THE TEACHING OF GEODESY AT THE HIGHER SCHOOLS OF LVOV TILL THE YEAR 1914


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1 POLISH.A.C.A.DEMY OF SCIENCES THE KR.A.K6W SECTION Proceedings of the Mining and Geodesy Co=ission, Geodesy 32, 1986 ISSN ISBN X JERZY KRA WCZYK THE TEACHING OF GEODESY AT THE HIGHER SCHOOLS OF LVOV TILL THE YEAR 1914 Abstract. The consecutive development stages and the teaching scope of geodesy at the Higher Schools of Lvov till 1914 a1 e presented, beginning with the practical geometry through surveying till the geodesy and the assembly of geodetic sciences. The manuals serving for lectures a1 e discussed and the lectu1 es of the individual subjects are presentecl. 1. The origins On the turn of the 17th century the intellectual life of West Europe veered round towards the natural and mathematical sciences..as a result, new subjects appeared in the curricula. Mathematics and physics lying at the foundations of development of industry, new war techniques, architecture or surveying gained more and more importance besides the teaching of ancient languages. The reformational trends towards enlightment in the field of education found their reflection also at the Jesuits' educational system which was the most widely spread in Poland at that time.. The first step to introduce the change in education at the Jesuits' colleges was in 1730 the founding of a special study for the graduates of the philosophy course, which had to educate the candidates for future teachers in mathematics. This study was first run at Krasny Staw and then, since 1743, at the college of Lvov, founded as early as in Faustin Grodzicki ( ), l\fichael Ra.dzimowski ( ), Thomas Siekierzynski ( ), and Lodewick Hoszowski ( ) taught at this study [7]. Faustin Grodzicki contributed highly to the rise in the level of teaching at the Jesuits' colleges. By lecturing for six years at the study and then by teaching mathematics at the college's philosophy course he educated a group of the first teachers in this subject and he helped several of them to continue the study of mathematics abroad [7]. Grodzicki taught arithmetics, geometry statistics, mechanics, hydrostatics, perspective, civil and military a.rchitecture [30]. Such a comprehensive scope of lectures must have included at least the basic knowledge of surveing.
2 96 Jerzy Krawczyk The few preserved sources allow us to maintain with certainty that the lectures in practical geometry applications were held in the framework of mathematics at least since mid 18th century at the Jesuits' college in Lvov and at the Collegium Nobilium associated with it since In the prospectus edited in Lvov in 1749 (probably by Glower) at the occasion of inauguration of the Collegium Nobilium, we can read among others: "Adultioribus proponetu? Geometria practica, et cum Civilis, tum Militaris Architectura... " [18] ("practical geometry and either civil or military architecture will be proposed to the older ones... " the present author's translation). A doubtlessly interesting source concerning the scope of lectures in practical geometry could be the leaflet "The Important Parts of Mathematical Sciences: Field Surveing, Building at Home, explained by a lecture of the foremost rules proper to both parts... " [8], edited probably at the occasion of an annual show of the students of Lvov's college in Unfortunately, we did not come across of a.ny trace of that publication despite the investigations conducted in Polish libraries. However, the title alone allows presuming that much attention was paid to surveying if it became a subject of an annua.i test. According to Bedna.rski, attention was paid to practical application of mathematics and physics also at noblemen' colleges. Arithmetic, algebra, geometry and trigonometry were taught among others during the first year of study and the students went to perform surveing two times a week in summer. The generalization of Bednarski concerned also the Collegium Nobilium in Lvov [7]. When discussing the importance of the college of Lvov we must not forget that the Jesuits aimed at transforming it into an academy, ie a higher school. Alrea.dy in the year 1661 king John Casimirus granted the college the rights of an academy but the matter remained suspended because of opposition of the part of Academy of Cracov. However, the tenacity of purpose of the Jesuits lead to repeated confirmation of the foundation by king Augustus the Third in 1661 and the college of Lvov began to be called the Academy of Jesuits, conducting academic education till 1773 [71]. In order to get the college of Lvov acknowledged as a higher school, the Jesuits had to provide it with the best staff. The lecturers of the study in mathematics mentioned above were also professors of this subject in the college. Thus, in Grodzicki taught mathematics at the study but also physics at the college. However, mathematics was taught by Radziminowski at the college [10 ]. In 1754 Faustin Grodzicki was a full professor of mathematics at the college, while Michael Radziminowski was an associate professor. In the Jesuits' Collegium Nobilium mathematics was taught during the years by Jan!Joyko (!Jojko) [16, 19, 251, who became then a member of the Society of Elementary Books of the Commission of National Education [16]. In 1760 Thomas Siekierzynski became a professor of mathematics at the couege. At the same time he lectured at the study of mathematics which was attended by J6zef Koblanski, Piotr Malczewski and J6zef Pisarski [9]. J6zef
