 90 V? Find V bn. Chter 1, Prblem 1. f b 400 in blnced Y-cnnected three-hse genertr, find the hse vltges, ssuming the hse sequence is: () bc (b) cb Chter 1, Slutin 1. () f b 400, then 400 n bn cn - 0 1-0 1-150 1-70 (b)

More information

NASDAQ BookViewer 2.0 User Guide

NASDAQ BookViewer 2.0 User Guide NASDAQ BkViewer 2.0 User Guide NASDAQ BkViewer 2.0 ffers a real-time view f the rder depth using the NASDAQ Ttalview prduct fr NASDAQ and ther exchange-listed securities including: The tp buy and sell

More information

1.3. The Mean Temperature Difference

1.3. The Mean Temperature Difference 1.3. The Mean Temperature Difference 1.3.1. The Lgarithmic Mean Temperature Difference 1. Basic Assumptins. In the previus sectin, we bserved that the design equatin culd be slved much easier if we culd

More information

Business Examples. What is a hypothesis? Recap : Hypothesis Testing. Recap : Confidence Intervals. Hypothesis Testing (intro)

Business Examples. What is a hypothesis? Recap : Hypothesis Testing. Recap : Confidence Intervals. Hypothesis Testing (intro) ypthesis Testing (intr) We hve discussed tw methds f mking inference n prmeters in ppultin bsed n rndm smple (in English, hw d we figure ut the true men r prprtin) Pint estimtes give us single guess Stt

More information

LEED Rating System Development

LEED Rating System Development LEED Rating System Develpment Why are the LEED rating systems being updated? The hallmark f LEED and its ability t affect market transfrmatin is its cntinuus imprvement cycle that enables the rating system

More information

THE DISTRIBUTION OF LEAD BETWEEN COEXISTING K-FELDSPAR AND PLAGIOCLASEl

THE DISTRIBUTION OF LEAD BETWEEN COEXISTING K-FELDSPAR AND PLAGIOCLASEl CAN MINRALOGIST, VOL. 52, MAY JUN, 1967 TH DISTRIBUTION OF LAD BTWN COXISTING K-FLDSPAR AND PLAGIOCLASl Bnuc R. D, U. S. Gelgicl Surey, Dener, Clrd Nr ReBnr I. Trr.r.rNc, U. S. Gelg.icl, Surey, Wshingtn,

More information

Archive of SID. Analysis of Unbalance Due to Asymmetrical Loads. www.sid.ir. Michal Pokorny

Archive of SID. Analysis of Unbalance Due to Asymmetrical Loads. www.sid.ir. Michal Pokorny 50 RNN JOURNL OF ELECTRCL ND COMPUTER ENGNEERNG, VOL. 4, NO., WNTER-SPRNG 005 nlysis f Unblnce Due t symmetricl Lds Michl Pkrny bstrct The pper nlyses current unblnce cused by lds cnnected either t line

More information

Maryland General Service (MGS) Area 29 Treatment Facilities Committee (TFC) TFC Instructions

Maryland General Service (MGS) Area 29 Treatment Facilities Committee (TFC) TFC Instructions Maryland General Service (MGS) Area 29 Treatment Facilities Cmmittee (TFC) TFC Instructins Lve And Service Facility Presentatin t Patients We are frm Alchlics Annymus (AA), fr AA, and ur service is fr

More information

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS LIBRARY AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN BOOKSTACKS

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS LIBRARY AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN BOOKSTACKS UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS LIBRARY AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN BOOKSTACKS Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2011 with funding frm University f Illinis Urbn-Chmpign http://www.rchive.rg/detils/institutinltr91167chn

More information

Firewall/Proxy Server Settings to Access Hosted Environment. For Access Control Method (also known as access lists and usually used on routers)

