Uniwersytet Warszawski Centrum Kształcenia Nauczycieli Języków Obcych i Edukacji Europejskiej

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Uniwersytet Warszawski Centrum Kształcenia Nauczycieli Języków Obcych i Edukacji Europejskiej"

Transcription

1 Uniwersytet Warszawski Centrum Kształcenia Nauczycieli Języków Obcych i Edukacji Europejskiej Uniwersyteckie Kolegium Kształcenia Nauczycieli Języka Angielskiego Joanna Chołuj Nr albumu: Authentic materials as an efficient teaching tool with young learners Praca licencjacka na kierunku Filologia W zakresie nauczania języka angielskiego Praca wykonana pod kierunkiem Ph.d. Davida Bowena prof. U.W. Uniwersytet Warszawski UKKNJA Warszawa, czerwiec

2 Oświadczenie kierującego pracą Oświadczam, Ŝe niniejsza praca została przygotowana pod moim kierunkiem i stwierdzam, Ŝe spełnia ona warunki do przedstawieniu jej w postępowaniu o nadanie tytułu zawodowego. Data Podpis kierującego pracą Oświadczenie autora pracy Świadom odpowiedzialności prawnej oświadczam, Ŝe niniejsza praca dyplomowa została napisana przeze mnie samodzielnie i nie zawiera treści uzyskanych w sposób niezgodny z obowiązującymi przepisami. Oświadczam równieŝ, Ŝe przedstawiona przeze mnie praca nie była wcześniej przedmiotem procedur związanych z uzyskaniem tytułu zawodowego w wyŝszej uczelni. Oświadczam ponadto, Ŝe niniejsza wersja pracy jest identyczna z załączoną wersją elektroniczną. Data Podpis autora pracy - 2

3 Streszczenie Niniejsza praca, nosząca tytuł Materiały autentyczne jako skuteczna metoda nauczania dzieci, składa się z dwóch zasadniczych części, teoretycznej i praktycznej. W części teoretycznej zawarto charakterystykę grupy wiekowej, oraz analizę specyfiki nauczania dzieci w tym wieku. Następnie omówiono pojęcie materiałów autentycznych i wymieniono najwaŝniejsze ich rodzaje. Ponadto przedstawiono definicję terminu zarządzanie klasą i podano najwaŝniejsze sposoby wprowadzania i utrzymywania dyscypliny w klasie przedszkolnej. Zaprezentowano równieŝ trzy najczęściej powtarzające się problemy i podano propozycje ich rozwiązania z wykorzystaniem materiałów autentycznych. W części praktycznej zamieszczono opis trzech lekcji przeprowadzonych z wykorzystaniem materiałów autentycznych w oparciu o omówione wskazówki teoretyczne dotyczące roli materiałów autentycznych w rozwiązywaniu problemów dyscyplinarnych. Słowa kluczowe Nauczanie przedszkolaków Materiały autentyczne Zarządzanie klasą Dyscyplina Motywacja Zachowanie uczniów Zainteresowanie Dziedzina pracy : Nauczanie dzieci Kształcenie nauczycieli Tytuł pracy w języku polskim: Materiały autentyczne jako skuteczna metoda nauczania dzieci - 3

4 Table of contents: 1. Introductory section Justification of the topic and the aims of the project Teaching environment and the class profile 5 2. Theoretical background Young learners Definition of young learners of the preschool age Mental development and behavioural patterns specific for preschoolers Advantages of teaching young learners Difficulties in teaching of young learners Authentic materials Definition of authentic materials The application of authentic materials Class management Definition of class management Typical behavioural problems in the teaching of preschoolers The use of native tongue during the class Disruptive behaviour towards the teacher and other pupils Breaking props and careless handling of authentic materials Methodology Basic techniques of class management How to deal with behavioural problems with help of authentic materials Class management techniques in practice Lesson 1: The use of native tongue during the class Lesson plan 1: description and the choice of materials After-class reflections and observations Lesson 2: Disruptive behaviour towards the teacher and other pupils Lesson plan 2: description and the choice of materials After-class reflections and observations Lesson 3: Breaking props and careless handling of authentic materials Lesson plan 3: description and the choice of materials After-class reflections and observations Conclusions Bibliography Appendices 42-4

