Contents. Introduction... 5 WstÍp... 7

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1 Contents Introduction... 5 WstÍp... 7 Exercises I. Vocabulary Practice... 9 A. Definitions B. Lexical equivalents and related words C. Synonyms and antonyms D. Words in context E. Collocations and idioms II. Translation A. Correction of lexical errors in translated sentences B. Translation of sentences containing lexical false friends C. Disambiguation and translation of sentences containing lexical false friends D. Translation of sentences containing idiomatic expressions and phraseological false friends E. Translation of literary passages Answer Key List of English-Polish false friends Literary references

2 Introduction Learning a foreign language ñ a more or less dissimilar system ñ presents us with many challenges at every stage of the process. One of the elements of mastering a foreign tongue is the avoidance of errors which are a result of the traps set for us by the idiosyncratic character of the target language. What evinces a competence in a foreign language is ñ amongst other things ñ the knowledge of its vocabulary and its accurate use in everyday communication. We learn the foreign lexicon all the time, and in this respect we are no different from the native speakers of the language. At the same time, regardless of how advanced in a language we are, we ought to remember that a proficient use of the foreign lexis emerges from a continuing process and involves a constant alertness to the many surprises presented by the target vocabulary. Lexis as a carrier of meaning is especially important in mastering a foreign tongue as the lack of its knowledge may lead to verbal misunderstandings resulting from the incorrect, inaccurate or imprecise use of words and collocations on every level of the communication process. One of the traps set by a foreign language for its learners is the different semantic contents of words which learners take for the semantic equivalent of lexical items in the mother tongue. This happens as learners rely ñ which is the wrong thing to do but partly understandable ñ on the formal similarities between words of the two languages. Full semantic equivalence would no doubt help, to a great extent, master the foreign lexis and, naturally, eliminate ñ from the very beginning ñ the occurrence of major and minor errors. Fortunately, not all formally identical or similar words in two languages have incompatible meanings, i.e. most of them are our true lexical friends carrying in both languages corresponding meanings. A very common phenomenon, however, is the occurrence of words which ñ to the astonishment of learners ñ have dissimilar senses in two languages. These words are a source of many lexical errors as appearances are deceptive. Some words are consequently learnersí false friends. The problem of false friends must not be unnecessarily aggrandised. On the one hand, they are of a very misleading nature; they can deceive even the most experienced teachers, translators, interpreters and dictionary compilers, not to mention learners. On the other hand, their number is relatively small, so that learners should not be discouraged from learning about them, getting used to them and mastering the skills necessary to use them correctly. This book of practical exercises on false friends is intended to help achieve these aims. It has been designed to draw careful attention to this element of the English and Polish lexicons and thus eliminate errors in the use of English vocabulary caused by deceptive lexical similarities between the two languages. The exercises in this book are arranged according to the difficulty involved in doing them (from multiple choice and matching exercises to exercises on translation) and the principle: from definition to use. The exercises are divided into two major groups: Vocabulary Practice, including exercises on individual words as well as collocations and idioms, and Translation. Each has smaller subsections which focus on specific aspects of vocabulary testing. Each exercise may contain false friends which are commonly used as well as those which are infrequent in either language. One false friend may be tested in a variety of exercises, and it seemed impossible to strike a statistical balance between the false friends tested. As this is a practice book on false friends, example sentences abound with them. This happens because the author wanted to draw learnersí attention to false friends and 5