3 Koblanski became later a member of a commission which estimated the manuals for mathematics for the schools of the Commission of National Education..At the Collegium Nobilium, mathematics and history was taught by a certain J6zef Potoczynski [9]. Siekierzynski had an excellent scientific background..after graduation at the study of mathematics of Grodzicki, he studied for two more years in Prague, where the prominent Czech mathematician, the Jesuit Stepling was lecturing at that time. In 1760 he published a comprehensive manual of arithmetics: ".Arithmetics that is the Science of Calculation" [7]. Its follower, Lodewick Hoszowski, after mathematical studies at home, took a twoyears long study in Vienna and after coming home to Lvov and beginning the lectures at the college he began to build and equip the astronomical observatory. Before departing for Vienna, he published the work "Synopsis philosophiae recentoris" (Lvov 1766) [7, 8]..According to Bednarski, in this work "... all Hoszowski's philosophy of nature has been founded on the theories of Newton and the Jesuit Boscovich; talking about probability at logics, applying algebraic formulae (... ) ; the physics of Hoszowski has been already an exclusively experimental science." [7]. In Lvov existed also, probably as early as since the 15th century, the metropolitan school being an academic colony of the.academy of Oracov. The opening of the Jesuits' College called its downfall and Lukasiewicz wrote: "... the academic colony in Lvov (... ) could not blossom and rise from a school being a little higher than the elementary ones to the rank of higher schools (... ). However in the 18th century it was a higher school and besides of a school master, being a professor of theology, it had seven professors... " [25 ]. One of them was the professor of mathematics,. Michael Lipiewicz, sworn royal land surveyor, brother of.andrew Dominic Lipiewicz, a professor of mathematics at the.academy of Cracov and college of Poznan, and a sworn surveyor (19, 68]. It should be persumed that in his lectures Lipiewicz also paid attention to practical applications of geometry. The first partition of Poland and the cassation of the Jesuits' convent in 1773 closed the initial, in the framework of mathematics, period of lectures on practical geometry in Lvov. However, during the 18th century a more and more pronounced division of mathematics occurred in Europe, into the so called pure, ie theoretical and the applied mathematics. Into the composition of the latter entered, among others, the mechanics and the practical geometry comprising surveying and levelling at that time. Sometimes the practical geometry has been also called practical mathematics Practical geometry as an independent scientific line.after the incorporation of Lvov into the.austrian Empire (as a result of the first partition of Poland) the formation of special studies in the buildings of the closed down Jesuits'.Academy, modelled after the reformed.austrian "'1  Geodesy, Photogrammetry
4 98 Jerzy Krawczyk universities, has been started. The Collegi~tm Medicum and somewhat later a study of philosophical and legal sciences, and then in 1776 the theological studies were formed [60]. Theoretica,l and practica,l mathematics and physics were taught among others at the philosophical studies. The lectures on these subjects were held by the members of the surveying committee who were in charge of cartographical surveying of the newly occupied land just after occupation of Ga.licia by the Austrians [15]. Fig. 1. University of Lvov (xylograph of K. Krajewski [17]) The University of Lvov, called Josepbian University, was founded by the emperor Josepb the Second in the year 1784, in the place of all Lvov's higher schools which bad existed so fa.r. The language of lectures was Latin as the knowledge of German language was so rare among students, that the professor of this language and literature, W. Umlauf bad no lay students besides of the clerics which were obliged to attend. The professors of this university stemmed from different Austrian universities and mostly from those which bad been closed down during the Joseph's!I reform of the school system. This group was a closed society, separated from the society of Lvov by its language and customs [60]. The two initial years of study were organized in the inauguration year and the third one in 1785 when the department of practical mathematics, ie surveing, was fromed among others at the philosophy faculty. This department was an associate one, ie it was not obligatory to attend the lectures of this
5 The Teaching of Geodesy at the Higher Schools of Lvov subject..a certain Fell, lyceum professor, was appointed to the post of the lecturer on practical mathematics. However, he refused t? accept the appointment for health reasons. Thus, the chair went to John Holfeld [15] ( ) of Austrian origin, who after having left the Jesuits Convent became involved in engineering and practical surveying. In 1793 he published his work on "N eue Theorie von der Wahl und Standlinien nebst trigonometrischer Berechnung der Fehler in Winkelmesse". In 1796 he carried through, together with baron Mezburg, the triangulation and cartographical survey of West Galicia [17]. For each subject a separate manual was obligatory (on the basis of an imperial o;rder), from which to depart it was forbidden under penalty of a reproof or even withdrawal from chair. In spite of this, Holfeld did not stick strictly to a single manual [15]. With the permission of the authorities he dictated his lectures "... iuxta scripta ex variis concinnata... " [31] ( "... according to notes from different works... " using among others the works of de la Caille, Euler, Taquet [15], and probably I. T. Mayer. The lectures on practical geometry were delivered three times a week, an hour each [31]. In the year 1805, the University of Lvov was moved to Cracov and amalgamated with the University existing there. The reasons for this were.austria 's financia.i difficulties caused by the wa.rs wa.ged a,gainst Napoleon as well as the occupation of Cracov by Austria as a result of the 3rd partition of Poland. The J osephian University ceased to exist. During the years between 1805 and its place wa,s taken by the lyceum with the faculties of: philosophy, theology, law, and the study of surgery. At the study of philosophy there were five ordina,ry chairs. The lectures on practical geometry, as being extraordinary ones, were closed down [15]. However, as soon as in the year 1808, the extrruordinary chairs of pmctica,l geomet;ry a.nd natural history were reinstalled in the Lvov's lyceum and the education in surveying and foundations of agriculture was added to them. The lectures on practical geometry were delivered by Holfeld, who did not move to Cracov and lectured on mathematics in the lyceum since 1806 [15]. In 1813 he was replaced in lecturing on mathematics by Francis Kodesch ( }, being of Czech origin, who already in 1787 succeeded after Rain to the chair of pure and applied mathematics in result of an open competition, and who in 1805 was moved to the University in Cracov, where he lectured on practical geometry and mathematics for four years. After Kodesch's death Holfeld took over also the lectures on practical geometry [73 ]. The repea.ted foundation of the University of Lvov on the basis of the lyceum, by Francis the First in 1817, consisted essentially in a change of the name. The organization system remained unchanged, the same professors continued lecturing and the number of chairs was not increased. At the faculty of philosophy the langua,ge of lectures was German and the faculties of teology and law it was Latin [60]. The practical geometry was still counted among the nonobligatory subject~! and it was ta,ught by the professor of mathematics for an annual remuneration