5 1. Introductory section 1.1. Justification of the topic and the aims of the project The topic of the present study states that the author will focus on teaching environment in the preschool language teaching centres. From now on then, the reader may expect that no attention will be given to the primary and higher schooling system and its foreign language teaching situation. I have found the mentioned above area of my interest more disputable and less known to readers. While few will argue whether the language education is necessary within the schooling system, there seems to be a quiet debate in the matter of teaching languages to our youngest children. Teaching or not some try to ask themselves. This problem itself may be worth analysing, nevertheless, my study will straightforwardly answer yes, teaching them is, if not necessary, then certainly highly purposeful and useful. There is, however, another area of focus for my study, the use of authentic materials for instruction of preschool age children and its undoubtedly positive consequences for class management techniques. I understand that some readers may remain dubious and that is precisely why in my study I will thoroughly scrutinize all pros and cons of the application of different kinds of authentic materials. I will also give multiple and very concrete examples of the most efficient application of authentic materials, together with an as full as possible list of authentic sources available for teaching. My essay will also have the practical part, where a reader will find three lesson plans based on my teaching of children of preschool age in classes where authentic materials were exploited. Each lesson and its plan will match the behavioural problems a language teacher strives to solve in her class. It goes without saying as well, that this Diploma Project will not ignore the important topic of child mental development such as speaking skills, birth and development, and behavioural patterns specific for each age group of children Teaching environment and the class profile In the practical part of my Project I will focus on observing private schools environment. The lesson plans are, therefore, based on the mentioned above experiences in the Helen Doron Centre. This decision is made because of my private school experience in my teaching of preschoolers and opportunity this gave me to observe the work of my colleagues, teachers in the Helen Doron Centre. As a result, you will not find here the parallel observations of the - 5

6 kindergarten foreign language teaching activities. It may be seen as a drawback of my Project; nevertheless, I have no aspirations to present the absolute and ultimate image of the instruction of preschool age students. On the contrary, I would rather concentrate on one aspect of teaching at a pre-primary school level and present it in as much detail as possible. This study is based on my work in the Helen Doron Centre in a location called the Gawra Commercial Centre in Ursus. There are three groups of students. The ages of children range from 3 to 7 and there are four courses specific for each age group. The English for Infants course is for the youngest, the English for All Children is for older beginners. The More English for Infants course is for a second year of teaching of 3-4 year-olds while the More English for All Children is for a second year of teaching of children aged 6 to 7. The lesson plans included in my study have been prepared as extra lessons for the courses: English for All Children, More English for Infants and English for Infants. The groups of students are mixed as far as gender is concerned, and they are 5-6 years old, 4 5 years old and 4 years old, respectively. All of my students are Polish. Some of them have walked with me through the first year of English teaching, therefore, they were placed in the group of the MEFI course, but most of them are just starting with the course English for All Children or English for Infants. It is also worth mentioning that most of the parents speak English on the elementary or pre-intermediate level. They attempt to translate the vocabulary and songs at home by listening to the course CDs and playing course games. With the exception of a few children who have English classes in kindergarten, most have no other contact with English except during their weekly classes at the Helen Doron Centre. - 6

7 2. Theoretical background 2.1. Young learners Definition of young learners of the preschool age The term young learners is usually applied to all students being pre-adults, in other words, the students under the age of eighteen, nevertheless, we will notice that most teachers think about teenagers while speaking about young learners. This definition is used by many language centres and educative organisations (Vancouver English Centre). Other writers, however, prefer to widen and generalize the term young learners, therefore, they apply the first definition given above (1-18 years old). This way, while speaking about this age group we will think of all children: infants, kindergarten age children as well as primary school students (Cameron). In this project, however, I am interested in analysing solely the preschoolers and more specifically, children of ages four to six Mental development and behavioural patterns specific for preschoolers In this section I will share the behaviour typical for each age group of children. Each age level is in fact a next stage in development process of a child. Since the youngest children I teach English with Helen Doron method are those aged three (or two and a half), I will start my analysis with this age group and finish it with the six-years-olds, who do not attend school yet in Poland, therefore belong to the preschool children category. As far as the mental development of a child is concerned, it goes without saying that one of the most well known psychologists and scientists who scrutinized that area of knowledge was Jean Piaget. He sees a child as a scientist and active learner accomplishing developmental milestones along a predictable continuum by conducting experiments on the environment (McCloskey 2). It is definitely worth citing the two first (which most concern my study) out of four famous Piaget s stages of child development: Sensimotor (birth 2 years) Children develop ideas about how things work while interacting physically with the environment Pre-Operational (ages 2-7) Children need concrete situations to process ideas. They are not able to think abstractly. (McCloskey 3) - 7