3 test them possibly in a most exhaustive way. As the learner progresses through the book, the level of proficiency and difficulty increases. As the vocabulary tested in this book is not very common and all the false friends are treated as equally significant for a competent user of English, all the exercises in this book present a high level of difficulty. False friends are presented in this book also in the company they keep with other words. In most cases they are submerged in English and Polish lexical co-texts and are tested in collocations, more or less lexicalised. Therefore, a few exercises test the knowledge of collocations and idioms containing false friends. The book tests as well phraseological false friends, which to a great extent completes the description of the phenomenon of false friends in English and Polish. Due to the specific character of the tested vocabularies and the exercises which in many cases go beyond the level of false friends, the book is intended for learners with at least advanced knowledge of English. This is so because the potential user of the book is not so much a beginner but a learner with very good background skills. In the book the English and Polish vocabulary is treated in toto, without dividing it into the categories of lexis expected at elementary, advanced, proficient or academic levels. The key objective of the practice book is to show the whole range of false friends, test and consolidate the knowledge of the vocabulary and reveal new facets of the lexical traps and, in doing so, limit potential errors. The book is meant for both the experienced user (teacher, translator, interpreter, philologist) and the learner of English. It can be used as a self-teaching aid as in the majority of cases answers are provided (open exercises, which could be done with the help of a teacher, do not have a separate answer key). It should be, however, emphasised that the answer key contains only suggestions ñ the author is aware that the exercises could be done in many different ways and still be acceptable. It needs stressing that the model answers contain false friends wherever possible, which means that out of all the possibilities those with false friends were chosen to show the diversity of their meanings and uses. Finally, there is a list of English and Polish false friends which occur at least once in the exercises in the book and a list of the books in English and Polish from which the author extracted relevant excerpts. Make Friends with False Friends is not a coursebook in the English language, but a collection of exercises in a very specific area of English lexis. Therefore it aims at developing the competence of advanced learners of English or Polish who wish to explore the arcana of the two languages and become more native-like in their use of the vocabulary. As the general linguistic competence of Polish learners of English is increasing, there is a need to give them a chance to improve their language skills at a more advanced level. The author wishes the book to become useful in teaching English, inspire teachers of this language to prepare their own exercises and help students of English ñ in the self-teaching process ñ check their knowledge of the language and prompt them to broaden their lexical horizons. While completing the exercises, additional help can be obtained from the authorís English-Polish Dictionary of False Friends (KrakÛw, Egis, 2003). This book owes much to the following people: Dr Ewa Witalisz, Ann Cardwell and Piotr Okas, to whom the author is very grateful for their professional advice. The author remains fully responsible for any errors and mistakes that might still be detected in the book. 6 Grzegorz Szpila

4 I.B. Lexical equivalents and related words 17. Which of the words a, b, c IS NOT the equivalent of the Polish word? 1. sanktuarium: a. temple b. reserve c. shelter 2. pendant: a. charm b. complement c. chandelier 3. partykularny: a. egoistic b. parochial c. specific 4. ministrant: a. layman b. altar boy c. minister 5. laik: a. ignoramus b. layman c. lazybones 6. kiosk: a. telephone box b. bandstand c. news-stand 7. prospekt: a. folder b. chance c. vista 8. irytacja: a. chafe b. annoyance c. nuisance 9. libacja: a. alcohol b. oblation c. drinking party 10. fawor: a. gift b. badge c. kindness 11. recital: a. solo concert b. announcement c. account 12. ewidencja: a. register b. testimony c. proof 13. prowizja: a. commission b. condition c. stock of food 14. denuncjacja: a. informing b. renouncement c. condemnation 15. konspiracja: a. co-operation b. plot c. underground movement 18. Cross out the odd word. 1. carpet, divan, rug, mat 2. circus, trapeze, rectangular, acrobat 3. tracksuit, sweatshirt, dress, work-out 4. story-teller, circus, jongleur, songs 5. urn, cremation, election, ash 6. cosine, sinus, trigonometry, angle 7. academic, hostel, university, teacher 8. tenant, doctor, locum, replacement 9. cigarette, smoking, suit, pipe 10. scene, tableau, posing, memento 11. weather, prognosis, recovering, patient 12. funeral, manners, conduct, etiquette 13. script, film, student, screenwriter 14. cast, ham, plaster, arm 15. rank, counting, census, population 19. Cross out the odd word. 1. pathetic, pompous, pitiable, worthless 2. book, prison, criminal, cell 3. sacrum, profane, bone, skeleton 4. holiday, resort, ministry, seaside 5. theatre, necessity, requisite, need 6. shop, receipt, cash, doctor 22

