Report on the linguistic situation in Lublin Region

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1 Language Bridges Papers Report on the linguistic situation in Lublin Region delivered within the project LANGUAGE BRIDGES a Sub-theme Working Group of the Interreg IIIC project Change on Borders Marzena Gorecka, Janina Zabielska, Adam Ustrzycki, Pawel Komarynski, Kamil Debinski Catholic University of Lublin Lublin Region

2 This paper has been written by the region of Lublin, Poland, within the project INTERREG IIIC Language Bridges, which is a subtheme working group of Regional Framework Operation Change on Borders Dr Marzena Gorecka Institute of German Filology Catholic University of Lublin Raclawickie Avenue Lublin, Poland tel: fax: E mail: Dr Marzena Górecka Instytut Filologii Germańskiej Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Al. Racławickie , Lublin, Polska tel: fax: E mail: 2

3 Abstract The following report is aimed at presenting the status of foreign languages in the Lubelskie Province, in particular focusing on the mother tongues of national minorities. The language situation is to a great extent shaped by the fact that the Lublin Region borders Ukraine and Belarus. Consequently, the knowledge of the languages of neighbouring nations is of considerable importance. The weight of this issue is even more significant, due to the existence of the Ukrainian and Belarusan minorities in the area in question. The report contains the description of the province characteristics as regards: territorial distribution of language groups, historical facts having a noteworthy impact on the languages, legal regulations pertaining to the issue under discussion. Moreover, the SWOT analysis for the languages has been presented, also the problem of the language and identity correlation, and language speaking in everyday life. Additionally, much attention has been drawn to the forms in which the cultures find expression both in and through the specific language, to the system of language teaching, and also to the role of languages in the cooperation across the borders. Three target groups of people have been selected interested in learning Belarusan and Ukrainian: Polish national minorities, foreign residents in Poland and Poles willing to master the languages of the minorities. Key words Languages, Ukrainian, Belorusan, minorities, ethnic identities, teaching 3

4 Authors Editor: Marzena Górecka (b. 1964) at Lublin, 1995 MA in German language and literature, Italian literature and the history of the Church from the Faculty of Humanities at the University of Zurich, Switzerland PhD in German Medieval Literature at the University of Zurich. Since 1999 tenure at the German department of the Catholic University of Lublin (KUL). At present concluding a postdoctoral lecturing qualification thesis on Swiss interwar period literature. Research areas and interests: German language medieval mysticism, Swiss literature, fiction translation and intercultural aspect of languages. Contact data ( ): Reader: prof. Michał Łesiów, UMCS et KUL-Universities Janina Marta Zabielska (b.1976), holds a Master s Degree from the Institute of Sociology at the Catholic University of Lublin (KUL). She is concluding her Ph.D. project at the Institute of Sociology at KUL. Her research concentrates around the broadly-understood area of social policy, with special emphasis on the problems of impoverishment and social exclusion. Apart from being a researcher, she is also an academic teacher: she conducts a course for KUL in social macrostructures. One of her main interests beyond the sociological field is studying foreign languages and this is the main reason for her participation in the project. Contact data ( ): Adam Tadeusz Ustrzycki (b. 1974), MA course and degree: Institute of Political Sciences at the University of Opole. MA Degree on the basis of the thesis entitled: Local community of a small-size town in the period of socio-political transformation, supervised by Prof. Stanisław Zagórny. Ph.D. course: began in 2001 at the Catholic University of Lublin. Domain: Sociology (Sociology of Culture). The dissertation entitled: The socio-cultural identity of Poles living in the independent Ukraine. Research interests: problems of socio-cultural identity (national, generational, occupational); ethnic and national minorities; local communities and regional social groups. Contact data ( ): Paweł Komarynski (b. 1981), comes from the town of Jampol in the Ukrainian Province of Chmielnicki. He holds a Master s Degree from the Faculty of Theology at the Catholic University of Lublin (KUL). At present, he is a second-year post-graduate student at the Institute of Sociology at KUL. He is working on his Ph.D. project in the field of Polish foreign policy towards Ukraine, and its influence on the national minorities in these two countries. He is an enthusiastic participant in this project, since it offers him an opportunity to expand his knowledge about the life of the minorities in Poland, and especially about the language-related issues. 4

5 Contact data ( ): Kamil Dębinski (b. 1977), holds a Master s Degree from the Faculty of Economy at the Catholic University of Lublin (KUL). MA specialization in finance and banking. The fourth-year Ph.D. student at the Institute of Sociology KUL and at the European College of Polish and Ukrainian Universities in Lublin. The Ph.D dissertation, supervised by Prof. Stanisław Cieśla, focuses on the issues of the operational activities of the Local Government in the Lublin Province. Main research interests include: mathematics, issues related to developing the local government, problems of the consolidation processes in the Polish banking industry. Contact data ( ): 5