6 100 Jerzy Krawczyk (allowance) of 400 florins [15]. It was taught by Kodesch, who left a manual of practical geometry in manuscript according to which he had lectured. This manuscript was modelled after I. T. Mayer's manual "Grundlinien zur praktischen Geometrie" [73]. Kodesch published also several works on mathematics. As Mayer's work was the formal basis of the lectures on this subject for at least 20 years, even in the yea,r 1835 [44, 46], we shall discuss its contents briefly. The first edition, from comprised only three volumes, while the second one, from was extended by Mayer by two more ones. In the first volume, the author discussed among others the principles of measurement of straight and curvilinear lines, both in the field and on paper as well as of angles, and the instruments needed therefore: the surveyor's table, astrolabe, and compass. The second volume contained a lecture on errors at measurements of angles, on measuring accessible and inaccessible lines in the field, on measuring altitudes, and on the effects of measuring errors. In the third volume Mayer presented among others principles of measurements of individual parts of boundaries (einzelnes Stiicke einer Feldmark) and of whole boundaries of a town or village (einer ganzen Stadt oder Dorfe gehoringen Feldmark) as well as the way of preparing a survey register (Vermessungsregister), calculation of area, principles of triangulation (Verwandlung der Figuren in gleich grosse Dreyecke ), principles of division of fields by calculation or only by drawing, establishing and location of highways (Anlegung und Leitung der Strassen), drawing of land charts (Entwerfung der Charte eines ganzen Lande) and fina.lly the principles and instruments for levelling. The volumes four and five continued the lecture on practical geometry and at the same time they constituted independent manuals with own titles. The fourth volume discussed the principles of cb. awing charts of continents, seas and sky, and the fifth was an introduction into practica,l stereometry with practical applications at converting measures and volumes (Gefasse), in the art of surveying (Visirkunst), in the art of building, at fortification and in forestry. Holfeld, having extensive surveying practice, was able to lecture within an enlarged scope, quoting examples from his own activity. However, Kodesch was involved at the same time in lecturing on mathematics, and he treated the dasses in practical geometry rather superficially. This could be inferred from a remark of Waclaw Zaleski ( ), a poet, critic, playwright and for some time Kodesch's assistant in lecturing on mathematics, who characterized his master's lectures on practical geometry in the following way: "The scope of this teaching was not large but to begin with and in a scanty time allowance it was quite sufficient" [73]. In the meantime, the efforts for creation of engineering studies in Lvov brought a partial success, for in 1817 a Real School was formed in Lvov patterned after the Real Academy existing in Vienna and educating young people: "... particularly in those subjects which are indispensable for thorough knowledge of all kinds of industries, handicraft, economics, forestry and every civil service" [11].
7 The Teaching of Geodesy at the Higher Schools of Lvov In this school, knowledge about commerce, the law on bills, accountancy, mathematics, physics, chemistry and engineering was taught among others in Germa,n la,nguage [11 ]. However, not sooner as on the basis of the imperial rescript of December 16th, 1825 the Rea,l School of Lvov was recognized into a preparatory school for engineering sciences and the alumni were allowed to attend the University of Lvov for lectmes on: physics with mechanics (8 hours pe1 week), overall and engineering chemistry (5 h), agriculture and forestry (5 h), practical geometry (3 h), building (5 h), drawing (10 h) [72]. In conjunction with this, the number of extraordinary lectures, comprising the subjects mentioned above, was enla,rged in the form of the so called "Freie Studien", at the philosophical faculty [46, 47]. At this study it was possible to get educated, among others, in the professions of a builder or surveyor. A ca.ndidate to the profession of a builder had to study physics, building and practical geometry, whereas a candidate of surveying had to study physics, practical geometry and possible fa,rming [72]. However, only few took the opportunity of acquiring knowledge at the university: "two or three such volunteers were counted" [15], which of course could not satisfy the country's needs..after Kodesch's death, the mentioned earlier Waclaw Zaleski was appointed temporarily to the chair pf mathematics and practical geometry from October 15th, 1831 on..already during , he was Kodesch's assistant at mathematics at the university. In spite of this, Zaleski hesitated as in particular it would require much preparatory work on his part. Finally, he succeeded to the chair for the time of one course. In February 1832, to this chair was appointed temporarily professor Angus tus Kunzek [28] ( ), who since 1824 lectured on physics and the so called applied mathematics at the University of Lvov [24]. Into the competition written out for filling out the chair of mathematics entered ten ca.ndidates. Finally in 1834 the chair was given to Leopold Schutz von Straschnitzky ( ) one of the most prominent Austrian mathematicians of the 19th century. He lectured at the University of Lvov till1838 when he received a chair at the polytechnics of Vienna [15 ]..After Straschnitzky had stepped down, into the competition for filling up the chair of mathematics a.nd by this also the practical geometry entered as many as 20 candidates..after long negotiations, Ignatius Lemoch ( ) was appointed to the chair not sooner than in In the period between withdrawal of Straschnitzky and approva.l of Lemoch, Augustus Kunzek lectured again on mathcma tics in proxy, assisted by the senior lecturer Joseph Kudelka [15]. Lemoch lectured on elementary, and later also on higher mathematics and practical geometry according to the manuals of I. Appeltauer "Elementa matheseos pume" and G. Winkler "Die praktische Geometrie" [15, 29]. The first edition of the latter ma,nual appeared in Vienna in 1817 as the second volume of the work: "Lehrbuch der Geometrie". Lemoch was interested more in the practical geometry than in theoretic:d mathematics, so he wrote for geometry a ma,nual "Lehrbuch der pra,ktischen