5 I.B. Lexical equivalents and related words 7. camera, clichè, repetition, banality 8. improvement, water, melioration, betterment 9. marmalade, lime, gooseberry, lemons 10. grades, index, catalogue, library 11. existing, actual, present, real 12. cloth, works, fabric, textile 13. book, exemplar, idol, model 14. expedient, method, shop, strategy 15. plaster, gypsum, sling, arm 20. Explain the differences in meaning and use between the following words. 1. assignation ñ rendez-vous ñ date 2. athlete ñchampion ñcompetitor 3. audience ñauditorium ñspectators 4. brunette ñblonde ñflaxen 5. camisole ñunderwear ñvest 6. canapè ñ sandwich ñ double decker 7. cathedral ñchurch ñminster 8. chalet ñhut ñcottage 9. chef ñcook ñwaiter 10. collaborate ñhelp ñco-operate 11. colleague ñfriend ñcompanion ñchap 12. director ñbaton ñorchestra 13. director ñscreenwriter ñcameraman 14. dress ñcostume ñcreation 15. locale ñlocation ñplace 21. Explain the differences in meaning and use between the following words. 1. magazine ñnewspaper ñjournal 2. marmalade ñjam ñjelly 3. memorial ñtestament ñmonument 4. mentor ñkibitzer ñfan 5. metro ñ underground ñ the tube 6. ministrant ñminister ñvicar 7. novel ñfiction ñbook 8. odour ñsmell ñreek 9. paralytic ñtipsy ñdrunk 10. pasta ñmacaroni ñravioli 23

6 II. A. Correction of lexical errors in translated sentences A. CORRECTION OF LEXICAL ERRORS IN TRANSLATED SENTENCES 63. If the following translations into Polish contain lexical errors, suggest your own correct versions. 1. Never in my life have I met such an accurate man. Nigdy w øyciu nie spotka em tak akuratnego cz owieka. 2. There was a small aeroplane flying over our heads. Nad naszymi g owami krπøy ma y aeroplan. 3. The government is unwilling to subsidize agriculture any longer. Rzπd nie wykazuje juø ochoty na wspieranie finansowe agrykultury. 4. He followed Martinís voyage to Australia. Uda sií do Australii úladami wojaøu Martina. 5. The vicar of the parish has suffered a heart attack. Wikariusz parafii mia atak serca. 6. The most gripping scenes are those of the main characterís escapades. Najbardziej wciπgajπce sπ sceny eskapad g Ûwnego bohatera. 7. It was the place of his first rendezvous with the secret agent. To by o miejsce jego pierwszego rendez-vous z tajnym agentem. 8. They dreaded to think what might happen if the other party broke off the concordat. Przeraøa a ich myúl o tym, co mog oby sií staê, gdyby partner zerwa konkordat. 9. They were showing off their four-wheeled vehicle. Pysznili sií swoim nowym czteroko owym wehiku em. 10. The Chinese get five weeks vacation each year. ChiÒczykom przys uguje co roku piíê tygodni wakacji. 11. We were given some college prospectuses to find out about the life of the school. Dano nam prospekty o kolegium, byúmy zapoznali sií z øyciem szko y. 12. Working with a law firm was an exciting and positive experience for me. Praca w firmie prawniczej by a dla mnie podniecajπcym i pozytywnym doúwiadczeniem. 13. The judge announced a pause in the proceedings of the court. SÍdzia og osi pauzí w posiedzeniu sπdu. 14. Mix four well-beaten eggs with the shortening and flour to form a paste. Aby zrobiê pastí, wymieszaj cztery dobrze ubite jajka z t uszczem i mπkπ. 15. I knew very well that the switchboard operator was not to blame for the engaged line. Wiedzia em, øe operatorka centrali nie ponosi a winy za zajítπ linií. 16. The Crazy Rabbit, where I drink every night, is the most atmospheric local. ÑPod Szalonym KrÛlikiemî, gdzie wypijam drinka co wieczûr, to najsympatyczniejszy lokal. 17. Choosing her outfits she relies on the advice obtained from fashion magazines. W swoim wyborze ubraò polega na radach zaczerpniítych z øurnali mody. 18. Her only aim in life has been to fight with any flying insect. Jej jedynym celem w øyciu jest walka z kaødym latajπcym insektem. 19. The welder had his right eye burned by a spark because he was not wearing safety goggles. Iskra wypali a spawaczowi prawe oko, poniewaø nie uøy ochronnych gogli. 20. He is believed to have walked around the whole globe. Wierzy sií, øe przeszed ca y glob na piechotí. 45