6 Table of contents 1. Legal framework, historical and social aspects General description of population and linguistic groups. Territorial distribution of the languages Historical facts of linguistic importance Legal framework. Recent developments and outlook Status of languages Language, religion and social integration For each languages: strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats Language use and language awareness Language as a component of identity. Language attitudes and representations. Prestige Sociolinguistic differences between languages Media, literature and other forms of cultural expression Newspapers, radio and TV, internet Literature Other forms of cultural expression Languages in education and training Teaching in and of the language, teacher training Language resources available for the (minority) languages - general and electronic resources Languages and the Cooperation in Border Areas Bibliography 39 6

7 1. Legal framework, historical and social aspects 1.1. General description of population and linguistic groups. Territorial distribution of the languages It should be assumed that the Lublin Region is not an area of cultural borderland, although it was considered one for many centuries. The last census proved very scarce communities of Romanies, Ukrainians, Belarusans, Germans, Russians, Jews and Lithuanians 1. According to the 2002 National Census, Polish citizens declared that they belong to the Ukrainian minority, including: in the Warmińsko-Mazurskie (Warmia-Mazuria) Province, in the Zachodniopomorskie (West Pomeranian) Province, in the Podkarpackie Province, in the Pomorskie (Pomeranian) Province, in the Dolnośląskie (Lower Silesian) Province, in the Podlaskie Province, 615 in the Lubuskie Province, 579 in the Mazowieckie Province, 472 in the Małopolskie Province, 389 in the Lubelskie Province, and 309 in the Śląskie (Silesian) 2. The Belarusan minority traditionally settles the area of the Podlaskie Province. During the 2002 National Census, of Polish citizens declared Belarusan nationality, including: in the Podlaskie Province, 541 in the Mazowieckie Province, 226 in the Warmińsko-Mazurskie Province, 317 in the Lubelskie Province 3, 117 in the Pomorskie Province, and 117 in the Zachodniopomorskie Province. According to the Chief Bureau of Statistics, the Lubelskie Province is inhabited by people, including Polish citizens (0.13% of the Province population) of non-polish descent. In the year 2002, inhabitants of the Lubelskie Province had, besides Polish, also another citizenship, and only other than Polish. Among foreigners 4, there were: 442 citizens of Ukraine, 116 of Belarus, 93 of Russia, 53 of Germany, 44 of Italy, 40 of the USA and 47 of Armenia 5. 1 The data of the Chief Bureau of Statistics from the 2002 National Census, [cf.:] 2 Ibid. 3 Actually, one can say there is no Belarusan minority in the Lubelskie Province, there is rather Ukrainian minority. Instead of Belarusans, they are referred to as Poliszczuks (traditional name of autochthons in Polesie region). However, in many villages it is the Belarusan-Ukrainian or Belarusan dialect that is spoken. In the vicinity of Białystok, some of the young people become more aware of their Ukrainian and not Belarusan origin (although formerly having been called Belarusans). At the same time, the Ukrainian language evokes some derogatory associations, related to the history, and what follows Belarusan is more neutral here, linked to no considerable national conflicts. The information comes from the interview with Prof. Michał Sajewicz from the Department of Slavonic Languages of Marie Curie University in Lublin on 25 February, 2005 (unpublished). 4 Persons who do not have Polish citizenship or have dual citizenship and declare non-polish citizenship as primary. 5 On the basis of the Statistical Yearbook of the Lubelskie Province, Lublin Bureau of Statistics,