Firewall/Proxy Server Settings to Access Hosted Environment. For Access Control Method (also known as access lists and usually used on routers) Firewall/Prxy Server Settings t Access Hsted Envirnment Client firewall settings in mst cases depend n whether the firewall slutin uses a Stateful Inspectin prcess r ne that is cmmnly referred t as an

More information

1 GETTING STARTED. 5/7/2008 Chapter 1

1 GETTING STARTED. 5/7/2008 Chapter 1 5/7/2008 Chapter 1 1 GETTING STARTED This chapter intrduces yu t the web-based UIR menu system. Infrmatin is prvided abut the set up necessary t assign users permissin t enter and transmit data. This first

More information

Access EEC s Web Applications... 2 View Messages from EEC... 3 Sign In as a Returning User... 3

Access EEC s Web Applications... 2 View Messages from EEC... 3 Sign In as a Returning User... 3 EEC Single Sign In (SSI) Applicatin The EEC Single Sign In (SSI) Single Sign In (SSI) is the secure, nline applicatin that cntrls access t all f the Department f Early Educatin and Care (EEC) web applicatins.

More information

Twentieth Meeting of the Cross Polar Trans East Air Traffic Management Providers Work Group (CPWG/20) (Anchorage, Alaska 26-29 October 2015)

Twentieth Meeting of the Cross Polar Trans East Air Traffic Management Providers Work Group (CPWG/20) (Anchorage, Alaska 26-29 October 2015) CPWG/20- IP/03 27/10/2015 Twentieth Meeting f the Crss Plar Trans East Air Traffic Management Prviders Wrk Grup (CPWG/20) Agenda Item 5: Prvide Status f CPWG/19 Actins (Anchrage, Alaska 26-29 Octber 2015)

More information

PORT HEDLAND PORT AUTHORITY. Confined Space Entry Procedure PR-OHS022

PORT HEDLAND PORT AUTHORITY. Confined Space Entry Procedure PR-OHS022 PORT HEDLAND PORT AUTHORITY Cnfined Space Entry Prcedure PR-OHS022 Dcument Users : All Cntractrs All Prt Users Prt Hedland Prt Authrity Psitin Respnsible Fr Keeping Dcument Current : Safety and Security

More information

Using PayPal Website Payments Pro UK with ProductCart

Using PayPal Website Payments Pro UK with ProductCart Using PayPal Website Payments Pr UK with PrductCart Overview... 2 Abut PayPal Website Payments Pr & Express Checkut... 2 What is Website Payments Pr?... 2 Website Payments Pr and Website Payments Standard...

More information

manual Page 1 / 5 effects in an easy good LED strips can be Selection guide applications. 1) Selection (indoors, outdoors) desired number of LEDs

manual Page 1 / 5 effects in an easy good LED strips can be Selection guide applications. 1) Selection (indoors, outdoors) desired number of LEDs Technical instructin Intrductin LED strips are a new generatin f innvative lighting prducts that allw creating spectacular effects in an easy way. LED strips have ther advantages like small dimensins,

More information

990 e-postcard FAQ. Is there a charge to file form 990-N (e-postcard)? No, the e-postcard system is completely free.

990 e-postcard FAQ. Is there a charge to file form 990-N (e-postcard)? No, the e-postcard system is completely free. 990 e-pstcard FAQ Fr frequently asked questins abut filing the e-pstcard that are nt listed belw, brwse the FAQ at http://epstcard.frm990.rg/frmtsfaq.asp# (cpy and paste this link t yur brwser). General

More information

FIRST STEPS NUTRITION TRUST

FIRST STEPS NUTRITION TRUST FIRST STEPS NUTRITION TRUST Safety advice fr infant milk preparatin: Vacuum flasks, cmbined frmula mixer and bttle insulatr and milk preparatin machines. March 2015 This statement ffers advice t prfessinals

More information

learndirect Test Information Guide The National Test in Adult Numeracy

learndirect Test Information Guide The National Test in Adult Numeracy learndirect Test Infrmatin Guide The Natinal Test in Adult Numeracy 1 Cntents The Natinal Test in Adult Numeracy: Backgrund Infrmatin... 3 What is the Natinal Test in Adult Numeracy?... 3 Why take the

