Whv So Slow? The Advancement of Women By Virginia Valian, Ph.D. Chapter 14: Remedies Sumnrary generated by Jaime Blandino

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Whv So Slow? The Advancement of Women By Virginia Valian, Ph.D. Chapter 14: Remedies Sumnrary generated by Jaime Blandino"

Transcription

1 Whv So Slow? The Advancement of Women By Virginia Valian, Ph.D. Chapter 14: Remedies Sumnrary generated by Jaime Blandino Note: The concepts, research studieg and theories cited in the following outline represent a summary of Virginia's Valian's boo( (1998), Whv So Slow?. The Advancement of Women. The MIT Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts. The content of this outline is not intended to be portrayed as an original work. It is hoped that the summary will cqture the spirit and intention of the author, and to convey to the reader the importance of Valian's ideas as they are presented in her book. Introduction Virginia Valian's booh Why So Slow? The Advancement of Womeq is a scholarly and convincing explarntion of women's slow progress in the profesional world. Whether in business, law, medicine, or academia, women are not advancing at the same rate as men. They are not paid as well, they occupy less-powerful positions, and they are not as respected. In her boolg Valian attempts to explain why. She argues that we all have unarticulated, often subconscious ideas about gender that affect both our behavior and, perhaps even more importantly, our evaluations of one another. For instance, we think men are logical, women are social; men are competenf women are flaky. As a resul! men are consistently overrated and women underrated by coworkers, bosses--and themselves. The resulting advantages and disadvantages may be small, but they accrue over time to creatie large gaps in advancement. Valian's chapter on "Remedied' offen specific ways to nulli$r the negative professional consequences of gender schemas. She contends that the most common professional outcome of gender schemas is the underevaluation of women's performance. But before we can change this structure formally, we must take a look at both others' and our own behavior and become aware of the strong, but not always obvious, presence of gender schemas. I. ChallengingHypotheses To evaluate other people more accurately, we need to challenge our embedded assumptions about men ard women. Vatan suggests we do this in two ways: l. We can become aware of our biases by forming explicit explanations of the reasons why individuals succeed or fail. Why did X not get tenure? Why did the people at the meeting not discuss Y's suggestion? We can test whether we have the same answers for a woman ard a man. 2. We can conductthought experiments in which we switch the sexes. For example, corsiderhow we would evaluab someone who did not fulfill a reryonsibility in a timely marner - first thinking about a woman and then about a man. We might discover that we assume that the woman who did not complete the job on time was incompetent but that the man needed an assistanto cope with a job that was too big for one person. With both of these exanpleg the goal is to change our implicit hypotheses by becoming explicitly aware of them, to catch ourselves in the act of operating with thenl and then to

2 explicitly entertain evaluations that run counter to our hlpotheses. But because gender schemas are such fundamental wala of perceiving and understanding the socialworld, they resist change. II. Devoting More Time & Attention to Evaluations Valian cites studies in which it has been demonstated that our gender schemas and stereotypes are often automatic. In one experiment participants were shown fwo words in rapid succession; tlre first word named a frait, lke gentle, and the second was a name, l:*.e Albert or Alice. The task was to identifi the name as a female or male name. Participants recognized Alice as a female name faster when it was precededby gentle than when the fust word was confdent. The effects can, however, be altered, if participants are given more time and are told that words like gentle will often be paired with male names. Thus, participants can modify their reqponses if they have time to think and know that their usual expechtions will not apply. Wittr time and effo4 evaluators too can modify their expectations and judgments of people. III. Accountatrilitv If evaluators know that their judgments will be reviewed by an unbiased, higher authority, they are more likely to form accurate ones. Accountability is apt to encourage people to challenge their hypotheses about gender differences. fv. Increasing the Number of Women in a Candidate Pool The data suggest that women will be more fairly evaluated if they represent at least 25 percent of the group. That percantage of women not only reduces the availability of the female gender sclrcnra, but it also alters the perception of the job itsef. A job held by both males and females in reasonable numbers appears to be a human job rather than a male or female job. Seeing a variety of women in leadershipositions encourages people to see leadership not as a masculine tait but as a human fait. V. Learning to Reason Social schemas exacerbate reasoning effors. Valian lists three important reasoning errors that contribute to evaluators' mistakes in judgment. 1. Failure to appreciate covariatiorr. This enor is demonstrated in a study showing that women arc more likely than men to correcdy arlyze statistical information den'ronsfafing hiring bias against women (Sclraller, 1992).In this study, the effects of group categorization on statistical inference processing and the consequent effects of group stereotyping were examined and res.rlts indicated significant effecb of group categonzatron on subjects' judgements about gender and leadership ability and on their shategies of data integration and logical inference. The results support the hypothesis that group memben selectivety engage in statistical inference strategies as a means of j,rsti&urg in- group favoritism. 2. Blocking. A study showed that both males and females are unlikely to perceive causes that might genuinely contibute to a person's performance if a prior hypothesis * such as a gender schema - independently predicts that performance (Sanbonmatsu, Akimoto, & Gibson, 1994). 3. Illusory Correlation The third type of reasoning enor that helps create ard maintain negative evaluations of others is seeing a relation that does not exist between two distinctive and relatively in-frequent conditiorn. For example, women are linked with