8 As stated in the report Foreigners in Lublin 6, in the year 2000, permanent or temporary residence was granted to: citizens of Ukraine, 105 of Russia, 101 of Belarus, 72 of the USA, 51 of Germany, 46 of Kazakhstan, 30 of England, 21 of Bulgaria, 21 of France, 20 of Vietnam, 18 of Iraq, 15 of Austria and others Historical facts of linguistic importance Ukrainian and Belarusan are the languages of Indo-European origin in the group of East Slavonic languages; it is spoken chiefly in Ukraine (by 37.4 million people) where it is the official language, in Russia by 4.3m. According to consular data, about 1.5 million persons using with Ukrainian spends in Poland in draught of year. About 41 million persons entire on world uses with Ukrainian. Ukrainian is near related from Russian and Belarusan, though possesses less similarities to Russian than Belarusan., in Poland by 1.5 million 7 (in the world by the total number of 41 million people); it uses the Cyrillic alphabet. Ukrainian is closely related to Russian and Belarusan 8. Also Belarusan, Ukrainian and Polish display certain similarities, what is justified by their derivation from the common core the Proto-Slavonic language. Moreover, since as early as the 14 th century, these languages have been affecting one another owing to the symbiosis of the Belarusan, Polish and Ukrainian nations within the same official framework. As a result, the intermingling of languages and cultures created the conditions for the rise of the original culture, nowadays being the heritage of each of the three nations and states, and a joint wealth 9. On the other hand, major disparities between these languages can be traced, including phonetics, lexis, syntax and other elements 10. The eastern part of the present-day Lublin region for centuries had a bilingual character (Polish-Ruthenian, and next Polish-Ukrainian). The country people, for instance, in the Chełm region and in the Bełżec region, were always Ukrainian-speaking, and Ukrainian exhibited strong assimilatory features. The city dwellers, on the other hand, were diverse but inclined to adopt the Polish language. As of the Polish-Lithuanian Union of Lublin and the Union of Brest 11, part of the aforementioned areas witnessed the process of accepting the Polish language by, for example, the 6 The Lublin Weekly TIME, issue 17, 2000, p. 13 and 19, [after:] Mniejszości narodowe i etniczne w Województwie Lubelskim - historia, kultura, przeszłość i teraźniejszość [ National and Ethnic Minorities in the Lubelskie Province History, Culture, Past and Present ], a memorandum of the Department of Art and Culture of the Lublin Marshall s Office, Lublin, September On the basis of consular office data. 8 Ukrainian has about 80% common lexics from Polish. They differ however grammar as well as alphabet (Ukrainian uses oneself with Cyrillic alphabet). 9 J. Lewandowski, Kulturowe uwarunkowania współpracy w Euroregionie Bug [Cultural Conditions of the Cooperation in the Euroregion Bug], [in:] Euroregion Bug. Problemy współpracy przygranicznej Polski, Białorusi i Ukrainy [Euroregion Bug. The Problems of Border Cooperation between Poland, Belarus and Ukraine], M. Bałtowski, ed., vol. 1, Lublin, 1994, p On the basis of a series of lectures entitled Polish-Ukrainian Language Contacts, delivered in November, 2001 by M. Łesiow at the European College of Polish and Ukrainian Universities in Lublin. 11 The Greek Catholic Church was created under the Union of Brest concluded in Hence, the followers of this Church, that is Greek Catholics, are also called uniates. 8

9 Ruthenian noblemen and the officials of the Greek Catholic Church, resulting from their participation in public life, where the Polish language was prevalent. An important factor influencing the character of bilingualism of the 16 th century was the establishment of the Chełm Greek Catholic Diocese and a public school for the lay youth in Chełm, where Polish was taught. However, only the upper rank of the Greek Catholic clergy spoke two languages in the Chełm area. In the northern areas, bilingualism concerned first of all the politically privileged groups of ethnically Russian inhabitants, and basically did not involve the country dwellers; this was the state of affairs before the 19 th century 12. In the period when this part of Poland became subdued to the Russian rule 13, the denominational policy on the area annexed by Russia (russification connected with the promotion of the Orthodox Church) proved fruitless and even contributed to further adoption of the Polish language that was used alongside with Ukrainian. In the 19 th century, the rural communities were prone to accept Polish but not equally across the region. It concerned mainly the Greek Catholic population, but also mixed marriages. What hastened this process was the Russian abolition of the Union in 1875 and administrative imposition of the Orthodox faith, and also the subjugator s idea of Ukrainian as an inferior variant of Russian 14. There was also a reverse phenomenon the permeation of Polish language in oral with the Ukrainian features. In 1915 Russian authorities deported the Ruthenian population from the Podlasie region and Chełm region deep into the Asian continent 15. In the part of the Lublin region occupied by Austria-Hungary (throughout the Partitions of Poland), the Greek Catholic faith was not repressed. The conditions for bilingualism were satisfactory 16. In the mid-war period ( ), multi-ethnicity and multilingualism were obvious and clearly noticeable phenomena. In the year 1931, the Poles constituted 68.9% of the Poland s population. The country was populated by numerous other nations, among others, Ukrainians 13.9% of all inhabitants, and Belarusans 3.1% of the whole population. In the years , the area under the former Russian rule was inhabited by bilingual population. For part of these people the primary language was Polish (they were largely Catholics), for others, however, Ukrainian (mainly the adherents of the Orthodox Church). Both religious groups usually settled the same towns, but as opposed to Catholic parishes Orthodox parishes were scattered. Also, the so called Neouniate parishes were brought into being. The Orthodox adherents were partly Ukrainians. Closing or demolishing some Orthodox temples in the 1920 s and 1930 s added to paradoxically the Orthodox believers developing the Ukrainian consciousness, thus preserving the Ukrainian language F. Czyżewski, S. Warchoł, Polskie i ukraińskie teksty gwarowe ze wschodniej Lubelszczyzny [Polish and Ukrainian Dialects from the Eastern Part of the Lublin Region], Lublin 1998, p. V, VIII-XII. 13 From the year 1794 to 1815, Lublin region was under Austrian occupation, and from the year 1815 to 1918 was under Russian occupation. 14 F. Czyżewski, S. Warchoł, Polskie i ukraińskie teksty [Polish and Ukrainian Dialects], pp. XIII-XV. 15 Ibid. 16 Ibid, p. XVI-XVIII. See: M. Łesiów, Ukrainian Dialects of Lublin Macroregion [Gwary Ukraińskie makroregionu lubelskiego], Roczniki Humanistyczne, t. XLII, vol. 7, 1994, pp Ibid. 9