8 The above statements let us assume that for Piaget a child is an active learner alone in a world full of objects (Children learning 6). On the other hand, I share alternative ideas by another famous scientist Vygotsky, who thinks of a child as of an active learner in a world full of other people (Children learning 6). What we learn is that a child interacts with adults who help him learn about the world. Vygotsky assumes that this ability to learn through instruction and mediation is characteristic of human intelligence. The behavioural patterns of children between ages two and six can be best seen with help of a great book, Child behaviour. The authors observed an interesting specificity of child s development. That is to say, each few months (usually six months) a child s attitude towards the world and himself changes greatly: self-confidence, openness and happiness are replaced by sadness, shyness and uncertainty, and again, after some time self-confidence and good humour takes over the sadness and shyness. (Child behaviour 33). We can easily notice that a two year old is open and brave, and understands everyday more of the world which gives him self-assurance. The two and a half year old, on the other hand, is stubborn and excessively emotional. A three year old is calm and friendly while a three and a half year old will have problems with movement and language, troubles with interactions with other children and will feel constantly insecure. We will often hear that a four-year-old is difficult to control because of his unbridled energy. He also seems to be very sure of himself and his abilities. Six months later, the same child may have extreme difficulties with discerning reality from imagination and loses his self-confidence. A child at the age of five seems to be an angel compared to five and a half or a six year old. At five they are good, loving, tender and obedient; at six they can express their love in one sentence and the hatred towards us in the next one. They are stubborn and possessive. At seven they should calm down and mature enough to face the school. (Rozwój psychiczny 32-45). The above rough characteristics of preschoolers are an introduction. I would like to move to a detailed study of child s behavioural development. Such detailed observations will help us understand what we can expect of young children and what they will be unable to perform and fulfill. Toddlers, that is, children aged two to three, are unable to accept the reality and its limitations. (Behaviour and discipline 1) They experiment and check whether they can control the physical world. They will not understand or follow the verbal rules or directions alone. (Effective discipline 3-4), nevertheless they are able to understand that there are certain rules to follow. We must remember also that the preschool child cannot be expected to display morality in a complete sense. According to Piaget young children judge rightness and wrongness by observing how much harm has been done or what was the intent of the doer. - 8

9 Until the child is eight years old he does not possess enough maturity and experience to formulate more sophisticated concept of right and wrong (Teachers of young children 208-9). Another study also adds that toddlers can be possessive, noisy, did not learn to share yet, try to get their own way, have a short memory and are very energetic and excitable. On the other hand, they will try to please us, will accept suggestion. They are attentive and quite clear and easy to understand when speaking. (Discipline for young children 4). Unlike toddlers, preschool children or kindergarten children are perfectly able to accept reality and its limitations. They are also willing to acknowledge the existence of rules but they are not always great at following them, therefore, they need strong role models. (Behaviour and discipline 1). The other study adds that the preschoolers probably have not internalized the rules yet and their judgment is not always sound, that is why the supervision and guidance of adults is necessary (Effective discipline 4). Valya Telep adds also that preschoolers may be talkative, look for friends, be bossy and businesslike, may also imitate adults, enjoy dressing up and playing with words, obscene and dirty words included. (Discipline for young 5). They are, in fact, testing our limits and that is precisely why they misbehave. They should also be able to respond to our commands because their self-control to wait for things and the ability to deal with their own frustration from not getting it are growing. (Disciplining 1). We must remember all the time, though, that their attention span is very short and at this stage they are always very playful. (Best discipline strategies 1) Children at this age are learning to be independent. They want to make their own choices. (Meltdown 1). Preschoolers are also learning to be social and while learning this, they are in fact training their motor and verbal skills. A preschool, if they attend one, is their first real social setting. (Best discipline 1) A good mother or a preschool teacher must know how to engage children on multiple levels and make use of all their senses. They should remember, though, that preschoolers may be excitable and easily give in to stress during any game or competition. Talking is a stressful action, as well. They cannot plan their talk nor do they know how to cater for other participants in discourse. They also seem to blame themselves if they do not understand something said to them. (Teaching languages 52). It is interesting to present the advice of another author who assumes it may be useful to think of social behaviour along the following dimensions: territoriality (establishment of boundaries), approach and influence behaviour (attempts to obtain resources), alignment and cooperative behaviour (joining with others for benefit). The author argues that children use a variety of strategies to pursue the cited above three goals. Among them are aggressive behaviours and persuasive behaviours. She states as a conclusion socially active children use - 9