3 mcompeterrce because both are seen relativety infrequently in the professions, and because infrequent, distinctive events are seen as causally related to each other (Hamilton & Gifford, 1976). W. Awareness Training A major component ofmany progiuns aimed at increasing diversity in the workplace is awareness taining, in which people are encouraged to explore together their nonconscious beliefs about gender, etlnic, and other differences. In the case of gender, Valian argues that awareness taining may be counterproductive. She argues that males' and females' gerder schernas are unconscious and that they are usually not even very aware of what those gender schemas are. Instead, what people need are welldocumented information about sex differences and evaluations of others, informafion based not on single exanples but on systematic observation and experimentation. Both males and females need to understand that they are likely to have such biases, and that they must work out procedures to protect themselves and others from bad judgments based on them. Insfitutional YIIi Po[fts & the Role of Committed Leaders Institutions can play a critical role in social equaliry. They can either hurt or help the advancernent of women. First effecdve training programs will he! evaluatcrs identify inaccuate judgments and ttre role that gender schemas play in those judgments. Most importantly, evaluators who understand that even small imbalances in treatrnent canadd up to large imbalances in outcome can then establish procedures to eliminate those imbalances. Second, in order for organizations to institute effective taining programs, they must have lea&n who are committed to increasing faimess. They can establish and publicize policies designed to increase faimess and they can legitimize and support the leadership of both men andwomen. Research on personal persuasiveness suggests several reasons that leaders are influential (Fiske & Taylor, l99l). The most important qualities in an effective leader/persuaderare credibility, ne utrality, ard knowledgeability. Once evaluators understand the effect that gender schemas have on performance evaluations, they can more readily appreciate the importance of developing and sticking to objective criteria for judging petformance. Leaders should work towards the development of explicit, valid criteria. One of the main problems is often that women don't know what the criteria are for advancement and so their evaluations tend to be poorer. \IIII. Equalizing the Accumulation of Advantage Each woman can leam about the steps she can take to modulate the effects of gender schemas. She can increase her chances ofbeing seen as competent and thereby increase her chances of being effective. Valian suggests a nwnber of stategies women can use to evade the negative consequences of gender schemas and accumulate advantage.

4 l. Be ll4rere Women Are Well-Represented. Women should hy to work in fields and organtzatrons where women are well represented If a woman is one of many, she is less Iikety to be perceived in terms of her sex and herjob is less likely to be perceived as a man's job. 2. Be Impersonal, Friendly, and Respectful. An impenonal but friendly speaking style that conveys respect for others' opinions can help a professional ofeither sex be perceived as a leader. An impersonal approach is particularly effective for wome4 because it makes them seem less feminine, ard femininity is inconpatible with cunpebnce and lea&rship. A woman who tempers her asserfiveness with a friendly, respectful manner can countenact some of the negative reactions and thereby maintain her leadership. 3. Build Power. Men are more likely than women to leam about power building methods from mentors and colleagues, but women must seek out such information. Power building actions should be pioneering or out of the ordinary, visible to others in the group, and relevant to current otganuational problems. For example, the less routinized the job, the more power potential it has. Moreover, a job with few or no predecessors has greater potential, because a new occupant has leeu,ay in defining the dinrersions of the job. 4. Seek Inforntation. Building power requires access to information about promotion possibilities, job openings, and other opportunities for advancement. Individual women must recti$ their informational powrf by seeking menforship. Specific, tangible infomration about performance criteria is essenfial for succes. If you don't know the criteria for getting where you want to be, how can you expect to get there? Women must seek the information out. 5. Beconte an Expert. People who are knowledgeable in some area make it easier for others to respecthenl especially if they convey the knowledge in a friendly way. Research shows that people will accept leaders whose power comes through expert knowledge (e.g., Dovidio, Ellyson, Hehnan, & Brown, 1988). 6. Get Endorsed by Legttimate Authority. A woman can increase her chances of advancement within an organizalion by obtaining the endorsement of a legitimate authority. The authority need not be an actual person. In academia, for example, endorsement can be gained by publishing a paper in a prestigious joumal or by recdving extemal funding for research Similar indirect forms of erdorsenpnt come from playing an active role in a profesiornl conference or serving on a govemment study cornmission. Negotiate, Bargain, Seek Advancement. It's hard to get what you want if you don't ask for it. Role-playing with a knowledgeable friend or mentor wi[ be good practice for the real thing. 8. Overconte lnternal Barriers to Efectiveness. Both women's beliefs about their abilities and women's attributional style can have negative colrequences. - First, if women underrate their abilities they may fail to afierd to the information that those abilities are necessary for success. Rather than trying harder, they may avoid acquiring a good understanding of the criteria for success.

5 - Second, women may underestimate how much time and effort are required to do well and may see ability and effort as inversely related If women routinely athrbute their successes to factors other than ability and effort (e.g., to luck), they may see the need for great effort as evidence of lack of ability. Therefore, women may put in less effort. However, genuine accomplishment demands time and perseverance - no mafier how capable one is. - Third, doubts about one's ability and doubts about how one's work will be received tend to disfact attention from the job at hand. Women may need to work longer hours not because they are less capable, but because their preoccupations can make them work less efficiartly. - Fourth, women may fail to see that each bit of advantage is useful ard is worth spending time to acquire. - Fifth, women should modify their perceptions about the causes of their successes and failures. Luck andother uncontrollable causes no doubt play a role in success, but those causes sliould not eclipse the importance of women's own abilities and efforts. When women fail, on the other hand, they need to analyze both their own possible confibutions and the role of extemal factors, such as the failure of evaluators to judge them properly.