7 II. A. Correction of lexical errors in translated sentences 64. If the following translations into English contain lexical errors, suggest your own correct versions. 1. Nie moøna braê w dwudniowπ delegacjí trzech walizek. You canít take three valises on a two-day business trip. 2. Oby tylko nie zlekcewaøy konkurenta. If only he would not ignore the concurrent. 3. Wizytator z kuratorium odwo a swûj przyjazd w tym tygodniu. The school boardís visitator cancelled his visit this week. 4. Nasz ksiπdz pok Ûci sií ze swoim wikarym. Our priest fell out with the vicar. 5. Ta klauzula moøe staê sií fundamentem przepisûw. This clause may become the fundament of the regulations. 6. Jego ysiní zakrywa a bujna peruka. His balding scalp was hidden under a bushy peruke. 7. Widzia a, jak jej kochanek tonie w fosie. She could see her lover drowning in the fosse. 8. Jego poranna dieta to kanapki z ososiem i jogurt naturalny. His morning diet consists of salmon canapès and natural yogurt. 9. Degustacja wina w czasie obiadu sta a sií ulubionym rytua em w naszej rodzinie. Wine degustation at dinner has become a cherished tradition in our family. 10. Gdy odkurza dywan w duøym pokoju, odnalaz pod kanapπ jej bilet wizytowy. When he was vacuuming the carpet in the living-room, he found her visiting card under the canapè. 11. Autor tej powieúci nie zgodzi sií na napisanie scenariusza do filmu opartego na jego ksiπøce. The auteur of the novel refused to prepare a script for a film based on his book. 12. Tonπcego szefa kuchni uratowa rzucony mu w porí kapok. The drowning chef was saved by the kapok thrown to him in good time. 13. Z mieszkania obok doszed mnie niepokojπcy rumor rozwalanej úciany. In the next-door flat I could hear a disturbing rumour of a wall being pulled down. 14. Publicysta gazety zosta ukarany za politycznie niepoprawny artyku. The publicist on the newspaper was punished for his politically incorrect article. 15. W úrûdmieúciu zawis y plakaty z informacjami o koncercie. In the town centre there were placards with information about the concert. 16. Mutacja g osu nie pozwala temu ch opcu úpiewaê w chûrze. The mutation of voice does not allow this boy to sing in the choir. 17. Zawody muszπ byê odwo ane ze wzglídu na niedogodne warunki atmosferyczne. The competition has to be cancelled due to unfavourable atmospheric conditions. 18. Babcia od dziesiíciu dni skarøy sií na obstrukcjí. The grandmother has been complaining about her obstruction for ten days. 19. Z ambony s yszalny by donios y g os nawiedzonej parafianki. From the ambo one could hear the loud voice of a fanatical parishioner. 20. Stara sií polegaê na rozsπdnych radach swoich kibicûw. He was trying to rely on the wise advice of his kibitzers. 46