10 many forms of both aggressive and persuasive behaviors in their efforts to establish individuality, develop self-esteem and yet relate acceptably to adults and other children. The teacher needs to be able to recognize various techniques and strategies children use ( ) and help them become socially competent. (Teachers of young 218) Advantages of teaching young learners The key statement which may be found in many works of methodologists and writers interested in child linguistic development is that preschoolers are at the age when a myriad of possibility are open. They explain also that the younger the child the easier it absorbs a new language in a mother tongue like style. It is also more likely that his accent and general linguistic skills will be close to those acquired in his native language, in other words, the child has all chances to become bilingual. Under the age of seven there appear to be the biological readiness in the brain for language acquisition (Doron 4) We will find similar reflections in other written works. Kenna Burke calls the age of preschoolers a highly receptive age (Bourke. Introduction) and openly notes that this is the main advantage of teaching children over teaching adults. She stresses the power of curiosity in children and underlines that there is a strong possibility it will work for the advantage of learners and teachers when skillfully channeled.(bourke. Introduction) The above statements boil down to the essential one: young learners of preschool age should be taught in a most possibly natural way. Worth citing is the wise advice of one of the writers: effective teaching involves authentic communication and is activity-based (McCloskey 6). The same writer points out how important for a teacher is a meaningful choice of tasks, and reminds at the same time that two important factors are an absolute must in the teaching of children: safety and challenge (7-9). While some writers use the phrase - innate language acquisition mechanisms (McCloskey 6) others will talk about the theory of Communicative Competence Model (Doron 5). Both formulations state that the essential part of teaching is the daily communication, which seems to be the most natural teaching by absorbing (5). All facts and opinions considered, it will be difficult to deny the rightfulness or the need of teaching of young learners of the preschool age. It would be also dishonest to disregard and forget all the possible advantages of linguistic education for children and teachers alike such as pure pleasure, enjoyment and high satisfaction obtained thanks to the mutual effort. - 10

11 Difficulties in teaching of young learners It is vital to get to know the students we teach and understand the way they receive and process the bits and pieces of the knowledge during our classes. I will cite here an opinion which is often neglected or at least forgotten, the result of which is frustration among the teachers who await immediate results in teaching of infants and very young children: in general, the younger the child, the more passive she is. That means that you will be doing most of the talking. ( )The results of learning will become apparent later on during the teaching year or the next year. Just relax and have fun! (Doron 4) In short then, the problem in the teaching of young learners of the age 2-4 lies mainly in their passivity and an apparent lack of response or understanding. However, they do respond by their attitude, even when they will not utter a single word. Other difficulties many preschool teachers must deal with are children's lack of memory and ability to concentrate. It is widely known to psychologists that young children have a very short attention span; therefore, the tasks should be short and varied. Preschool children do not possess the skill of memorizing things for longer periods of time. The teaching must involve a lot of repetition. Of course, we cannot forget as well that those students are not fully fluent and confident in their own mother tongue. They are still in process of acquiring full linguistic skills in all languages they have contact with. It is also important to say that younger children, as they are easily bored, cannot be also satisfied with any time-fillers which tend to replace real teaching methods and efficient tasks in the practice of some teachers. Those who work with the youngest must be armed with true and working language learning techniques and they should not forget how easily the young children get tired, scared, demotivated and overwhelmed with work. They are more emotionally vulnerable in comparison with older students. It is worth remembering as well, that at preschool age, students develop at a different rate, therefore, the mixed ability class is a standard one. It is the only one you can expect. (Vernon. Learn) Of course, some teachers find the described situation interesting and challenging, as they love to wait patiently and see later the astonishing results of their teaching. - 11