Reviewing Applicants. Research on Bias and Assumptions

Reviewing Applicants. Research on Bias and Assumptions Reviewing Applicants Research on Bias and Assumptions Weall like to think that we are objective scholars who judge people solely on their credentials and achievements, but copious research shows that every

More information

The Science Glass Ceiling: Academic Women Scientists and the Struggle to Succeed. Addressing the Achievement Gaps: ETS May 4-5, 2005

The Science Glass Ceiling: Academic Women Scientists and the Struggle to Succeed. Addressing the Achievement Gaps: ETS May 4-5, 2005 The Science Glass Ceiling: Academic Women Scientists and the Struggle to Succeed Addressing the Achievement Gaps: ETS May 4-5, 2005 A Research Scientist at a Prestigious Research I Institution: I apologize

More information

Increasing Diversity in your Department

Increasing Diversity in your Department Increasing Diversity in your Department Speakers Best Hiring Practices: Addressing Unconscious Bias Caroline Simpson, Florida International University Tools for Recruiting a Diverse Applicant Pool Andrew

More information

Room at the Top: Advancement and Equity for Women in the Business World

Room at the Top: Advancement and Equity for Women in the Business World Room at the Top: Advancement and Equity for Women in the Business World Donna Evans According to The Double-Bind Dilemma for Women in Leadership: Damned if You Do, Doomed if You Don't, a study released

More information

lean in DISCUSSION GUIDE FOR ALL AUDIENCES

lean in DISCUSSION GUIDE FOR ALL AUDIENCES lean in DISCUSSION GUIDE FOR ALL AUDIENCES Introduction We are grateful for what we have. What did past generations have to deal with that we don t have to deal with? What are you most grateful for? Men

More information

ADVANCing Women in STEM at Florida International University. Caroline Simpson Assoc. Professor Dept. of Physics

ADVANCing Women in STEM at Florida International University. Caroline Simpson Assoc. Professor Dept. of Physics ADVANCing Women in STEM at Florida International University Caroline Simpson Assoc. Professor Dept. of Physics About FIU Large urban public research university located in Miami, FL. Founded in 1965 4th

More information

PAY AND REWARD. Think Business, Think Equality

PAY AND REWARD. Think Business, Think Equality PAY AND REWARD Think Business, Think Equality CONTENTS INTRODUCTION WHAT TO CONSIDER WHEN DECIDING HOW MUCH TO PAY STAFF DEVELOPING PAY SYSTEMS INTRODUCING A NON-DISCRIMINATORY PAY RATE SYSTEM INTRODUCING

More information

Gender Diversity in Corporate Pakistan

Gender Diversity in Corporate Pakistan Gender Diversity in Corporate Pakistan The participation of women in professional organisations in Pakistan and the Middle East is challenges for organisations that recognise the value companies in Pakistan

More information

Manager briefing. Gender pay equity guide for managers GENDER P Y EQUITY

Manager briefing. Gender pay equity guide for managers GENDER P Y EQUITY Manager briefing Gender pay equity guide for managers GENDER P Y EQUITY Manager briefing Gender pay equity guide for managers Managers play a vital role in addressing pay equity as they are responsible

More information

Minorities Leaders in the Workplace Assignment One. David Haile EDD 9100 CRN 24160 Leadership Seminar

Minorities Leaders in the Workplace Assignment One. David Haile EDD 9100 CRN 24160 Leadership Seminar Minorities Leaders in the Workplace Assignment One David Haile EDD 9100 CRN 24160 Leadership Seminar Nova Southeastern University September 24, 2011 The following paper will compare and contrast two articles

More information

GENDER DIVERSITY STRATEGY

GENDER DIVERSITY STRATEGY GENDER DIVERSITY STRATEGY Purpose TMB s Gender Diversity Strategy acknowledges the value of a gender diverse workforce and details our commitment to ensuring that all workplace policies support and enable

More information

Indiana Academic Standards for Exploring College & Careers

Indiana Academic Standards for Exploring College & Careers A Correlation of To the Exploring College & Careers INTRODUCTION This document demonstrates how meets the Indiana Middle School Academic Standards for. Correlation page references are Student Edition,

More information

Practising what we preach

Practising what we preach Paper 37-1 PAPER 37 Practising what we preach Dick, Bob (1992) Practising what we preach: identifying the gaps between espoused and actual values. A brief paper prepared for the First International Values

More information

WOMEN S JOBS, MEN S JOBS. Think Business, Think Equality

WOMEN S JOBS, MEN S JOBS. Think Business, Think Equality WOMEN S JOBS, MEN S JOBS Think Business, Think Equality CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 2 WOMEN S WORK 3 RECRUITMENT 5 TRAINING AND SKILLS 10 WOMEN S JOBS, MEN S JOBS CHECKLIST 17 GLOSSARY 19 1 INTRODUCTION This

More information

Part II Moses Presentation

Part II Moses Presentation Part II Moses Presentation The Promise of Cluster Hires Barriers to Optimal Faculty Diversity Hires Unintentional Bias- the research Bias in Evaluating the Faculty Files-Short cuts Overcoming those Barriers

More information

Course Syllabus. AAD 252: Art and Gender

Course Syllabus. AAD 252: Art and Gender AAD 252: Art and Gender Course Syllabus Description: This course addresses socio-cultural factors influencing roles of women and men in arts, culture, and society. We will examine underlying social structures

More information

Lessons from female leaders in professional service firms

Lessons from female leaders in professional service firms Women enter the workforce with aspirations equal to their male coworkers, but few women actually reach the top. What do the best female leaders do to buck this trend? Lessons from female leaders in professional