More information

THE FACULTY OF LAW AND SOCIAL SCIENCES. Department of Economics and Department of Development Studies

THE FACULTY OF LAW AND SOCIAL SCIENCES. Department of Economics and Department of Development Studies Appendix G REC 25 May 2011 THE FACULTY OF LAW AND SOCIAL SCIENCES Department f Ecnmics and Department f Develpment Studies PROGRAMME SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE DEGREES OF MPHIL AND PHD IN INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

More information

Document Management Versioning Strategy

Document Management Versioning Strategy 1.0 Backgrund and Overview Dcument Management Versining Strategy Versining is an imprtant cmpnent f cntent creatin and management. Versin management is a key cmpnent f enterprise cntent management. The

More information

Volatility and Revenue Forecast Errors

Volatility and Revenue Forecast Errors Vlatility and Revenue Frecast Errrs Vlatility and Revenue Frecast Errrs Last mnth, the Pew Center n the States tgether with the Rckefeller lnstitute f Gvernment issued a reprt n trends in revenue frecasting,

More information

DlNBVRGH + Sickness Absence Monitoring Report. Executive of the Council. Purpose of report

DlNBVRGH + Sickness Absence Monitoring Report. Executive of the Council. Purpose of report DlNBVRGH + + THE CITY OF EDINBURGH COUNCIL Sickness Absence Monitoring Report Executive of the Council 8fh My 4 I.I...3 Purpose of report This report quntifies the mount of working time lost s result of

More information

Licensing Windows Server 2012 for use with virtualization technologies

Licensing Windows Server 2012 for use with virtualization technologies Vlume Licensing brief Licensing Windws Server 2012 fr use with virtualizatin technlgies (VMware ESX/ESXi, Micrsft System Center 2012 Virtual Machine Manager, and Parallels Virtuzz) Table f Cntents This

More information

Fixed vs. Variable Interest Rates

Fixed vs. Variable Interest Rates Fixed vs. Variable Interest Rates Understanding the Advantages and Disadvantages f Each Rate Type When shpping fr financial prducts, there are a lt f factrs t cnsider. Much has changed in the financial

More information

Helicopter Theme and Variations

Helicopter Theme and Variations Helicopter Theme nd Vritions Or, Some Experimentl Designs Employing Pper Helicopters Some possible explntory vribles re: Who drops the helicopter The length of the rotor bldes The height from which the

More information

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA MERCED PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA MERCED PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA MERCED PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES REFERENCES AND RELATED POLICIES A. UC PPSM 2 -Definitin f Terms B. UC PPSM 12 -Nndiscriminatin in Emplyment C. UC PPSM 14 -Affirmative

More information

UNIT PLAN. Methods. Soccer Unit Plan 20 days, 40 minutes in length. For 7-12 graders. Name

UNIT PLAN. Methods. Soccer Unit Plan 20 days, 40 minutes in length. For 7-12 graders. Name UNIT PLAN Methds Sccer Unit Plan 20 days, 40 minutes in length Fr 7-12 graders Name TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Title Page II. Table f Cntents III. Blck Time Frame IV. Unit Objectives V. Task Analysis VI. Evaluative

More information

FINRA Regulation Filing Application Batch Submissions

FINRA Regulation Filing Application Batch Submissions FINRA Regulatin Filing Applicatin Batch Submissins Cntents Descriptin... 2 Steps fr firms new t batch submissin... 2 Acquiring necessary FINRA accunts... 2 FTP Access t FINRA... 2 FTP Accunt n FINRA s

More information

David Drivers Revit One-sheets: Linked Project Positioning and shared coordinates

David Drivers Revit One-sheets: Linked Project Positioning and shared coordinates This paper discusses the fllwing features f Revit Building Shared Crdinates Named lcatins Publish and acquire Vs Saving lcatins Shared Crdinates and wrkset enabled files Revisin 1 (Versin 9.0) David Driver.