8 102 Jerzy Krawczyk Geometric" [29] consisting of two volumes, of which the fij:st edition appeared in Vienna in In the first volume, the author discussed the principles of linear measurement and the theory, description, rectification and use of instruments for measuring angles. The second volume was divided into three main sections: land surveying (Landesvermesserung), theory of measuring altitudes (Theorie des Hohenmessens) and levelling (Das Nivelliren). The essential change in the second edition from 1857 was the extension of the manual's contents by the principles of mine surveying which was shown in the title ( "Lehrbuch der praktischen Geometric nebst einem Anhange iiber die Elemente der Markscheidekunst"). It should be stressed that this was one of the first manuals of surveying considering the principles of mine surveying. Neither Winkler nor Mayer earlier, did find it necessary to include sections on mine surveying into their works. The second edition of Lemoch's work bore ah eady all ma.rks of a modern manual with examples of topographical drawings, geodetic calculations and figures showing geodetic instruments in the text. The first edition of this manual, like the other ones issued earlier, had the figures of surveying instruments added at the books end. 3. Geodesy in the curriculum of the engineering studies.as a result of the striving for creation of separate engineering education in Galicia the emperor permitted by his decree of January 24th, 1843 to form a two years Engineering Department at the Real Commerce.Academy formed in 1835 on the basis of the reorganized Real School..According to the draft curriculum, elaborated by the Viennese Education Commission, practical geometry was to be lectured for two hours weekly in the first year of study. The draft provided for a lecture on practical geometry delivered by a teacher in elementary mathematics from the Real School, however, as a result of the suggestions of the organization commission in Lvov, in the composition of which also Lemoch entered among others, the organization of the school called.academy of Engineering was modified, in that the time of study was extended to a period of three years. By a decree of the Education Commission of February 16th, 1844 it was orda.ined among others that the lectures on practical geometry be moved from the University to the.academy of Engineering. From that time on a professor of the elementary mathematics at the University was to lecture on practical geometry a.nd topographical drawing at the Engineering Department of the.academy in the second year of study, for a remuneration of 200 florins [72]. Ignatius Lemoch was appointed to this lecture. The low level of knowledge represented by the young people joining the.academy, where the education was in German, soon forced the academy authorities to reorganize the curriculum.
9 The Teaching of Geodesy at the Higher Schools of Lvov A curriculum of four years of study wa.s introduced only in 184 7/48. From this time on the practical geometry was taught in the form of commissioned lecture for tbj:ee hours a week in the fourth year of study [72]. One of the abliest professors of the then.academy, Joseph Weiser, characterized the course of education at this academy as:"... The Enginee;ring Department of this institution begins in the first year from introduction to drawing, being so much necessary in the practical vocation and from thorough education in elementary mathematics. In the second year, the education of higher mathematics is continued, which is indispensable for teaching the practical geometry, mechanics and building, as well as of physics which is necessary for application of the above. What is theoretically taught, is at the same time proved by physical experiments, necessa.ry for explanation. A pupil who wants to become a good engineer chooses then the science suita.ble for his future vocation, in order to become la.ter a builder, mechanician, surveyor ol' chemist (... ) To the science of surveing are closely related the topographical drawings and the lecture on application of all surveying instruments used by the students in the field during the summer course (... ) In the timetable of school work care was taken that those who want to devote themselves to building could acquire the necessary kr;.owledge in mecha.nics, surveying and chemistry, equally as those devoting themselves to mechanics could get acquainted with building, surveying and chemistry... " [70]. The curriculum shaped in the fourties of the 19th century did not change virtually till One of the few modifications consisted in extension of the lecture of practical geometry up to five hours a week. The teaching time of situation drawing, supplementing the lectures, was also increa.sed up to five hours; in conjunction with this, the annual remuneration for professor Lemoch was risen from 200 to 500 florins [72]. The cri1cial year for the lectures of geodesy was Instead of the so far commissioned lectures on practical geometry an ordinary chair of geodesy and spherical astronomy was formed at the.academy of Engineering. Dominik Zbrozek ( ) was appointed to the chail, who had been earlier an assistant at the chair of geodesy at the Polytechnical Institute in Prague. The post of professor's assistant was created at the cha.ir as one of the first, in 1872, appraising by this the importance of the lectures on geodesy for the polytechnical education. The year 1871 initiated also a reorganization of the academy and its polonization which entailed among others a partial exchange of the teaching staff. After completed reorganization in 1876 the academy was divided into four departments: engineering, building, machine building and engineering chemistry [20]. Geodesy was lectured at the Engineering Department, where in the second year the lower geodesy a.nd in the third the higher one was taught, as well as at the departments of: Building, Machine Building, where lower geodesy was lectured during the second year. Moreover, in the framework of special lectures, Zbrozek lectured on spherical a.stronomy.