More information

Yellow Paper Series. Written in Black & White. Exploring Confirmation Bias in Racialized Perceptions of Writing Skills

Yellow Paper Series. Written in Black & White. Exploring Confirmation Bias in Racialized Perceptions of Writing Skills Yellow Paper Series Written in Black & White Exploring Confirmation Bias in Racialized Perceptions of Writing Skills Lead Researcher Dr. Arin N. Reeves 2014-0404 Identity Month Celebrations RESEARCH QUESTION:

More information

The Future of Female CEOs and Their Glass Ceiling

The Future of Female CEOs and Their Glass Ceiling 2012, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 145-153 ISSN 2152-1034 Research Proposal The Future of Female CEOs and Their Glass Ceiling Erik Buckalew Alexis Konstantinopoulos Jonathan Russell Seif El-Sherbini Saint Mary s

More information

15 Most Typically Used Interview Questions and Answers

15 Most Typically Used Interview Questions and Answers 15 Most Typically Used Interview Questions and Answers According to the reports of job seekers, made from thousands of job interviews, done at 97 big companies in the United States, we selected the 15

More information

CHAPTER 4: PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION

CHAPTER 4: PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION CHAPTER 4: PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION CHAPTER OVERVIEW Chapter 4 introduces you to the related concepts of prejudice, stereotyping and discrimination. The chapter begins with definitions of these three

More information

Chapter 13. Prejudice: Causes and Cures

Chapter 13. Prejudice: Causes and Cures Chapter 13 Prejudice: Causes and Cures Prejudice Prejudice is ubiquitous; it affects all of us -- majority group members as well as minority group members. Prejudice Prejudice is dangerous, fostering negative

More information

The Inventory of Male Friendliness in Nursing Programs (IMFNP)

The Inventory of Male Friendliness in Nursing Programs (IMFNP) The Inventory of Male Friendliness in Nursing Programs (IMFNP) Background At the 2001 annual conference of the American Assembly for Men in Nursing (AAMN), a nursing student discussed his educational experiences

More information

The attraction, retention and advancement of women leaders:

The attraction, retention and advancement of women leaders: The attraction, retention and advancement of women leaders: Strategies for organizational sustainability BUSINESS CASE 1 Table of Contents Introduction Business Case 1 Barriers and Success Factors Overview

More information

Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination

Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination CHAPTER 5 Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination OUTLINE I. Putting Common Sense to the Test II. Stereotypes A. How Stereotypes Form B. How Stereotypes Survive and Self-Perpetuate C. Is Stereotyping

More information

SESRI Policy & Program Evaluation Workshop. Doha, Qatar January 19-22, 2015

SESRI Policy & Program Evaluation Workshop. Doha, Qatar January 19-22, 2015 SESRI Policy & Program Evaluation Workshop Doha, Qatar January 19-22, 2015 Outline: Session 5 Measurement: Benchmarking in Evaluation Design Quasi-experimental research designs: Combining evaluation with

More information

Different Styles of Grieving

Different Styles of Grieving Different Styles of Grieving By Michael Lombardo, D.Min. Recent research has examined the ways men and women grieve differently. Books such as When Men Grieve: Why Men Grieve Differently and How You Can

More information

Job Search Resources for International Students

Job Search Resources for International Students Job Search Resources for International Students Returning Home The differences from a United States job search Are you considering returning home after your studies? In addition to preparing for your relocation,

More information

Executive Summary and Recommendations

Executive Summary and Recommendations Executive Summary and Recommendations To download a free copy of the complete report, go to www.aauw.org/learn/research/whysofew.cfm. Executive Summary Women have made tremendous progress in education

More information

Report of the Sloan School of Management

Report of the Sloan School of Management Report of the Sloan School of Management Reports of the Committees on the Status of Women Faculty March 2002 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Statement from the Dean of the Sloan School of Management

More information

Sample Behavioural Questions by Competency

Sample Behavioural Questions by Competency Competencies that support LEADING PEOPLE Change Leadership Please tell us about a time when you led a significant change in your organization and how you helped others to deal with the change. Tell me

More information

The Effect of Questionnaire Cover Design in Mail Surveys

The Effect of Questionnaire Cover Design in Mail Surveys The Effect of Questionnaire Cover Design in Mail Surveys Philip Gendall It has been suggested that the response rate for a self administered questionnaire will be enhanced if the cover of the questionnaire

More information

ISHN 01-11 1 Using Performance Objectives and Corrective Feedback. To Increase Competence

ISHN 01-11 1 Using Performance Objectives and Corrective Feedback. To Increase Competence ISHN 01-11 1 Using Performance Objectives and Corrective Feedback To Increase Competence Last month my ISHN article addressed the challenge of using performance appraisals to build people s competence.