8 65. The sentences below were incorrectly translated from Polish and contain lexical errors. Identify and correct them. 1. As a teenager I would read a daily gazette and have a mug of hot milk in the morning. 2. Before you use this washing liquid, carefully read the etiquette. 3. She is cut out to be an actress being exceptionally talented and having a scenic voice. 4. Of the two trenches I will choose the one with the longer belt. 5. He always sits in silence with a chocolate baton in his mouth. 6. Now as we have bought milk and fresh strawberries we can make some cocktail. 7. You may as well go and see if there is any fresh fruit and salad in the nearest pavilion. 8. She is an exceptionally pretty woman, with blue eyes and a pale carnation. 9. My only reservation concerns the live relation of the sports competition. 10. I would like to introduce you to my lyceum colleague who is now the chef of the local transportation firm. 11. You should use ground coffee, eventually you may use cocoa. 12. The film is based on the canvas of the best-seller. 13. You may as well leave your car in the nearest parking. 14. I find watching TV auditions about animals a waste of time. 15. The mechanics in this shop are responsible for the montage of cars. 16. The Prime Minister is hoping to stay in office for one more cadence. 17. Our football representation have been losing since time immemorial. 18. Before the exam session we have to face another colloquium in anatomy. 19. The local authorities are doing everything in their power to improve the local public communication. 20. Do you know the compositor of this lovely piano concert? 66. The sentences below were incorrectly translated from Polish and contain lexical errors. Identify and correct them II. A. Correction of lexical errors in translated sentences Poland did not qualify for any of the swimming concurrences. He has achieved so much due to his being consequent in his actions. He was groping in pitch darkness trying to find the light contact. He slipped into his warm dress and went jogging. He suffered a severe contusion, fracturing his leg. I would sooner read a bad criminal than a weepie. I cannot lend you this as I have just one exemplar of the book. There are seats left in a non-smoking wagon. The demonstrators were carrying huge transparents with offensive slogans. Wis aís best stopper has just signed a good contract with a football club in Greece. The room was packed with old gentlemen wearing dated smokings. The scene was very dimly lit, however, the actorsí faces were just visible. 13. The singer was standing in the middle of the stadium, in the bright lights of jupiters. 14. Do you remember the 100m recordist in the last Olympics? 15. I get a lot of provisions for selling each credit card. 16. To prevent the spreading of AIDS, use preservatives. 17. As a single parent of three children she cannot live on one monthly pension with no additional job. 18. There was no need to give such a pathetic speech at such a trivial occasion. 47

9 List of English-Polish false friends A abat-jour / / ñ abaøur abdicate / / ñ abdykowaê abdication / bd /ñ abdykacja absolvent / b / ñ absolwent academia / k di:mi / ñ akademia academy / d /ñ akademia academe / k di m/ñ akademia academic / / ñ akademik accessories / k ses riz / ñ akcesoria acclamation / kl me n/ ñ aklamacja accolade / k le d /ñ akolada accommodation / / ñ akomodacja accord / k :d /ñ akord accurate / kj r t /ñ akurat, akuratny acquisition / kw z n / ñ akwizycja act / kt / ñ akt action / k n / ñ akcja actual / kt u l /ñ aktualny actually / kt u li /ñ aktualnie adapter / d pt / ñ adapter address / dres / ñ adres adept / dept/ ñ adept adjunct / d kt /ñ adiunkt administration / d m n stre n / ñ administracja advent / dvent /ñ adwent aeroplane / e r ple n / ñ aeroplan affair / fe /ñ afera agenda / /ñ agenda agent / / ñ agent agitation / / ñ agitacja agony/ g ni/ ñ agonia agriculture / gr k lt /ñ agrykultura alcove / lk v/ñ alkowa aliment / l / ñ alimenty alimentation / l /ñ alimentacja alumnus / / ñ alumn amazon / / ñ amazonka ambo / / ñ ambona ambulatory / /ñ ambulatorium angina / /ñ angina anonym / / ñ anonim antic / / ñ antyk antique / n ti k/ ñ antyk apartment / / ñ apartament apparat / p ra t/ñ aparat apparatus / p /ñ aparat apparition / p /ñ aparycja appellation / p /ñ apelacja applicant / pl k nt/ ñ aplikant application / /ñ aplikacja arbiter / b t /ñ arbiter argument / /ñ argument artist / /ñ artysta artiste / /ñ artysta assignation / s g ne n/ñ asygnacja assistant / s st nt/ñ asystent assortment / / ñ asortyment asylum / / ñ azyl athlete / /ñ atleta atmospheric / tm s fer k/ñ atmosferyczny attic / t k/ ñ attyka attraction / /ñ atrakcja audience / di ns/ñ audiencja audition / d n/ñ audycja auditorium / d t ri m/ñ auditorium aura / /ñ aura author / / ñ autor auteur / / ñ autor automat / /ñ automat automaton / /ñ automat autopsy / /ñ autopsja B barrack / b r k/ñ barak barrage / b r /ñ baraø barrette /b ret/ñ baretka basin / be s n/ñ basen baton / b /ñ baton benefice / ben /ñ benefis benzine / benzi n/ñ benzyna bestiality / besti l ti/ñ bestialstwo bicycle / ba s k l/ñ bicykl billet / b /ñ bilet binocle / b /ñ binokl bison / ba s n/ñ bizon boot /bu t/ ñ but box /b k / ñ boks bravo /bra v /ñ brawo brigadier / br g d /ñ brygadier brochure / br /ñ bros ura brouillion /br j /ñ brulion brunette /bru net/ñ brunetka buffet / b fe /ñ bufet 90