10 104 Jerzy Krawczyk On the basis of the order of the Minister of Religions and Education of July 12th, 1878 concerning examinations, geodesy was a subject of both the first (general) and the second (professional) exams. As one of the subjects ofthe first exam it was credited at the department of civil engineering and of the second exam, at the department of engineering and machine building at the polytechnic of Lvov [32]. Within the lower geodesy Zbrozek discussed the following topics: the simplest survey operations, surveying smaller areas, surveying by means of angle measuring instruments and the surveyor's table, gra.phica1 triangulation, setting out arcs, calculating areas, geometrica.i and barometrical measuring of altitudes, levelling, constructing contours, drawing cadastral charts a.nd hachured or contour line plans. To realize this program, the schedule of studies provided 4 hours of lectures and 4 hours of drawing a week in both semesters and 2 hours of classes in the winter semester; surveying in the field lasting for 20 days was provided in the summer semester. The curriculum in the higher geodesy comprised lectures on the theory of least squares, trigonometrical measuring of altitudes and tachimetry, determining geographicallongitudes and latitudes, spherical calculation of triangles compensation of triangular networks using the method of least squares, spheroidal geodesy, geodetic lines and cartography. Fig. 2. The main building of the Polytechnical School in Lvov [72]
11 The Teaching of Geodesy at the Higher Schools of Lvov To complete the above progra.m, the schedule of studies provided in a week 5 hours of lectures, 2 hours drawing and 1 hour of classes during both semesters [32]. Thanks to the efforts of Zbrozek an astronomical observatory and then a meteorogical station was established at the Polytechnical School (in 1877 the.academy was renamed "Technische Hochschule" the Polish equivalent of which is the name "Szkola Politechniczna"). The observatory was esta.blished in the new building of the Polytechnical School, built during the years In this observatory no important astronomical observations were performed at the time of Zbrozek. It served mainly to provide the students of the engineering department with practica.i knowledge in a.stronomy [43]..After Zbrozek's death in 1889, the collegium of p;rofessors endeavoured to divide the chair of geodesy into two independent didactic units: the chairs of surveying and astronomy. This was important as there was a.iso no chair of astronomy at the University of Lvov. The issue of the chair's division dragged on through several years, dming which the geodesy a.nd astronomy were taught in proxy by lecturers from other chairs. The situation was brought to normal only in 1894/1895. In place of the chair of geodesy, the chair of surveying was set up then, to which Seweryn Widt ( ), a former assistant of Zbrozek was a.ppointed. However, since October 1st, 1895 the cha.ir of higher Fig. 3. Scverin Widt [69] Fig. 4. Waclaw Laska (collection of Z. TraczewskaB ialek)
12 106 J erzy Krawczyk geodesy was introduced, to which Waclaw Laska ( ) a Czech was appointed, being at that time a reader of higher geodesy at the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Cha;rles in Prague. Laska contributed to the extension of the astronomical observatory. He equipped it with a refractor by means of which observations were begun of pbnet ::md comet positions, eclipses of stars and other occasional observations [43]. These observations were made by Martin Ernst ( ) who was a.n assistant at the chair of astronomy and higher geodesy during and later 'the professor of astronomy at the University of Lvov [23]. The Polytechnic of Lvov, established in the seventies of the 19th century did not educate SUl'veyors. In the mea.ntime, the order of the Minister of Interior issued in November 1886, being a novelization of the ministerial order of December 11th, 1860, concerning the professional division of private technicians had enumerated the following categories of them: building engineers, architects, engineers of machine building, surveyors. According to the order a civil surveyor, applying for government licence for conducting work, wa,s obliged to submit certificates of passing (in an Austrian polytechnical school or agricultural academy) examinations in the whole mathematics, descriptive geometry, physics, lower and higher geodesy. Independently of the technical study it was required to produce "credible certificates" on three years of practice performed. This practice could be performed at work conducted by national, territorial or communal administration or by building engineer or surveyor licenced by government. Candidates satisfying the above conditions had still to pass an examination including: performing practical jobs in surveying in field and written calculations; oral examination in mathematics and geodesy; examination in legislature concerning land cadaster, agreement between cadaster documents of the land cada.ster and the land books and land integration [27]. It could appear that the candidates to a post of a surveyor should be recruited from those polytechnical students which completed at least two years of study and then stopped. However, such cases happened rarely, for according to the "Regulations on examinations in polytechnical schools" from 1878, at the engineering department the lower and higher geodesy was the subject of only the second, ie the professional state examination [39], and at the other departments only the lower geodesy was taught. In Galicia, lack of suitably educated surveyors was felt both in governmental and private (civil) service. In the meantime, mainly practicians without proper theoretical education, turned up for e:x:amination for a civil surveyor. Taking this all into account, the collegium of professors of the Polytechnical School in Lvov elaborated in 1893 and submitted before the Ministry of Education an application for this matter. The collegium suggested among others that a course for surveyors, lasting for two years, be formed at the Engineering Department, and that a state examination for surveyors be introduced in the