12 2.2. Authentic materials Definition of authentic materials The definition of authentic materials may seem easy; nevertheless, many teachers and methodologists define them in different ways. It is the simplest to say, and most researchers satisfy themselves with that statement, that authentic materials belong to the native speakers world; they are created for them. (Berardo 61) Others also add for clarification that those materials are not designed for teaching purposes. They are real. They contain, therefore, the stimulating realistic vocabulary and structures which are constantly changing and which are alive, in a wa y. 1 Berardo adds also an important sentence: Authentic materials enable learners to interact with the real language and content rather then form.(berardo 62) We will acquaint also other methodologists opinions and we will notice that they will be often quite revealing and refreshing. For instance, Martinez in his article brings up the voice of Widdowson and his two essential terms: authentic and genuine. It appears, that even the authentic material, authentic according to the previous common definitions, prepared for native speakers, therefore real, may become inauthentic when used in an inappropriate or artificial way. The materials will not lose their authenticity only in the situation when they are used in a similar way they would be used in the real world, outside the classroom. (Martinez 1) In other words, a weather forecast is meant to be heard and discussed while stories are meant to be heard and told. Any gap filling or jumbled sentences exercise based on an authentic material will cause this very material to lose its authenticity The application of authentic materials First and foremost, we need to answer the crucial question why the authentic materials are such an efficient tool in the area of class management. Or, in other words, is it really the best we can do to gain authentic props and weave them skillfully into our short lesson for preschoolers? Indeed, years of experience of many teachers will confirm that properly and carefully chosen materials with the provenance from the real world will grab the attention of even the naughtiest preschoolers without fail. Therefore, authentic materials remain the top of 1 Kilickaya, F., Authentic materials and cultural content in EFL classrooms, part:authentic materials: Definition. (he also cites and refers to others, giving sources: Harmer, Jordan) - 12

13 the list as far as efficient disciplinary methods are concerned. Of course, as I mentioned earlier, the know-how is crucial for a good language teacher of preschoolers. Firstly, we may cite in this section the essential advice given by Shelley Ann Vernon who is an active teacher of preschoolers. She considers the need for changing activities every 5 to 10 minutes to be really important, the reason being the short attention span in such young children. She also advises: to often revise the vocabulary with the use of games, to avoid any sort of competition and to create a relaxed and friendly atmosphere with lots of encouragement. The presence of soft props and cuddly toys is a must. It is also vital to make teaching as concrete as possible, in other words, the abstract concepts are to be avoided. (Vernon. Learn) Vernon is obviously not the only one to warn us against the abstractive tasks, others also propose to present the materials to be taught from the child s perspective, to exploit familiar to children situations, such as birthday and holiday celebrations. Thanks to this technique and the use of the most authentic materials children develop valuable skills of observation and comparison. (Brewster 149) All the writers agree, however, that careful selection of enjoyable and interesting authentic materials is simply necessary (Philips 51); some also add that in the case of the youngest a good technique may be to simplify the language used in the materials, (Brewster 149) others suggest to pre-teach the vocabulary, especially in the case of stories, but above all, to be creative, flexible, vary the tasks and mix a reading of a story with other more dynamic activities. (Vernon. Learn) Some authors pay special attention to technological tools and devote to that topic separate chapters. Thanks to that, I was able to analyse the use of authentic materials, such as videos and Internet websites in the perspective of pre-school instruction. I entirely agree, therefore, that such materials can be used with the youngest on the condition a teacher carefully checked them before as well as asked himself and answered the following questions: - is the information up-to-date? - are the pages attractive and not too detailed? - are there lots of images? - do sound effects support the understanding? - is the content relevant to preschoolers needs? - is the language generally accessible for their level? (Brewster 211) Having described in detail how to go about the preparation and choice of authentic materials depending on the age of children and the topic of a class, I would like to move on to the higher level of conscious teaching and explain further on how to choose materials capable of solving - 13

14 our class management difficulties. My study s practical section has been purposely organized along the three most recurring problems of language classes: the use of native tongue during the class, disruptive behaviour towards the teacher and other pupils such as talking, shouting or walking and running around the class without permission, and, finally, breaking props and careless handling of authentic materials. Each of those problems has found its full description in one of the sections below, whereas the chapter entitled Class management techniques in practice proposes three lesson plans perfectly suited for classes where the mentioned above disciplinary troubles occurred Class management Definition of class management The shortest definition we may find concerns not precisely the term class management but the old-fashioned term discipline. The papers produced by Public Health Department warn us: Remember that the word discipline means to teach (Public Health 2). Or, similarly, in another paper: The word discipline means to impart knowledge and skill to teach. (Effective discipline 1). I think it is the shortest and the most excellent definition of our area of interest, of this process by which a child gains social competence and acquires acceptable patterns of social behavior (Teachers of young 220) thanks to multiple efforts on the part of a child himself and his environment, the people he interacts with. That having said, we should never forget that a child needs us to set proper conditions which would enable him to learn. Scrivener, a great methodologist, underlined that fact in his book by stating that: The skills of creating and managing a successful class may be the key to the whole success of a course. (Scrivener 79). Our role in creating and then managing those conditions for a child is crucial. It is definitely important to know what actually supports the excellent learning conditions in the case of a language classroom. The first factor will be teacher-pupil relationships and environment where we teach and learn. The second is the effective organization of that environment the pupil and the resources. Another one again is the effective communication between a teacher and a learner and, finally, we must strongly underline the role of a proper support for children s language learning such as stimulating learning materials and resources. (Moon 41) The last factor I have just mentioned, often neglected, will be further developed in my study as it is, in fact, the main subject of it. - 14