More information

DOING JUSTICE, DOING GENDEÉ

DOING JUSTICE, DOING GENDEÉ SecondEditìon DOING JUSTICE, DOING GENDEÉ Women in Legai and Criminaljustice Occupatìons Susan Ehrfch Martin Chevy Chase, MnryknA Nancy C. Jurik Arizona State Univemty (^)SAGEPublications ^S Thousand Oaks

More information

Social Perception and Attribution

Social Perception and Attribution 4 Social Perception and Attribution Chapter An Information Processing Model of Perception Stereotypes: Perceptions about Groups of People Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: The Pygmalion Effect Causal Attribution

More information

Running head: SAMPLE FOR STUDENTS 1. Sample APA Paper for Students Interested in Learning APA Style 6th Edition. Jeffrey H. Kahn

Running head: SAMPLE FOR STUDENTS 1. Sample APA Paper for Students Interested in Learning APA Style 6th Edition. Jeffrey H. Kahn Running head: SAMPLE FOR STUDENTS 1 Sample APA Paper for Students Interested in Learning APA Style 6th Edition Jeffrey H. Kahn Illinois State University Author Note Jeffrey H. Kahn, Department of Psychology,

More information

20% and No More: Barriers to Women s Advancement in Higher Education Administration

20% and No More: Barriers to Women s Advancement in Higher Education Administration 20% and No More: Barriers to Women s Advancement in Higher Education Administration Dr. Terrie Smith Director of Faculty Affairs, University of South Carolina President Elect, South Carolina Women in Higher

More information

Attitudes in the Workplace

Attitudes in the Workplace Attitudes in the Workplace A study of sexism and discrimination in Britain How gender stereotypes and discrimination affect people s views and perceptions of the roles of men and women in the British workplace.

More information

ADAPTATION OF EMPLOYEES IN THE ORGANIZATION AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN TERMS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

ADAPTATION OF EMPLOYEES IN THE ORGANIZATION AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN TERMS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 114 Management and Economics ADAPTATION OF EMPLOYEES IN THE ORGANIZATION AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN TERMS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Jaroslav NEKORANEC Jaroslav.Nekoranec@aos.sk Lenka NAGYOVÁ lenka.nagyova@mil.sk

More information

Women and Men Senior Leaders - Similarities and Differences Lessons from Coaching

Women and Men Senior Leaders - Similarities and Differences Lessons from Coaching A Praesta report reflecting the experience of coaching 120 senior women leaders and 120 equivalent male leaders Women and Men Senior Leaders - Similarities and Differences Lessons from Coaching Women in

More information

Recruiting for Diversity

Recruiting for Diversity Recruiting for Diversity Recruiting for Diversity Why is diversity recruitment important? Not only is diversity recruitment the right thing to do, it is the smart thing to do. Where there is a University

More information

UNC Leadership Survey 2012: Women in Business

UNC Leadership Survey 2012: Women in Business UNC Leadership Survey 2012: Women in Business Quantitative Report UNC Kenan-Flagler Business School Executive Development 2013 Table of Contents Introduction 3 How to Read This Report 4 Key Findings 5

More information

Human, Social and Network Capital and its role in the Boardroom

Human, Social and Network Capital and its role in the Boardroom University of Bath Human, Social and Network Capital and its role in the Boardroom MBA Thesis Paula Haines paula.haines@virgin.net This research was carried out for a MBA thesis at the University of Bath

More information

Report 015 Retention. Life Working Series 2015

Report 015 Retention. Life Working Series 2015 Report 015 Retention Life Working Series 2015 1 1. Introduction Understanding the length of time employees remain with a company and the drivers of retention. The latest report in our Life Working series

More information

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF UBC FACULTY SALARIES: INVESTIGATION OF

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF UBC FACULTY SALARIES: INVESTIGATION OF STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF UBC FACULTY SALARIES: INVESTIGATION OF DIFFERENCES DUE TO SEX OR VISIBLE MINORITY STATUS. Oxana Marmer and Walter Sudmant, UBC Planning and Institutional Research SUMMARY This paper

More information

Developing Policies, Protocols and Procedures using Kotter s 8 step Change Management Model

Developing Policies, Protocols and Procedures using Kotter s 8 step Change Management Model 2013 Developing Policies, Protocols and Procedures using Kotter s 8 step Change Management Model Marion Foster Scottish Practice Management Development Network [Pick the date] IMPLEMENTING CHANGE POWERFULLY

More information

$tart $mart Salary Negotiation

$tart $mart Salary Negotiation $tart $mart Salary Negotiation Kate Farrar Director, Campus Leadership Programs AAUW Kate Farrar, Presenter April 24, 2013 WEPAN 2012-2013 Webinar Series Host & Moderator: Shawna Fletcher, WEPAN Professional

More information

RECRUITMENT. Age Discrimination. special reports

RECRUITMENT. Age Discrimination. special reports RECRUITMENT Can the employer be liable for publishing a discriminatory advertisement? The Regulations do not make discriminatory advertisements unlawful as such. However, the wording in advertisements

More information

Developing Female Leadership in the Canadian Sport System: Recommendations for High-Level Sport Organizations

Developing Female Leadership in the Canadian Sport System: Recommendations for High-Level Sport Organizations 2007 Coaching Association of Canada, ISSN 1496-1539 July 2007, Vol. 7, No.3 Developing Female Leadership in the Canadian Sport System: Recommendations for High-Level Sport Organizations Few would disagree

More information

Change Management Is A Behavioral Competency You Can Develop

Change Management Is A Behavioral Competency You Can Develop Change Management Is A Behavioral Competency You Can Develop Hinda K. Sterling Herbert L. Selesnick & Sterling Selesnick, INC Change Management Is A Behavioral Competency You Can Develop This article is

More information

A framing effect is usually said to occur when equivalent descriptions of a

A framing effect is usually said to occur when equivalent descriptions of a FRAMING EFFECTS A framing effect is usually said to occur when equivalent descriptions of a decision problem lead to systematically different decisions. Framing has been a major topic of research in the