13 The Teaching of Geodesy at the Higher Schools of Lvov Polytechnical School [13]. This application was sent by the Viennese Ministry of Edu<;ation for assessment to the Direction of Treasury in Lvov which submitted soon its opinion (consistent with the suggestions of the professors' collegium) to the ministry [72]. Thus, during the academic yea.r 1894/1895, the collegium of professors elabomted and presented to the ministry a detailed curriculum for this course [11]. Finally, the Ministry of R eligion and Education, by its order of February 22nd, 1896, approved the formation of a two years surveyors' course at all polytechnics of the monarchy, based on the draft elaborated at the polytechnics of Lvov..According to the resmipt, the opening of the first year had to follow already on October 1st, 1896, and of the second year on October 1st, Moreover, the n'linistry reserved itself the issuing of separate regulations on the examinations at the surveyors' course [33]..As in Lvov a significant number of students reported their readiness to go over at once from other lines of study to the second year of the course, the professors' collegium made efforts to organize both years of the surveying study in 1896 [1]. The Ministry of Education complied with the request and by the order of Juli 15th 1896 permitted to begin lectures at the first and second year of the course at the same time [8]. The curriculum is given in Table 1. The problems of the state examination at the course for surveyors were regulated by the order of the Ministry of Religion and Education of Septem Table! Curriculum at the two years' course of surveyors of the Polytechnical School in Lvov summer Semester winter Year Subjects b.() b.() rt1 Cl) ~ rd Cl) "' ~ rt1... Cl)... Cl) p ~ p ~ "' "' <:)... ce <:)... a! +> ce w +> a! "' 2 '1::1 0 2 '1::1 0 Mathematics ' Descriptive geometry I Geodesy I Physics Social economy Mathematics Geodesy II Spherical astronomy Higher geodesy II 20 days' classes in geodesy Encyclopaedia of agriculture Qua.lity of soil l   Administration l   Land books l   Lectures on cadastre and statutes Encyclopaedia of forestry I
14 108 Jerzy Krawczyk ber 4th, Paragraph 1 of this order reads: ".A. state examination is held in order to establish the scientifictechnical professional skill acquired by the students at this course" [61]. The examination included the following subjects: lowee and higher geodesy,.austrian administration law, acts on public books, lectures on cadastre and acts on surveying. The exam consisted of a practica.l and theoretical part. In the practical part the candidate had to perform a surveyors job in the field and a written elaboration on this problem during up to six days. Having credited the practical examination, the candidate for a surveyor was admitted to an oral theoretical examination in the three subjects mentioned above [61]. The formation of a separate chair of higher geodesy in 1895, bore fruits in the form of significant widening of the scope of geodesic subjects. Widt divided the lectures on lower geometry into two courses. The course of geodesy I was a comprehensive lecture on foundations of surveying, as it was intended not only for students of the surveyors' course, candidates for the mining profession or students of the engineering department but also for students of the departments of machine building and civil engineering, which ended their education at this course. For this reason 4 hours of lectures, 4 hours of dra.wing and 3 hours of classes on one day in the winter semester and 8 hours in the summer semester were alloted for geodesy I. The course of geodesy II wa.s taught at the engineering department, at the cou;rse of surveyors a.nd at a prepa.ratory course for ca.ndida.tes for the mining profession. For this geodesy course the weekly schedule provided 2 hours of lectures in both semesters and 3 hours of classes in the summer semester plus 20 days of surveying in the field. Laska took over the lectures on spherical astronomy a.nd higher geodesy intended for students of the engineering department and the smveyors' course. Four hours of lectures a.nd 2 hours of classes were provided weekly for the spherical astronomy lectured in the winter semester. The topical scope of this subject was as follows: system of coordinates, daily a.nd annual revolution of the terrestial globe, time, effects of refraction, aberration, parallax, retraction of equinoctia.l points, and nutation on cha.nge of coordinates; catalogue of stars ephemerides. The higher geodesy was lectured in the summer semester with a teaching load of 4 hours of lectures and 2 hours of classes on such basic topics as : geodesic coordinates; main problems of geodesy of spheric :md spheroidal coordinates; geophysics; history, theory a.nd praxis of performing survey of the Globe ; principles of drawing charts (ca.rtogra.phy). It should bo stressed that at tha.t time the Polytechnic of Lvov had many outstanding professors which lectured also at the surveyors' course. Mathematics I was lectured by Wladyslaw Zaj~czkow ski, mathematics n by Placyd Dziwinski, descriptive geometry by Mieczyslaw Lazarski, physics by Ka.zimierz Olearski and social economy by Wladyslaw Pilat [33]. For the needs of surveyors' course and for lectures at the other lines Laska published in 1899 his first manual in Polish under the title "Spherical astronomy
15 The Teaching of Geodesy at the Higher Schools of Lvov and higher geodesy". In the same year Widt edited his "Surveying" in four parts. However, in 1903 Laska and Widt edited jointly a manual "Surveying" in two parts. Though this work was not a systematicallecture, it was the only academic manual meeting the then requirements [21 ]. In relation to the still increasing numbers of students, the shortage of manuals was clearly apparent, as the "Surveyors' Circle", formed at the Polytechnic in Lvov, edited printed lectures run off on duplicators for the students. The "Circle" edited among others the following publications: "Lectures on the cadaster" and "Instructions for plane table surveying, from 1907" by Stanislaw Gawel, "Outline of administration" and "The act on Land" by Wladyslaw Pilat, as well as "Highe;r geodesy" and "Lectures on geodesy" in three volumes by Waclaw Laska [22]. The lectures of Laska (run off on duplicators) on surveying, edited probably in 1908, indicated that he often replaced Widt in lectures. About 1902 Widt's "... health deteriorated severely (... ) and after a serious surgery he never regained his full health" [69]. Laska replaced Widt, among others, during a considerable part of the year 1903/1904 when the latter fell severely ill [64]. The permanent rise in numbers of students made it necessary to provide additional lectures for many chairs. The absence of the second professor affected also the didactic process at the chair of surveying. However, only in April 1909 the Ministry of Religion and Education appointed doctor Lucjan Grabowski ( ) to the post of an associate professor of surveying. He had been formerly an assistant and senior lecturer at the Astronomical Observatory of the Jagiellonian University [34]. Already in 1909/1910 Grabowski