More information

Licensing Windows Server 2012 R2 for use with virtualization technologies

Licensing Windows Server 2012 R2 for use with virtualization technologies Vlume Licensing brief Licensing Windws Server 2012 R2 fr use with virtualizatin technlgies (VMware ESX/ESXi, Micrsft System Center 2012 R2 Virtual Machine Manager, and Parallels Virtuzz) Table f Cntents

More information

Special Tax Notice Regarding 403(b) (TSA) Distributions

Special Tax Notice Regarding 403(b) (TSA) Distributions Special Tax Ntice Regarding 403(b) (TSA) Distributins P.O. Bx 7893 Madisn, WI 53707-7893 1-800-279-4030 Fax: (608) 237-2529 The IRS requires us t prvide yu with a cpy f the Explanatin f Direct Rllver,

More information

Point2 Property Manager Quick Setup Guide

Point2 Property Manager Quick Setup Guide Click the Setup Tab Mst f what yu need t get started using Pint 2 Prperty Manager has already been taken care f fr yu. T begin setting up yur data in Pint2 Prperty Manager, make sure yu have cmpleted the

More information

Tipsheet: Sending Out Mass Emails in ApplyYourself

Tipsheet: Sending Out Mass Emails in ApplyYourself GEORGETOWN GRADUATE SCHOOL Tipsheet: Sending Out Mass Emails in ApplyYurself In ApplyYurself (AY), it is very simple and easy t send a mass email t all f yur prspects, applicants, r students with applicatins

More information

Welcome to Microsoft Access Basics Tutorial

Welcome to Microsoft Access Basics Tutorial Welcme t Micrsft Access Basics Tutrial After studying this tutrial yu will learn what Micrsft Access is and why yu might use it, sme imprtant Access terminlgy, and hw t create and manage tables within

More information

NAVIPLAN PREMIUM LEARNING GUIDE. Analyze, compare, and present insurance scenarios

NAVIPLAN PREMIUM LEARNING GUIDE. Analyze, compare, and present insurance scenarios NAVIPLAN PREMIUM LEARNING GUIDE Analyze, cmpare, and present insurance scenaris Cntents Analyze, cmpare, and present insurance scenaris 1 Learning bjectives 1 NaviPlan planning stages 1 Client case 2 Analyze

More information

nnt Psrsn R. BusEcr Abstract

nnt Psrsn R. BusEcr Abstract Americn Minerlgist, Vlume 63, pges l-16, 1978 Superstructuring the brnite-digenite series: high-reslutin electrn micrscpy study LenRy Plencs Deprlmenl f Chemistry, Ariznq Stte Uniuersity Tempe, Arizn 85281

More information

PIROUETT! June 2015 GENERALITIES

PIROUETT! June 2015 GENERALITIES GENERALITIES 1.5.4. Penalty by the Difficulty (D) Judge: 0.50 pint if music with vice and wrds is used but the cach des nt specify n D frm which exercise uses music with vice and wrds Official Frm: Use

More information

1 Last updated: 12/11/12

1 Last updated: 12/11/12 Overview: Online Curse Delivery Factrs In a face-t-face curse, all instructin takes place in the classrm. The learning management system (LMS, e.g., Mdle/LATTE) may be used t huse supplemental curse materials

More information

Fnnu M. Ar,r-tu* PrrBn R. Busncr. Ansrru.cr

Fnnu M. Ar,r-tu* PrrBn R. Busncr. Ansrru.cr Americn Minerlgist, Vlume 73, pges 568-584, 1988 XRD, FTIR, nd TEM studies f pticlly nistrpic grssulr grnets Fnnu M. Ar,r-tu* Deprtment f Gelgy, Arin Stte University, Tempe, Arin 85287, U.S.A. PrrBn R.