10 After World War I, the status of national minorities in Poland was regulated by a number of international agreements and Polish legal acts: - Minorities Protection Treaty (so called the Minute Versailles Treaty of 28 June, 1919) securing the citizens of non-polish mother tongue, constituting a considerable percentage of inhabitants in a location, the elementary education for children in public schools with the non- Polish language of teaching, - The Constitution of 17 March, Its Article 109 states that every citizen has the right to maintain their nationality, cherish their language and national property, - The Riga Treaty of 18 March, It was a Polish-Russian-Ukrainian agreement concerning the protection of cultural, educational and religious rights in these three states. However, despite these arrangements educational authorities inclined towards imposing Polish onto minorities; accordingly, for instance, a circular of 30 October, 1923 ordered that the official language in all schools must be Polish, - Grabski s Act of 31 July, 1924, which allowed bilingual schools in the areas inhabited by minorities. After World War II, as a result of assimilatory tendencies, the national varieties began to be neutralized. The most far-reaching event of this sort was the Action Vistula (Akcja Wisła) initiated on 28 April, 1947 aiming at the elimination of the Ukrainian Uprising Army and the displacement of Ukrainians and Lemkos from the south-eastern Poland (the Provinces of Rzeszów, Lublin and Kraków). Some of the Lemkos stress their association with the Ukrainian nation, other Gerard themselves as a separate national minority 18. As of 29 April to 12 July, 1947, around 140,000 people of Ukrainian descent were displaced 19. The displacements to Ukraine, in frames of Republican Agreements, in the years affected 190 thousand Ukrainian-speaking population, and to the north and west regions in 1947 (Action Vistula) about 44 thousand 20. In consequence, the largest gatherings of the Ukrainian minorities are located in the Dolnośląskie, Warmińsko-Mazurskie and Zachodniopomorskie Provinces. The largest concentrations of Ukrainian autochthonous population are on Podlasie. In the years , the repatriates from Ukraine (mainly from the Volhynia and Podole region) arrived to the East of Lublin region. In consequence, these areas were populated by numerous groups of newcomers and those of the local people who remained, although the ratio of both groups differs in different regions. 18 The teaching of the Lemkos language as a minority language is realized by the Lemkos Association and some public educational institutions. Those Lemkos who declare Ukrainian affiliations are usually the adherents of the Catholic Church of the Byzantine-Ukrainian Rite, and the Lemkos who consider themselves a distinct nation declare the membership in the Polish Autocephalous Orthodox Church. In the Polish law, Lemkos are perceived as the ethnic minority (Article 2 of the National and Ethnic Minorities and Regional Language Act of 6 January, 2005). 19 Mniejszości narodowe w Polsce [National Minorities in Poland], Z. Kurcz, ed., Wrocław 1997, [after:] R. Żerelik, Mniejszość ukraińska w Polsce po II wojnie światowej [Ukrainian Minority in Poland after the Second World War], [in:] 20 F. Czyżewski, S. Warchoł, Polish and Ukrainian Dialects, p. XVIII-XXI. 10

11 The national affiliation is determined by the following categories: denomination, language and permanent settlement. Thus, a Pole is a person who is a Catholic, Polish-speaking and not displaced in the 1940 s. It happens that the persons who do not fit the first criterion are regarded by the local inhabitants as Ukrainians. Simultaneously, denomination is not always the indicator of nationality (not every Catholic is Polish, and Orthodox Ukrainian) or language (not every Orthodox or Greek Catholic adherent is familiar with the Ukrainian dialect) 21. It should be stressed that the so called tough order, established between the three Eastern European nations caused the similar culture and customs if still existing to be confined to traditional rural areas, and what is more: it has lost the natural integrative factors of the past, such as mixed marriages and resulting kinship 22. And if there is a lack of wide-ranging communication for such a long time, stereotypes emerge. At present, the openness to mutual contacts may help give the relationships between the societies the appearance of reality Legal framework. Recent developments and outlook Polish legal regulations define the rights of national minorities in detail. Among the fundamental legal acts the following stand out: - Polish Constitution, in particular Article 35 that guarantees Polish citizens being the members of national and ethnic minorities the freedom of speech, and development of their own language, culture, and preserving their own customs and traditions. It also grants national and ethnic minorities the right to institute their own educational and cultural institutions, and establishments serving the protection of religious identity - Electoral Law Act of 12 April, 2001, which allows for the exemption of electoral boards formed by national minorities from the requirement of exceeding the 5% threshold of poll support - Polish Language Act of 7 October, 1999, which contains a declaration that the adopted regulations do not infringe on the rights of national and ethnic minorities, and the related Resolution of the Minister of Administration and Internal Affairs of 18 March, 2002, concerning the instances in which the Polish texts and names may be accompanied by foreign language versions. The resolution allows for, for example, the Polish texts and names to be accompanied by their foreign equivalents in the areas of integrated communities of national and ethnic minorities (the resolution does not regulate the issue of bilingual naming conventions referring to place names; this problem demands further regulation by distinct legal acts) - Educational System Act of 7 September, 1991, resolving that schools and public establishments sustain the learners sense of national, ethnic and religious identity, and in particular the studies of their own history and culture. Detailed regulations on the education of the children and youth belonging to national and ethnic minorities were incorporated into the 21 Ibid. 22 P. Kryczka, Szanse i bariery współpracy przygranicznej. Wymiar społeczny [Problems and Opportunities of Border Collaboration. Social Dimension], [in:] Euroregion Bug. Problemy współpracy przygranicznej, p Ibid. 11