lectured on.surveying I and higher geodesy [34]. Laska, though still counted among the professors of the Polytechnic of Lvov, did not lecture in this year. By an order of the Ministry of Education he was granted a one year's leave [35]. Also in 1910/1911 Grabowski lectured on surveying I a.nd higher geodesy. The remaining lectures on geodesy (theory of errors and compensation calculus, surveying II, topographical drawings, elements of geodesy and geodesic survey were delivered by Widt [35]. The official withdrawal of!jfllska from the teaching staff occurred only in 1911 when he was appointed to the post of professor of mathematics at the Charles University in Prague [36]. In conjunction with taking over the chair of astronomy and higher geodesy after Laska's departure, since 1911/1912 Grabowski restricted himself to lectures on higher geodesy. Dr Kaspar Weigel ( ), former senior lecturer at the chair of surveying, had to take over from Widt a part of duties connected with lecturing on :surveying. On the grounds of the act qualifying him as an assistant professor, Weigel gained a year earlier the veniam legendi, ie the right of lecturing at higher schools, so he was charged with the lectures for the surveyors' course [36]. Because of deteriorating hea,lth, Widt had to go to the Swiss health resort Davos in October 1911 [69], where he died on March 11th of the next year [37]. Thus Weigel was obliged to take over the lectures, in which he was assisted probably by Grabowski. In the difficult situation in which the chairs of geodesy
16 110 Jerzy Krawczyk had found themselves, Weigel was appointed to the post of an associate professor of surveying and Grabowski to the post of full professor of astronomy and higher geodesy on June 20th, 1912 [37]. However, the activities were still impeded in the face of the absence of a second lecturer. Besides lecturing on surveying I, in proxy, Weigel was obliged to lecture also on the theory of errors, Fig. 5. Kaspar Weigel (collection of the Museum of Technology (NOT) in Warsaw) Fig. 6. Lucjan Grabowski (collection of the Museum of Technology (NOT) in Warsaw) the compensation calculus and on a part of surveying II. The senior leictuer Michael Mendelski [37] was charged with a part of lectures on surveyng II. Also in the next academic year 1913/1914, the teaching staff situation at the chair of smveying became not better a.nd the surveying I was taught in proxy by Charles Wll!torek (professor of railway engineering, and surveying II by Weigl [38]. A radical change occurred only after the end of the I World Wa.l', when a second chair of surveying was formed.
17 The Teaching of Geodesy at the Higher Schools of Lvov Lectures on geodesy at other higher schools in Lvov Geodesy has been also taught at the Agricultural School at Dublany near Lvov and in the School of Forestry in Lvov, as one of the auxiliary subjects which, however, was considered to be indispensable in proper professional education. The Agricultural School in Dublany was founded in the year 1855 as a semihigher institution, as the candidates were required to have completed at least four classes of a Real School or Gymnasium. The education at the Agricultural School lasted for three years and it was divided into theoretical lectures and practical classes. The theoretical part consisted of a course of agricultural edu Fig. 7. The main building of the Agricultural Academy at Dublany (collection of the Museum of the Agricultural Academy in Cracow) cation preceeded by a preparatory course which included two sections: the mathematical one (comprising arithmetics, geometry, surveying and mechanics) as well as the natura.} sciences (including physics, generai and agricultural chemistry and the so called natural history). Practical classes were connected with each subject. Classes on surveying and cartography were connected with geometry and surveying which were taught in the first year of study [6, 12].
18 112 Jerzy Krawczyk In the first years of the school's activity, surveying wa.s taught by the senior lecturer Szczeci:riski and. then by Casimir Pa:rikowski ( ) alumnus of the Dublana School, and its headmaster during It was not possible to find out, if he still lectured on surveying after becoming headmaster or if he was replaced by some other person. In 1867 Thomas SciborRylski was appointed to the post of a senior lecturer of mathematical sciences and probably he also took over the lectures on surveying. Since 1855/1856 Rylski studied engineering for two years at the Institute.of Engineering in Cracov and then at the Polytechnic in Vienna, which he graduated in Mter graduation, he worked in Cracov for a short time at construction of fortifications but then he was engaged in farming till he became appointed to the post of a senior lecturer. In the meantime, in 1868, the school was given new statutes and a curriculum in which the lectures on surveying and levelling appeared in the second year of study, in a three years long system of education [6, 14]. The next reorganization followed already in 1872 when a one years' long preparatory course and two years long professional course was introduced. Candidates with secondary school certificate were admitted directly to the professional course, whereas those less prepared had to attend at first the preparatory course. Mter this reorganization, surveying and levelling were taught during the first year of the professional co~ se [6, 14]. In January 1878 the school was taken over formally by the land authorities (Land Department being the executive limb of the Parliament of Galicia). Till that time the school had been financed by the Agricultural Society of Galicia. As a result of a competition to the posts of the headmaster and the lecturers arranged by the National Department, Thomas SciborRylski was appointed temporarily to the post of the professor of the subject "rural engineering and building" [14] in the framework of which lectu,res were given not only on surveying and levelling but also on descriptive geometry, drawing, agricultural mechanics together with classes, rural building and land melioration [14]..A general reorga.nization of the school followed in It was then renamed as the Higher Agricultural School and the education time was extended up to thj:ee years. The candidates had to have completed at least a higher gymnasium or a higher real school. Surveying and levelling was taught still within the subject "rural engineering" with two hours of lecturing and two homs of classes in the schedule of the 4th semester [6, 14]. In 1882 a new plan of education, approved by the Ministry of Agriculture in Vienna, was introduced, which extended the amount of classes up to four hours per week [55], however it was reduced then back to two hours. The lectures on surveying and levelling were adapted to the needs of agricultural education. The lectures included: setting out of points and boundar y lines; setting out of angles; description, adjustment and use of protractors (clinome