More information

System Business Continuity Classification

System Business Continuity Classification System Business Cntinuity Classificatin Business Cntinuity Prcedures Infrmatin System Cntingency Plan (ISCP) Business Impact Analysis (BIA) System Recvery Prcedures (SRP) Cre Infrastructure Criticality

More information

TaskCentre v4.5 Send Message (SMTP) Tool White Paper

TaskCentre v4.5 Send Message (SMTP) Tool White Paper TaskCentre v4.5 Send Message (SMTP) Tl White Paper Dcument Number: PD500-03-17-1_0-WP Orbis Sftware Limited 2010 Table f Cntents COPYRIGHT 1 TRADEMARKS 1 INTRODUCTION 2 Overview 2 FEATURES 2 GLOBAL CONFIGURATION

More information

THE UNEARNED NO CLAIM BONUS. C. P. WELTEN Amsterdam

THE UNEARNED NO CLAIM BONUS. C. P. WELTEN Amsterdam THE UNEARNED NO CLAIM BONUS C. P. WELTEN Amsterdam I. The claims experience f a mtrcar insurance is assumed t give sme indicatin abut the risk (basic claim frequency) f that insurance. The experience rating

More information

Hearing Loss Regulations Vendor information pack

Hearing Loss Regulations Vendor information pack Hearing Lss Regulatins Vendr infrmatin pack Nvember 2010 Implementing the Accident Cmpensatin (Apprtining Entitlements fr Hearing Lss) Regulatins 2010 The Minister fr ACC, the Hn. Dr Nick Smith, has annunced

More information

Disk Redundancy (RAID)

Disk Redundancy (RAID) A Primer fr Business Dvana s Primers fr Business series are a set f shrt papers r guides intended fr business decisin makers, wh feel they are being bmbarded with terms and want t understand a cmplex tpic.

More information

1)What hardware is available for installing/configuring MOSS 2010?

1)What hardware is available for installing/configuring MOSS 2010? 1)What hardware is available fr installing/cnfiguring MOSS 2010? 2 Web Frnt End Servers HP Prliant DL 380 G7 2 quad cre Intel Xen Prcessr E5620, 2.4 Ghz, Memry 12 GB, 2 HP 146 GB drives RAID 5 2 Applicatin

More information

Australian Institute of Psychology. Human Research Ethics Committee. Terms of Reference

Australian Institute of Psychology. Human Research Ethics Committee. Terms of Reference Australian Institute f Psychlgy Human Research Ethics Cmmittee Terms f Reference What is research? Accrding t the Natinal Statement research... is widely understd t include at least investigatin undertaken

More information

WHITEPAPER SERIES. info@metavistech.com 610.717.0413 www.metavistech.com

WHITEPAPER SERIES. info@metavistech.com 610.717.0413 www.metavistech.com WHITEPAPER SERIES Shredded Strage in SharePint 2013 What des Shredded Strage mean, hw much des it actually save and hw t take advantage f it in SharePint 2013. What is Shredded Strage? Shredded Strage

More information

Consolidated Edison of New York: Residential Direct Install Program: Process Evaluation Summary

Consolidated Edison of New York: Residential Direct Install Program: Process Evaluation Summary Cnslidated Edisn f New Yrk: Residential Direct Install Prgram: Prcess Evaluatin Summary Evaluatin Cnducted by: DNV KEMA as subcntractr t Navigant Cnsulting PROGRAM SUMMARY March 13, 2013 Cn Edisn designed

More information

CSAT Account Management

CSAT Account Management CSAT Accunt Management User Guide March 2011 Versin 2.1 U.S. Department f Hmeland Security 1 CSAT Accunt Management User Guide Table f Cntents 1. Overview... 1 1.1 CSAT User Rles... 1 1.2 When t Update

More information

A. Name. B. School district and building(s) List all that apply. C. Current assignment. D. Teaching license/certificate number