12 Resolution of the Minister of Sport and Education of 3 December, 2002, concerning the terms and methods applied by schools and public establishments to support the sense of national, ethnic and religious identity of learners deriving from national and ethnic minorities; of 20 December, 2002, concerning the means of dividing the educational fraction of the general local-government subsidy in 2003 (this resolution allows for, among others, the increase of the educational subsidy by 20 or 50% for the schools organizing minority language studies) - Radio and Television Act of 29 December, 1992, forecasting that the programmes of the public radio and television ought to respect the needs of national and ethnic minorities - Criminal Code allowing for penalization of crimes triggered off by ethnic conflicts - Codes of Proceedings administrative, civil and penal, permitting the assistance of interpreters - Personal Details Protection Act of 29 August, 1997, prohibiting with the exception of the listed instances the processing of data divulging the ethnic descent. A further step was the passage of the National and Ethnic Minorities and Regional Language Act of 6 January, It provides for, for example, the individuals being the members of national minorities having the right to (Article 8 of the Act): - Free usage of the minority language in private and public life - Distributing and exchanging information in the minority language - Announcing private information in the minority language - Studying the minority language or in the minority language. Furthermore, (Article 9), in the communes where the minority population makes up at least 20 percent of inhabitants, the minority language will be used, besides the official language, as auxiliary for communication in public offices. There are 41 communes like this, including: 12 Belarusan, 1 Lithuanian and 28 German 24. In addition, the traditional foreign names of a minority will be used side by side with the official ones for place names, physiographical objects and street names. Article 18 reads that the public authorities are obliged to take appropriate measures aiming at the support of the activities centred on the protection, preservation and development of the cultural identity of the minorities 25, and in particular, they can donate, for example: - Activities of cultural institutions, artistic movement and artistic works of the minorities and artistic happenings of significance for the minority culture - Publishing of books, magazines, periodicals and leaflets in minority languages or in Polish, in print or by means of other techniques of picture and sound recording - Support for television and radio programmes realized by the minorities - Protection of minority culture memorials - Library-keeping and documentation of cultural and artistic life of the minorities - Education of children and youth realized in different forms - Propagation of minority awareness. 24 Following the information on the Belarusan minority web site in Poland: 25 The National and Ethnic Minorities and Regional Language Act of 6 January,

13 Poland has also approved a number of international legal acts regulating the rights of national minorities. They encompass: the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Liberties Convention of 4 November, 1950, the International Convention on the Abolition of All Forms of Racial Discrimination of 7 March, 1966, the International Pact of Civic and Political Rights of 16 December, The most important document in Europe regulating the rights of national minorities is the Framework Convention of the European Council concerning the protection of national minorities. Poland subscribed to this document in the year 1995, and confirmed on 10 November, On 12 May, 2003, Poland also signed the European Charter of Minority or Regional Languages. The statements referring to the rights of specific national minorities have been incorporated into bilateral treaties that Poland concluded with all neighbours. The essential national minority rights secured by the Polish law are as follows: - the ban on discrimination and on the operation of organizations whose programme provides for or admits racial and national aversion - the liberty of preserving and development the native language - the liberty of preserving the minority customs and traditions and the growth of the minority culture - the right to study the minority language or in the minority language Status of languages 26 In Poland the teaching of Ukrainian as a mother tongue is carried out in 106 schools for about learners. Belarusan, as a mother tongue, is taught in 44 schools to about learners belonging to the Belarusan minority. In order to establish a unit of mother tongue teaching it is necessary to gather seven learners of a given class. If the number of candidates in a particular school is insufficient, it is enough to bring together three schoolchildren from different schools for studies in an interschool team. Such a team is appointed by the school governing body. The last amendment in the Educational System Act concerns the question of funding the minority language school books if possible, they are to be provided to the learners free of charge. The financing of minority languages is workable owing to the funds of the Ministry of Sport and Education. The schools organizing minority language tutorials can expect raised educational subsidies. The novelty to come is that as of May 2005 the secondary school final examination will consist of an obligatory minority language test (for the learners of this language); the learners will be able to settle on one of the following languages: Belarusan, Lithuanian, Ukrainian or German. Among the supplementary examinations there is one on the ethnic group language. 26 See more: M. Łesiów, The Polish and Ukrainian Languages: A Mutually, Benefical Relationship, Cultures and Nations of Central and Eastern Europe, Cambridge