10 List of English-Polish false friends buffoon /b fu n/ñ bufon bulletin / b l t n/ ñ biuletyn buoy /b / ñ boja bureau / bj r / ñ biuro bursa / b s / ñ bursa C cabin / k b n/ ñ kabina cabinet / k b n t/ ñ gabinet cadence / ke d ns/ ñ kadencja cadet /k / ñ kadet caftan / k / ñ kaftan calendar / k / ñ kalendarz calque /k / ñ kalka camera / k / ñ kamera camisole / k / ñ kamizela canal /k n l/ñ kana canapè / k n pe / ñ kanapa canister / k n st / ñ kanister canteen / k n ti n/ ñ kantyna canvas / k nv s/ñ kanwa capa / k p / ñ kapa cape /ke p/ñ kapa caravan / k / ñ karawana carnation /k ne n/ ñ karnacja carnet / k / ñ karnet carnival / k / ñ karnawa carousel / k r sel/ ñ karuzela, karuzel casque /k sk/ ñ kask cathedra /k i dr / ñ katedra cathedral /k i dr /ñ katedra catholic / k / ñ katolicki caution / k n/ ñ kaucja cavalier / k /ñ kawaler celebrate / / ñ celebrowaê cell / / ñ cela cella / / ñ cela censure / / ñ cenzura census / /ñ cenzus chalet / /ñ szalet champion / / ñ czempion character / / ñ charakter characterisation / k r kt ra ze n/ ñ charakteryzacja charade / / ñ szarada chef / / ñ szef chicane / ke n/ ñ szykana chips /t / ñ czips chronic / kron k/ ñ chroniczny cistern / / ñ cysterna civil / / ñ cywilny clausula / / ñ klauzula cleric / / ñ kleryk clerical / / ñ klerykalny clichè / /ñ klisza climax / / ñ klimaks clinic / /ñ klinika cloche / / ñ klosz closet / / ñ klozet cocktail / / ñ koktajl cohort / / ñ kohorta collaborate / /ñ kolaborowaê collaboration / /ñ kolaboracja collation / /ñ kolacja colleague / /ñ kolega collector / / ñ kolektor collegium / / ñ kolegium collide / /ñ kolidowaê colligation / /ñ koligacja collision / /ñ kolizja colloquium / / ñ kolokwium colporteur / /ñ kolporter colubrine / /ñ kolubryna column / /ñ kolumna combatant / /ñ kombatant comfort / /ñ komfort commentary / /ñ komentarz commissariat / /ñ komisariat commission / /ñ komisja commode / /ñ komoda communication / /ñ komunikacja communion / / ñ komunia companion / / ñ kompan compositor / /ñ kompozytor compote / / ñ kompot concert / / ñ koncert concerto / /ñ koncert concession / /ñ koncesja concoction / /ñ konkoksja concordat / /ñ konkordat concours / /ñ konkurs concourse / /ñ konkurs concrete / /ñ konkret concur / /ñ konkurowaê concurrence / /ñ konkurencja concurrent / /ñ konkurent condition / /ñ kondycja conduct / /ñ kondukt conductor / /ñ konduktor confection / /ñ konfekcja confectioner /k n fek n / ñ konfekcjoner 91

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