A. Name. B. School district and building(s) List all that apply. C. Current assignment. D. Teaching license/certificate number Educatr Standards Bard T. MASTER TEACHER RENEWAL APPLICATION SECTION I: Candidate Infrmatin A. Name B. Schl district and building(s) List all that apply C. Current assignment D. Teaching license/certificate

More information

Wireless Light-Level Monitoring

Wireless Light-Level Monitoring Wireless Light-Level Mnitring ILT1000 ILT1000 Applicatin Nte Wireless Light-Level Mnitring 1 Wireless Light-Level Mnitring ILT1000 The affrdability, accessibility, and ease f use f wireless technlgy cmbined

More information

HOW TO SELECT A LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY

HOW TO SELECT A LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY HOW TO SELECT A LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY There will prbably be hundreds f life insurance cmpanies t chse frm when yu decide t purchase a life insurance plicy. Hw d yu decide which ne? Mst cmpanies are quite

More information

Data Warehouse Scope Recommendations

Data Warehouse Scope Recommendations Rensselaer Data Warehuse Prject http://www.rpi.edu/datawarehuse Financial Analysis Scpe and Data Audits This dcument describes the scpe f the Financial Analysis data mart scheduled fr delivery in July

More information

Business Plan 2014-15

Business Plan 2014-15 Cmmissin fr Lcal Administratin in England Business Plan 2014-15 All Business Plan activity is linked t ur fur Strategic Objectives LGO Business Plan 2014-2015 v web 3 Page 1 descriptin 1. Prvide a cmplaints

More information

Improved Data Center Power Consumption and Streamlining Management in Windows Server 2008 R2 with SP1

Improved Data Center Power Consumption and Streamlining Management in Windows Server 2008 R2 with SP1 Imprved Data Center Pwer Cnsumptin and Streamlining Management in Windws Server 2008 R2 with SP1 Disclaimer The infrmatin cntained in this dcument represents the current view f Micrsft Crpratin n the issues

More information

Licensing the Core Client Access License (CAL) Suite and Enterprise CAL Suite

Licensing the Core Client Access License (CAL) Suite and Enterprise CAL Suite Vlume Licensing brief Licensing the Cre Client Access License (CAL) Suite and Enterprise CAL Suite Table f Cntents This brief applies t all Micrsft Vlume Licensing prgrams. Summary... 1 What s New in This

More information

ATL: Atlas Transformation Language. ATL Installation Guide

ATL: Atlas Transformation Language. ATL Installation Guide ATL: Atlas Transfrmatin Language ATL Installatin Guide - versin 0.1 - Nvember 2005 by ATLAS grup LINA & INRIA Nantes Cntent 1 Intrductin... 3 2 Installing ADT frm binaries... 3 2.1 Installing Eclipse and

More information

I\4anila ALL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANIES AND MUTUAL BENEFIT ASSOCIATIONS DOING BUSINESS IN THE PHILIPPINES

I\4anila ALL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANIES AND MUTUAL BENEFIT ASSOCIATIONS DOING BUSINESS IN THE PHILIPPINES Republic f the Philippines Department f Finance INSURANCE COMMISSION l07l United Natins Avenue I\4anila Circular N. 201442-A Date Octber 30,2014 CIRCULAR LETTER TO ALL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANIES AND MUTUAL

More information

Guidance for Financial Analysts to model the impact of aircraft noise on Flughafen Zürich AG s financial statements

Guidance for Financial Analysts to model the impact of aircraft noise on Flughafen Zürich AG s financial statements Guidance fr Financial Analysts t mdel the impact f aircraft nise n Flughafen Zürich AG s financial statements Zurich Airprt, March 17, 2015 Intrductin The bjective f this dcument is t explain the impact