14 1.5. Language, religion and social integration In the 1990 s Lublin gained the status of the seat of the Orthodox diocese which considerably contributed to the promotion of the Orthodox Church prestige in the city and extensive growth of parish life. Lublin became the Orthodox publishing centre; the Orthodox Lublin-Chełm Diocese published here around a dozen of books. Few Orthodox periodicals used to come out in Lublin. In 1993, an Orthodox brotherhood was revived, named The Orthodox Fraternity Association under the patronage of the martyr St. Atanasy of Brest. In the years , the Orthodox Clemency Centre was built together with the temple of the Elevation of the Lord s Cross. At the same time, a new phenomenon in the Orthodox life was the appearance of a new wave of emigration from Ukraine, Belarus and Russia making their home in Lublin for a shorter or longer period. The parish life, to a greater degree, began to take into consideration the national diversity of the churchgoers. Since 1993, besides the services held in the Old Church Slavonic language with the Russian pronunciation, once a month the Sunday liturgies were celebrated with the Ukrainian pronunciation and Ukrainian preaching. On the other hand, since January 2003, the Orthodox temple of the Elevation of the Lord s Cross in the Orthodox House of Social Aid became the church of the Ukrainian Orthodox community; the services held here abide by the Ukrainian Orthodox tradition. Nowadays, the Orthodox Church in Lublin is in possession of 3 temples: the cathedral Lord s Transfiguration Orthodox church, on the cemetery a two-level church of the Holy Maidens Carrying Fragrances (with the lower church of Prophet Elijah) and the church of the Elevation of the Lord s Cross in the Orthodox House of Social Aid. Every Sunday (except the summer time) three God s Liturgies are celebrated in the Lublin Orthodox churches two in the cathedral church and one (according to the Ukrainian tradition) in the church of the Elevation of the Lord s Cross. The cathedral Orthodox parish of the Lord s Transfiguration in Lublin encompasses the central part of the Lubelskie Province and numbers about 1000 faithful: Ukrainians, Belarusans, Russians and also Poles. In September 2003, the Lublin parish was divided giving rise to a new Orthodox parish of St. Mary Magdalene in Puławy, where an Orthodox church has been functioning since April The Orthodox clergy in Lublin also provides ministration to two neighbouring Orthodox parishes: St. Nicolaus in Dratów and St. Cosma and Damian in Kolechowice. Lublin is the seat of the Orthodox Archbishop of Lublin and Chełm, Able. The Diocese Office operates here. The person to attend to the Ukrainian Orthodox community in Lublin is Father Mirosław Wiszniewski, director of the Orthodox House of Social Aid. The institution organizes the meetings of the faithful of Ukrainian origin and hold religion classes for Ukrainian children. There are two Orthodox choirs in Lublin: the cathedral choir, directed by A. Boublej, and the choir of the church of the Elevation of the Lord s Cross, directed by A. Kucy. Lublin is also home to the Orthodox 14

15 Youth Fraternity and St. Atanasy of Brest Orthodox Fraternity. Additionally, Lublin hosts the only Orthodox House of Social Aid operating in the diocese 27. In 1993 a Greek Catholic parish was created in Lublin. Its first rector was Father Stefan Batruch; half of 100 parishioners were students. In order to celebrate the Liturgy, the rectorial Roman Catholic church of St. Josafat used to be rented for this purpose, previously it had been the Orthodox church, and at the beginning of the 20th century the Uniate Greek parish. Owing to the rector s and many committed people s efforts, it was possible to open the Orthodox church in the Lublin Countryside Museum; the church has been moved there from Tarnoszyn near Tomaszów. On Sundays and other holidays, the church hosts the God Service with a large number of parishioners participating 28. The God Service is held in Ukrainian, and occasionally on some holidays (e.g. the patron saint s holiday), when some visitors appear, the Service is performed in Ukrainian and Polish. The parish clergymen serve ministrative purposes and arrange the assemblies of people associated, first and foremost, with the Greek Catholic Church (and not only), including those of the Ukrainian origin and Ukrainians provisionally residing in Poland; they are mainly young people, some of them the students of Lublin universities and colleges. The opportunity to encounter the language of Ukrainian minority in Poland are different sorts of gatherings of the NGOs associating people of Ukrainian roots. The main official organizations of Ukrainians in Poland are: - The Association of Ukrainians in Poland, - The Independent Ukrainian Youth Union, - The Podlasie Ukrainians Union, - The Ukrainian Medical Association, - The Ukrainian Teaching Society in Poland, - The Association of Ukrainians Political Prisoners of the Stalin s Period, - St. Vladimir Orthodox Fraternity, - The Ukrainian Cultural Foundation, - The Foundation of St. Vladimir the Baptist of Kiev Ruthenia. The chief Lemkos organizations in Poland are: - The Lemkos Union (a member of the Association of Ukrainians in Poland), - The Lemkos Association, - The Ruthenian Democratic Lemkos Assembly Hospodar, - The Ruska Burska Association in Gorlice, - The Society for the Development of the Lemkos Cultural Museum in Zyndranowa. The key Belarusan organizations in Poland are: - The Belarusan Social and Cultural Society, - The Belarusan Association in Poland, - The Belarusan Youth Union, 27 G. Kuprianowicz, M. Roszczenko, Historia Prawosławia w Lublinie [The History of the Orthodox Church in Lublin], [in:] (the web site of the Lublin Orthodox Church). 28 S. Batruch, O parafii greckokatolickiej w Lublinie [About the Greek Catholic Parish in Lublin], [in:] 15