More information

9694 THINKING SKILLS

9694 THINKING SKILLS CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS GCE Advanced Level MARK SCHEME for the October/November 2013 series 9694 THINKING SKILLS 9694/41 Paper 4 (Applied Reasoning), maximum raw mark 50 This mark scheme is

More information

Nurses and Political Action

Nurses and Political Action Politics is a means to an end, the end consisting of public policy Political involvement leads to public policy formation If nurses wish to affect outcomes in policy formation, they must be involved in

More information

Women in Leadership: Ryerson University

Women in Leadership: Ryerson University Women in Leadership: Ryerson University Delivered by COU President and CEO Bonnie M. Patterson Friday, April 10, 2015 Thank you for the opportunity to be here today. Ryerson is a very special place to

More information

The Competitive Environment: Sales and Marketing

The Competitive Environment: Sales and Marketing This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License. Your use of this material constitutes acceptance of that license and the conditions of use of materials on this

More information

Summary of the Research on the role of ICT related knowledge and women s labour market situation

Summary of the Research on the role of ICT related knowledge and women s labour market situation Summary of the Research on the role of ICT related knowledge and women s labour market situation Comparative anlysis of the situation in the five surveyed countries: Analysis of data about employment shows

More information

Tips for Effective Negotiating. Nikisha Williams Virginia Valian Gender Equity Project, Hunter College CUNY

Tips for Effective Negotiating. Nikisha Williams Virginia Valian Gender Equity Project, Hunter College CUNY 1 Tips for Effective Negotiating Nikisha Williams Virginia Valian Gender Equity Project, Hunter College CUNY Negotiation is a valuable skill in every part of your life. When carried out effectively negotiation

More information

Equal Pay Statement. April 2015. Also available in large print (16pt) and electronic format. Ask Student Services for details. www.perth.uhi.ac.

Equal Pay Statement. April 2015. Also available in large print (16pt) and electronic format. Ask Student Services for details. www.perth.uhi.ac. Equal Pay Statement April 2015 Also available in large print (16pt) and electronic format. Ask Student Services for details. www.perth.uhi.ac.uk Perth College is a registered Scottish charity, number SC021209.

More information

Training and Development (T & D): Introduction and Overview

Training and Development (T & D): Introduction and Overview Training and Development (T & D): Introduction and Overview Recommended textbook. Goldstein I. L. & Ford K. (2002) Training in Organizations: Needs assessment, Development and Evaluation (4 th Edn.). Belmont:

More information

THE HR GUIDE TO IDENTIFYING HIGH-POTENTIALS

THE HR GUIDE TO IDENTIFYING HIGH-POTENTIALS THE HR GUIDE TO IDENTIFYING HIGH-POTENTIALS What makes a high-potential? Quite possibly not what you think. The HR Guide to Identifying High-Potentials 1 Chapter 1 - Introduction If you agree people are

More information

"Gender diversity in the healthcare sector - how much progress have we made?" Nicola Hartley Director, Leadership Development

Gender diversity in the healthcare sector - how much progress have we made? Nicola Hartley Director, Leadership Development "Gender diversity in the healthcare sector - how much progress have we made?" Nicola Hartley Director, Leadership Development Why a survey? To get insight into current views in the service Check out what

More information

of various obstacles that will get in their way, like the organizational culture or their own work-life priorities

of various obstacles that will get in their way, like the organizational culture or their own work-life priorities Some would believe that it s simply not possible to be successful because of various obstacles that will get in their way, like the organizational culture or their own work-life priorities The fact that

More information

Performance Evaluation Rating Descriptions

Performance Evaluation Rating Descriptions The following rating descriptions are examples of the behaviors employees would be demonstrating at each of the four levels of performance. These examples should assist the supervisor and employee during

More information

Who is the superior?

Who is the superior? Worksheet 1: Who is the superior? Aim: Boys have an opportunity to realize the differences in evaluating attributes connected with female and male roles. Boys know traditional gender roles and stereotypes

More information

Enhancing Department Climate

Enhancing Department Climate Enhancing Department Climate A Guide for Department Chairs Campus Climate: Behaviors within a workplace or learning environment, ranging from subtle to cumulative to dramatic, that can influence whether

More information

McKinsey Global Survey results Moving mind-sets on gender diversity

McKinsey Global Survey results Moving mind-sets on gender diversity McKinsey Global Survey results Moving mind-sets on gender diversity To ensure that corporate culture supports not hinders the ability of women to reach top management, companies must address mind-sets

More information

FIVE LASER-FOCUSED TALENT STRATEGIES TO BUILD A HIGH-PERFORMING SALES TEAM

FIVE LASER-FOCUSED TALENT STRATEGIES TO BUILD A HIGH-PERFORMING SALES TEAM FIVE LASER-FOCUSED TALENT STRATEGIES TO BUILD A HIGH-PERFORMING SALES TEAM FIRST WHO, THEN WHAT In Jim Collins NY Times Best Seller, Good to Great, there s a chapter called First Who, Then What. In it,

More information

Ignoring base rates. Ignoring base rates (cont.) Improving our judgments. Base Rate Neglect. When Base Rate Matters. Probabilities vs.

Ignoring base rates. Ignoring base rates (cont.) Improving our judgments. Base Rate Neglect. When Base Rate Matters. Probabilities vs. Ignoring base rates People were told that they would be reading descriptions of a group that had 30 engineers and 70 lawyers. People had to judge whether each description was of an engineer or a lawyer.