19 The Teaching of Geodesy at the Higher Schools of Lvov ters); drawing of plans t cgether with surface area calculation; division of larger and smaller areas; description of the small and large plane surveying table; methods of making surveying pla.ns, using plane table, by: regional division and surveying, basic dimension, bypassing, bypassing and skipping, talcing a surveying pbn of a forest with sepa.ration of individual lots; division and setting out lot lines in woods. The lectures on levelling comprised: description and adjustment of levelling instruments; drawing profiles; various methods of levelling for gteater or smaller unevennes of land; taking and drawing of ring roads with explanation of their meaning; setting out declivities; levelling of lines and surfaces. In the framework of surveying, levelling included 10 hours of lectures and 10 hours of classes [14]. In the academic year 1894/1895, for the time of his illness, professor Rylski was replaced in lecturing on rural engineering by professor Peter Monasterski, who lectured in the Dublana School on mineralogy, petrography and geology [41, 42]. In 1901, the school of Dublana became the title of Agricultural Academy by a resolution of the Parliament of Galicia, approved by the government in Vienna. In 1903 professor Rylski stepped down from the chair and nobody other was appointed to it, because of the lack of a suitable candidate and the individual branches comprising the subject of "rural engineering" were divided among several lecturers. Surveying and levelling was taught by Sigismundus Demianow~ ski, the professor of this subject in the National School of Forestry in Lvov [4]. In 1904/1905, Casimir Ajdukiewicz, the former reader at Jagiellonian University, wa.s appointed to the post of the professor of rural engineering and from that time en, surveying and levelling was taught in the summer semester of the: first ye::n of study [2, 3]. when in the year 1911/1912 a new schedule of lectures and examinations was introduced to the Dublana Academy, the surveying!.h:d levelling was placed a.gain in the schedule of the 4th semester extending the classes up to three hours pe1 week [40]. Further intended program modifications were interrupted by the outbr.eak of the World War I, during which the academy operated intermittently.. The necessity of making students acquainted with surveying problems was also recognized when the National School of Forestry was established in Lvov in This school was ~ormed by tra,nsforming the private courses in forestry, organized by: the Agricultural Society of Ga.licia at the Polytechnic of Lvov during [66], where the educatioi). lasted for two years (divided. in four courses of five months). The teaching staff consisted of two regular professors (cf which the one was charged with the duties of the school's headmaster) and of several readers lecturing on chemistry, engineering, mathematics with physics, survc>ying ar:d levclli.r:g [48]. For l<:lck of a ~nitable candidate the lectures on surveying began only at the beginning of the su:mmer course in the '. I  Geodesy, Photogrammetry
20 114 Jerzy Krawczyk school year 1874/1875 [49]. The vacant position was given to Bonifacy Df2bkowski, a railway engineer, who however gave up the lecturing at the end of the school year 1874/1875 pleading an excess of duties. Since 1875/1876 Joseph Jaegerman ( ), who was a professor of engineering at the Polytechnical School in Lvov and who lectured on engineering already at the school of forestry, took over the lectures [5, 50]. The National Department which covered the costs of the school tried also to influence the level of education by sending its representants to the final examinations..among othe;rs in 1879 one of the representants wa.s the senior engineer of the National Department, Lodewick Raciborski, who had to verify the methods and results of surveying teaching. Raciborski "... regarded the education methods as adequate. However at questions from the field of geometry or mathematics it could be seen from the students answers that they do not have a sufficient primary education" [51]. In his report for the National Department, he raised also the lack of a good manual for surveying, which could facilitate the unde;rstanding of lectures [51]. One of the first graduates of the forestry school was Sigismundus Demianowski, who gtaduated in 1876 [65] and on March 1st, 1879 began to work at the National School of Forestry as a temporary second senior lecturer [52]. It was just he, who took over lecturing on surveying from Jaegerman since October 1879, which allowed liquidation of the readership on this subject. In addition, Demianowski lectured on forest estimation and taught drawing in surveying [53]. Obviously he must have attained good results in teaching, as he was appointed by the National Department to the post of the first senior lecturer in the school [54] by the decree of September 28th, 1880 and then to the post of a professor. In 1889 the curriculum of the school became organized and the education time was extended up to three years. Since that time, geodesy (surveying and levelling) was taught in the second year of study for three hours a week in both semesters. Moreover, once a week classes were held jn the afternoon, with three hours in the first semester, and four in the second one [56, 57]. The next reorganization of the school was car;ried through in The new curriculum prepared by the direction in 1906 and app;roved by the National Department was introduced since autumn 1907 and approved by the Parliament of Galicia on October 14th, At that time the Parliament decreed also naming the school the "Higher School of Forestry", which contributed considerably to increased numbers of candidates [59, 66]. Since that time the candidates for the school were required having completed six classes of a gymnasium or a real school or alternatively passing an examination after four classes of a secondary school [26, 59]. The scope of lectures on some professional subjects was a.lso significantly extended at this time, among others of surveying too on which the lecturing was extended up to three semesters [62]. In 1909, after 30 years of continuous teaching, professor Demianowsk.i retired. In his place, the National Departmrnt appointed Ladislaus Wojtan
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