16 - The Programme Council for the Niwa Weekly, - The Belarusan Literary Association Białowieża, - The Belarusan Historical Association, - The Association of Belarusan Journalists, - The Belarusan Students Union For each languages: strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats With attention on similar conditions of teaching Ukrainian and Belarusan in Poland, the SWOT analysis concerns both of these languages. Strong points supporting the significance of the borderland languages learning: - moderate similarity of the languages, frequent contacts of the borderland communities with Ukrainians and Belarusans, - cultural association of the nations, - possibility to receive broadcasts of the Ukrainian and Belarusan television and radio, - prospects of commercial cooperation, - cultural cooperation, for example, the Euroregion Bug projects, - possibility to take part in research and educational programmes, - availability of language teaching staff. Weak points, possibly discouraging the borderland languages learning: - negative stereotypes Ukrainian mafia, etc., - historical prejudicies, - collective treatment of the eastern newcomers - named the Russkies regardless of their actual origin, - reluctance to take up the language courses due to the many years compulsory character of the Russian language studies at school, - necessity to master a non-latin alphabet. The threats to the neighbouring languages teaching: - financial problems of the Polish educational system (the need for the level-ordering of spending), - conviction of a greater usefulness of western languages, - low social prestige of the culture and languages of eastern neighbours, - unstable political situation of the post-soviet countries, - prevailing character of Russian as the business language in contacts with the states of the former Soviet Union, - assimilation of Ukrainians within the Polish society. 16

17 The chances for the neighbours language learning: - Polish-Ukrainian border contacts connected with small but significant for both economies trade. - Ukrainians taking up work in Poland, making their home here. - tourist attractions (cultural heritage, natural values), - contracting marriages by persons of different nationalities; it inspires better acquaintance with the spouse s language and culture, - amicable atmosphere of mutual national relationships, - potentially fast economic growth in Ukraine in the following years (opportunity for investment), These particularities should encourage the Polish people, both young and studying, and business people to expand the educational and commercial contacts with the East. To do so, they must refer to the study of the language and culture of these countries. 17

18 2. Language use and language awareness 2.1. Language as a component of identity. Language attitudes and representations. Prestige It is common knowledge that every social system has its culture, and conversely every culture is related to a particular social system. The same individuals simultaneously belong to a social system and cultural system, so they create the socio-cultural system altogether 29. Thus, the socio-cultural identity is the form of collective identity and pertains to the groups which are rich and productive enough to allow versatile development of individuals 30. Such socio-cultural systems are referred to as societies. Taking into consideration the sole identification with a particular nation or ethnic group, a very simplified picture of reality emerges. Frequently, this is enough to mobilize certain social category or group to take definite actions. However, we cannot unequivocally determine the participation of individuals, categories or groups in a concrete culture. Two persons belong to the same nation if and only if they take part in the same culture, that is, a system of ideas, signs, associations, manners of behaviour and communication; then they are considered to be the same nation 31. When looking for the answer to the question of who we are, where we come from and what we are like, we discover a system of elements, in particular: commonly recognized people, places, historical events together with their interpretations characteristic of a given group, typical frames of normative reference, symbols, and specific language (chiefly in the semiotic sense) 32. The research proves a high rank of language in preserving ethnic identity of the East and Central European nations 33. It is assumed that these nations having been deprived of their own states for over 120 years (Poles), having their state episodically (Ukrainians), or actually never having their own state before (Belarusans) could only transfer their identity to the succeeding generations through culture (sometimes against resolute actions of the occupational authorities). Such a phenomenon is called the cultural society L. Dyczewski, Kultura polska w okresie przemian [Polish Culture in the Time of Change], Lublin 1993, p See R. Szwed, Tożsamość a obcość kulturowa [Identity and Cultural Alienage], Lublin 2003, pp E. Gellner, Narody i nacjonalizm [Nations and Nationalism], Warszawa 1991, p. 16. Quoted after M. Sołecki, Poczucie tożsamości narodowej uczniów liceów ogólnokształcących z białoruskim i litewskim językiem nauczania [The Sense of National Identity of High School Students at Schools with Belarusan and Lithuanian Language of Teaching], [in:] Edukacja a tożsamość etniczna. Materiały z konferencji naukowej w Rabce [Education and Ethnic Identity. Materials from the scientific conference in Rabka], M. M. Urlińska, ed., Toruń 1995, p L. Dyczewski, Kultura polska..., p J. Smolicz, Język jako wartość rdzenna [Language as Indigenous Value], [in:] Oblicza polskości [The Facets of Being Polish], A. Kłoskowska, ed., Warszawa 1990, pp Ibid. 18