More information

Lecture Overheads: Communicating Across Cultures. Communication for Managers 15.279 Fall 2012

Lecture Overheads: Communicating Across Cultures. Communication for Managers 15.279 Fall 2012 Lecture Overheads: Communicating Across Cultures 15.279 Fall 2012 1 Effective cross-cultural communication means Being able to recognize cultural variables Understanding how those variables influence business

More information

Interviewing Tips for Managers

Interviewing Tips for Managers One of the keys to successful recruitment and retention is the interviewing process. Developing a plan from initiating the search through to selection will enhance your chance for success. The purpose

More information

Promotion, Transfer and Termination attachment one Developing and Implementing Succession Plans

Promotion, Transfer and Termination attachment one Developing and Implementing Succession Plans Promotion, Transfer and Termination attachment one Developing and Implementing Succession Plans Contents WGEA Tool: Developing Succession Plans 3 Introduction 3 Developing and Implementing Succession Plans

More information

What Women Want Addressing the gender imbalance on MBA programmes

What Women Want Addressing the gender imbalance on MBA programmes What Women Want Addressing the gender imbalance on MBA programmes 1 Introduction JWT Education undertook an international market research project addressing female participation in MBA programmes. The

More information

C-suite Females: Three Successful Women s Views. By: Shannon Stith, CPA, RP, CGMA, MBA. February 2012

C-suite Females: Three Successful Women s Views. By: Shannon Stith, CPA, RP, CGMA, MBA. February 2012 C-suite Females: Three Successful Women s Views By: Shannon Stith, CPA, RP, CGMA, MBA February 2012 The percentage of females in the C-suite has increased from less than 5% in the 1960s to almost 16% in

More information

Advancing Women in Science and Engineering:

Advancing Women in Science and Engineering: Advancing Women in Science and Engineering: Advice to the Top Top 10 Tips for Academic Leaders to Accelerate the Advancement of Women in Science and Engineering W omen have made substantial advances in

More information

PERFORMANCE EVALUATIONS:

PERFORMANCE EVALUATIONS: : More Important than Ever in 2011 According to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission ( EEOC ), the Commission received over 7% more employment discrimination and unlawful harassment charges in 2010

More information

Class 19: Two Way Tables, Conditional Distributions, Chi-Square (Text: Sections 2.5; 9.1)

Class 19: Two Way Tables, Conditional Distributions, Chi-Square (Text: Sections 2.5; 9.1) Spring 204 Class 9: Two Way Tables, Conditional Distributions, Chi-Square (Text: Sections 2.5; 9.) Big Picture: More than Two Samples In Chapter 7: We looked at quantitative variables and compared the

More information

Classroom Participation

Classroom Participation Classroom Participation Timothy M. Hill This paper was completed and submitted in partial fulfillment of the Master Teacher Program, a 2-year faculty professional development program conducted by the Center

More information

IT S LONELY AT THE TOP: EXECUTIVES EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE SELF [MIS] PERCEPTIONS. Fabio Sala, Ph.D. Hay/McBer

IT S LONELY AT THE TOP: EXECUTIVES EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE SELF [MIS] PERCEPTIONS. Fabio Sala, Ph.D. Hay/McBer IT S LONELY AT THE TOP: EXECUTIVES EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE SELF [MIS] PERCEPTIONS Fabio Sala, Ph.D. Hay/McBer The recent and widespread interest in the importance of emotional intelligence (EI) at work

More information

HealthStream Regulatory Script

HealthStream Regulatory Script HealthStream Regulatory Script Diversity in the Workplace Version: May 2007 Lesson 1: Introduction Lesson 2: Significance of Workplace Diversity Lesson 3: Diversity Programs Lesson 4: Doing Your Part Lesson

More information

Orientation Lecture Series: LEARNING TO LEARN Developing critical thinking skills

Orientation Lecture Series: LEARNING TO LEARN Developing critical thinking skills Orientation Lecture Series: LEARNING TO LEARN Developing critical thinking skills Outline of Lecture what is critical thinking? demonstrating critical thinking strategies for critical writing using evidence

More information

DESCRIBING OUR COMPETENCIES. new thinking at work

DESCRIBING OUR COMPETENCIES. new thinking at work DESCRIBING OUR COMPETENCIES new thinking at work OUR COMPETENCIES - AT A GLANCE 2 PERSONAL EFFECTIVENESS Influencing Communicating Self-development Decision-making PROVIDING EXCELLENT CUSTOMER SERVICE

More information

Deep Secrets: Boys' Friendships and the Crisis of Connection by Niobe Way

Deep Secrets: Boys' Friendships and the Crisis of Connection by Niobe Way Deep Secrets: Boys' Friendships and the Crisis of Connection by Niobe Way Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011 (ISBN: 978-0-6740-4664-1). 326pp. Clare Stainthorp (University of Glasgow) Niobe

More information

Running Head: LEGAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS 1

Running Head: LEGAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS 1 Running Head: LEGAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS 1 Legal and Psychological Implications for Male Nurses in Obstetrical and Maternal-Child Nursing Geraldine Cornell Long Island University C.W. Post LEGAL

More information

Workforce & OD Strategy 2011-2016

Workforce & OD Strategy 2011-2016 Workforce & OD Strategy 2011-2016 Contents Page Introduction and Context 1 Section 1 2 THE CURRENT WORKFORCE Section 2 5 VISION FOR THE FUTURE Section 3 7 KEY PLATFORMS AND OUTCOMES Section 4 10 ORGANISATIONAL

More information

Why Healthcare Leaders Need to Take a New Look at Diversity in Their Organizations

Why Healthcare Leaders Need to Take a New Look at Diversity in Their Organizations Why Healthcare Leaders Need to Take a New Look at Diversity in Their Organizations Division of Member Services, Research American College of Healthcare Executives CEO Circle White Paper Fall 2015 Introduction

More information

Module 2 An Introduction to. The Performance Appraisal System

Module 2 An Introduction to. The Performance Appraisal System Module 2 An Introduction to The Performance Appraisal System Introduction THE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM: We all want to get better results from the work we do - as individuals, as teams and as an organisation.