More information

Space Exploration Classroom Activity

Space Exploration Classroom Activity Space Explratin Classrm Activity The Classrm Activity intrduces students t the cntext f a perfrmance task, s they are nt disadvantaged in demnstrating the skills the task intends t assess. Cntextual elements

More information

CDC UNIFIED PROCESS PRACTICES GUIDE

CDC UNIFIED PROCESS PRACTICES GUIDE Dcument Purpse The purpse f this dcument is t prvide guidance n the practice f Risk Management and t describe the practice verview, requirements, best practices, activities, and key terms related t these

More information

Master of Science Program Requirements in Earth Sciences

Master of Science Program Requirements in Earth Sciences Master f Science Prgram Requirements in Earth Sciences 1. Read the Graduate Schl Rules fr a Master f Science Degree! We have a cuple f mre restrictive requirements, but the graduate schl requirements are

More information

Distribution of Globular Clusters and Young Star Groups on the Sky. x x x

Distribution of Globular Clusters and Young Star Groups on the Sky. x x x PENN STATE ASTRONOMY LABORATORY è 11 THE STRUCTURE OF THE MILKY WAY GALAXY I. Objective In this lab, yu will learn that we live in the Milky Way Galay. Our slar system and all the stars yu can see with

More information

CERTIFICATION CRITERIA

CERTIFICATION CRITERIA 2014 Editin Test Prcedure fr 170.314(a)(1) Cmputerized prvider rder entry Apprved Test Prcedure Versin 1.3, December 19, 2014 Test Prcedure fr 170.314(a)(1) Cmputerized prvider rder entry This dcument

More information

Earth s Composition and Structure: A Journey to the Center of the Earth

Earth s Composition and Structure: A Journey to the Center of the Earth Earth s Cmpsitin and Structure: A Jurney t the Center f the Earth Earth s Surface Our experience with Earth is limited t its surface. Yet Earth has a cmplicated interir. Earth is characterized by An internally

More information

Information paper Reference Data Management Service

Information paper Reference Data Management Service This infrmatin paper describes the EU Reference Data Management Service. This Service prvides a central database, web service web applicatin fr maintaining RIS reference data, which is used by varius RIS-systems

More information

Data Protection Act Data security breach management

Data Protection Act Data security breach management Data Prtectin Act Data security breach management The seventh data prtectin principle requires that rganisatins prcessing persnal data take apprpriate measures against unauthrised r unlawful prcessing

More information

Whenever practicable, the cap should be discussed and specifically agreed with the other party. This is discussed further below, see Agreeing a cap.

Whenever practicable, the cap should be discussed and specifically agreed with the other party. This is discussed further below, see Agreeing a cap. Liability Briefing updated Octber 2008 Managing liability thrugh financial caps 26 Stre Street Lndn WC1E 7BT Tel: 020 7399 7400 Fax: 020 399 7425 Every well-run business must manage the risks that it faces

More information

Cornwall Partners in Care

Cornwall Partners in Care Crnwall Partners in Care Mving Frward Versin 2.0 8 th January 2014 By Richard Mnk Crnwall Partners in Care August 2013 Page 1 f 6 CPIC mving frward This dcument has been created t help prvide a little

More information

Getting Started Guide

Getting Started Guide AnswerDash Resurces http://answerdash.cm Cntextual help fr sales and supprt Getting Started Guide AnswerDash is cmmitted t helping yu achieve yur larger business gals. The utlined pre-launch cnsideratins

More information

Experiment 1: Freezing Point Depression

Experiment 1: Freezing Point Depression Experiment 1: Freezing Pint Depressin Purpse: The purpse f this lab is t experimentally determine the freezing pint f tw slutins and cmpare the effect f slute type and cncentratin fr each slutin. Intrductin:

More information

Plotting and Graphing

Plotting and Graphing Plotting nd Grphing Much of the dt nd informtion used by engineers is presented in the form of grphs. The vlues to be plotted cn come from theoreticl or empiricl (observed) reltionships, or from mesured

More information