19 The role and weight of languages in identity can only be discussed when a categorial classification is made of ethnic groups and languages they may encounter in Poland. The following theoretical categories surface: 1. National minorities and the significance of mother tongues for their own ethnic identity; a national minority it is a group of citizens of a certain country being of another nationality in cultural (not political) meaning than the greater part of citizens of the country. They have all civic rights and, at the same time, another national identity, in short Polish citizens of nonpolish descent. 2. Foreigners staying in Poland and the significance of their mother tongue for their ethnic identity citizens of other countries than Poland, which are staying in Poland (as workers, students etc.) during some period of time (foreign citizens). 3. Poles and the significance of the neighbouring nations languages for their identity. We have in mind Polish citizens, which identify with Polish nation (in cultural meaning). A descent of a certain person in countries of Central-Eastern Europe joins with nationality (in cultural meaning), but not with their forefather s citizenship. In this meaning we use category people of Polish origin (descent). The form of the relationships between the language and socio-cultural identity may be twofold. Descriptive: What is the language-nation relationship like and ideological: What should the language-nation relationship be like 35. From the point of view of a culture participant mainly in the socio-technical function the ideological approach is more critical. Through the realization of the projected relationship language-ethnic identity, the basic postulates of minority groups can be achieved: legitimacy and preservation of their identity in the surrounding majority, and also the live contact (and not mythological) with the native culture. Ad.1. National minorities and the significance of their mother tongue for their own ethnic identity. Language is an essential part of the socio-cultural identity; however, to regard a specific language as the medium of this identity, it must be the language in which the culture and broadly understood cultural heritage are generated. If the contemporary Ukrainian culture is created in Ukrainian, and also it is assumed to be the language of the national heritage, then it can be unquestionably stated that it is the carrier of the Ukrainian identity. It enables the contact, understanding, gives the sense of inseparable belonging to the nation, and cements generations. Definitely, this is not the case with the Belarusan nation, where most of the culture is created and distributed in Russian. For this nation, Belarusan is of secondary importance giving in the hierarchy of ethnic identifications priority to: the Orthodox denomination and the attachment to the land as 35 J. Bartmiński, Język nośnikiem tożsamości narodowej i przejawem otwartości [Language as the Medium of National Identity and Sign of Openness], [in:] Tożsamość polska i otwartość na inne społeczeństwa [Polish Identity and Openness to Other Nations], L. Dyczewski, ed., Lublin 1996, p

20 the little homeland 36. The language, and in fact the Belarusan dialect, used by Belarusans in Poland is not commonly accepted, known and even hasn t any systematic orthographic and grammatical study 37. Ad.2. Foreigners in Poland and the significance of their mother tongue for their own ethnic identity Lublin is home to the representatives of different nations (table 1), with the Ukrainian minority prevailing (about 500 people). Table 1 Foreign students in the Lublin region 38 Years Students Graduates Total Of Polish origin Total Of Polish origin 1998/ / / / The presence of the native language for a foreigner in Poland is from the viewpoint of identity less important than in the case of a member of the national minority. In the light of a nationwide research carried out within this group, the survey has proved a low level of assimilation with the Polish culture; nevertheless, only 7% of the surveyed declared the will to retain their citizenship after their studies in Poland (79% would like to have dual nationality, and 10% only Polish) 39. An important occurrence is low prestige of the eastern neighbours languages, and also their cultures. What features in the Polish attitude is the treatment of the post-soviet nations and cultures which manifests itself in the use of the pejorative term Russky, which implies the loss of social prestige 40. For a foreigner, the possibility to meet their own language abroad is de facto the only way they can get associated with their native culture. It strengthens the sense of national pride, and less to find clone values, standards and references, and current participation in their own culture J. Nikitorowicz, Tożsamość w edukacyjnym procesie wielokulturowym [Identity in the Educational Multicultural Process], [in:] [Education and Ethnic Identity], M. M. Urlińska, ed., Toruń 1995, p There are even attempts to write Belarusan dialects by means of the Latin alphabet. Cf. J. Maksymiuk, Pisati po-svojomu. To znaczy, po jakiemu? I gdzie? [Pisati po-svojomu. That is how? And where?], [in:] Czasopis No. 02/2005. See the web site of the Belarusan minority in Poland: 38 Self-study on the basis of the Statistical Yearbook of the Lubelskie Province, Lublin 2002, tab. 21 (211) 39 R. Dzwonkowski., O. Gorbaniuk, J. Gorbaniuk, Świadomość narodowa młodzieży polskiego pochodzenia z byłego ZSSR studiującej w Polsce [National Awareness of the Former SU Youth of Polish Origin Studying in Poland], Lublin 2002, p Ibid. 41 When in touch with an alien culture, frequently an identity blend takes place the formation of a mixed identity. The literature on the subject discusses the following situations: - Assimilation: thorough adoption of a foreign culture that replaces one s own culture; 20

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