More information

Harvard College Program in General Education Faculty of Arts and Sciences Harvard University. A Guide to Writing in Ethical Reasoning 15

Harvard College Program in General Education Faculty of Arts and Sciences Harvard University. A Guide to Writing in Ethical Reasoning 15 Harvard College Program in General Education Faculty of Arts and Sciences Harvard University A Guide to Writing in Ethical Reasoning 15 A Guide to Writing in Ethical Reasoning 15 Professor Jay M. Harris

More information

Administrator Suggestions Regarding the Recruitment of Male Elementary Teachers. Julia Wilkins, Ph.D. Robert J. Gamble, Ph.D.

Administrator Suggestions Regarding the Recruitment of Male Elementary Teachers. Julia Wilkins, Ph.D. Robert J. Gamble, Ph.D. Recruitment of Male Elementary Teachers, 1 Administrator Suggestions Regarding the Recruitment of Male Elementary Teachers Julia Wilkins, Ph.D. Robert J. Gamble, Ph.D. D Youville College, Buffalo, NY Recruitment

More information

AdvanceVT Leadership Development Programs Final Assessment November 2010

AdvanceVT Leadership Development Programs Final Assessment November 2010 AdvanceVT Leadership Development Programs Final Assessment November 2010 Each academic year from 2004-05 through 2007-08, AdvanceVT offered faculty women opportunities to develop leadership skills and

More information

Integrating work and life

Integrating work and life Integrating work and life It s not just a woman s issue anymore. By Julie Coffman, Priscilla Schenck and Melissa Artabane Julie Coffman is a partner with Bain & Company in the Chicago office and chair

More information

Motivators for Obtaining Advanced Degrees in Today s Society. Caroline Mulhall and Cassandra Rehmel. Hanover College

Motivators for Obtaining Advanced Degrees in Today s Society. Caroline Mulhall and Cassandra Rehmel. Hanover College Motivators for Obtaining Advanced Degrees in Today s Society Caroline Mulhall and Cassandra Rehmel Hanover College 2 Abstract 2 Graduate school involves a significant commitment of time and money and often

More information

The Relationship between the Fundamental Attribution Bias, Relationship Quality, and Performance Appraisal

The Relationship between the Fundamental Attribution Bias, Relationship Quality, and Performance Appraisal The Relationship between the Fundamental Attribution Bias, Relationship Quality, and Performance Appraisal Executive Summary Abstract The ability to make quality decisions that influence people to exemplary

More information

BC Public Service Competencies

BC Public Service Competencies BC Public Service Competencies Competencies that support LEADING PEOPLE For Executive and Directors: Motivating for Peak Performance Motivating for peak performance involves knowledge and skills in using

More information

Determining Future Success of College Students

Determining Future Success of College Students Determining Future Success of College Students PAUL OEHRLEIN I. Introduction The years that students spend in college are perhaps the most influential years on the rest of their lives. College students

More information

The Diversity Life Cycle By Alden E. Habacon January 2015

The Diversity Life Cycle By Alden E. Habacon January 2015 By Alden E. Habacon January 2015 Overview is a framework that describes the interconnectedness between twelve groupings or stages of activity that organizations undertake to normalize diversity into its

More information

Proposal for Mentored Undergraduate Summer Experience (MUSE) Summer 2011

Proposal for Mentored Undergraduate Summer Experience (MUSE) Summer 2011 MUSE 2011, Page 1 Proposal for Mentored Undergraduate Summer Experience (MUSE) Summer 2011 Faculty Mentor: Name: Jason J. Dahling Title: Assistant Professor Years at TCNJ: 4 Department: Psychology Phone:

More information

Comparing Recommendations Made by Online Systems and Friends

Comparing Recommendations Made by Online Systems and Friends Comparing Recommendations Made by Online Systems and Friends Rashmi Sinha and Kirsten Swearingen SIMS, University of California Berkeley, CA 94720 {sinha, kirstens}@sims.berkeley.edu Abstract: The quality

More information

Running head: BODY ART AND ACADEMIC SUCCESS 1

Running head: BODY ART AND ACADEMIC SUCCESS 1 Running head: BODY ART AND ACADEMIC SUCCESS 1 The Psychology of Body Art and Academic Success Katherine Janney McKendree University Author note: This paper was created as a partial requirement for PSY

More information

The Work on Gender Mainstreaming in the Ministry of Employment by Agnete Andersen, legal adviser

The Work on Gender Mainstreaming in the Ministry of Employment by Agnete Andersen, legal adviser The Work on Gender Mainstreaming in the Ministry of Employment by Agnete Andersen, legal adviser Agnete Andersen The outset for the work on gender mainstreaming Gender equality is a difficult bird because

More information

Compensation Analysis

Compensation Analysis Appendix B: Section 3 Compensation Analysis Subcommittee: Bruce Draine, Joan Girgus, Ruby Lee, Chris Paxson, Virginia Zakian 1. FACULTY COMPENSATION The goal of this study was to address the question:

More information