15 We probably noticed how often in our definitions the word effectively appears. In fact, the teaching and learning process, in other words, the class management, the discipline, should be extremely effective, otherwise our teaching efforts will be only short term efforts, and consequently, our work will be done in vain. An interesting study done by Virginia State University proposes to analyse a few conditions of the effective management and a few ideas which may help us: Effective discipline is positive. Therefore, we should be very much of a helper for a child. What is more, we should not threaten him in any way. Our purpose is to help children learn how to act properly just because they want to, not because they fear punishment. Another important idea is that the effective management is moderate, neither too strict nor too permissive. We should also not forget that a key word for the effective management should be the understanding of an individual child, his age and his abilities. We should always keep in mind, as well, that our efforts and our management methods influence the kind of adult our child will become. There are, therefore, some extremely ineffective techniques which may harm our child deeply and irremediably, such as: threatening abandonment, bribery and physical disciplinary methods, namely: spanking, biting and shaking. All in all, it can be said that class management or, in other words, discipline is a difficult task which do not offer ready-made solutions. The subject matter is more complicated many people think, since the discipline resembles the gigantic puzzle constructed from very different parts. (Rozwój 255) Typical behavioural problems in the teaching of preschoolers The use of native tongue during the class There is a strict policy in most language schools to forbid the pupils to speak their mother tongue. The same is true about Helen Doron Early English. Such a decision meets, of course, many problems in a language class, especially the one of young children (Scrivener 100). Even experienced teachers do need techniques to deal with the excessive use of L1 in class. Some of them, such as bribery and competition, do not seem to be quite purposeful and may create negative motivation in students of a foreign language. The Scrivener s solution to the problem is to create a climate for using English without clearly banning the use of L1. (Scrivener 100). He considers it possible to make the use of English in class natural, normal and not frightening. It can be done, he advises, with help of multiple posters on the walls, abundance of listening material, the positive response to the effort made by pupils to speak - 15

16 English and setting the clear rules for English communication. It can be helpful, as well, to set precise sections and timing of English in only part of a lesson and a time for free communication in L1. The latter advice is strictly followed by many Helen Doron teachers who like to use the trick of flying to England or speaking to our English speaking friends. I use English speaking heroes from well known movies or tales (such as Mickey Mouse or Winnie the Pooh) with younger children. The concept of communicating with Mickey in his own language is quite natural to all of them 2 just like, for instance, for young bilingual children it is purely natural to speak Polish to a mother and English to a father. Young children will be even more convinced and happy to do so when they have got a few precious occasions to watch the fragments of Disney s movie in English. Older preschoolers, on the other hand, like to travel to England or another English speaking country, which also creates the clear section of L1- only - in Poland and L2 - just after the British Airlines plane lands in London. The above ideas may be joined together, especially when a teacher is a lucky owner of a smart British Airways bear mascot in goggles. (Appendices Folder. Appendices to Lesson 3. Bear BA) Scrivener is not the only one to speak about the positive use of English classroom climate. Other specialists also draw our attention to a similar topic. One of them underlines the specificity of teaching English to very young children and urges teachers to create a classroom environment in which children can explore their understanding and experiment with language without fear of being wrong (Moon 67). She shares the fact that children need to have opportunities to experiment and be creative in order to develop their internal language system (Moon 68). Of course, many may argue with the facts stated above, and among them Cameron, who will not call natural the situation of English-only speaking class where pupils and a teacher share the same mother tongue. She will not advise to abandon the use of English altogether, of course, nevertheless she warns us that it needs to be done consciously and deliberately (Cameron 200). As we may see, the use of L1 in a language class is still a question of opinion among methodologists. Most of them, however, will agree that it is highly advisable to use many efficient ways of motivating children to voluntarily use English instead of their mother tongue. In the practical part of my study I will show how the mentioned above elements: clear 2 Of course, sometimes we will be forced to forget the fact that some Disney s heroes do not speak in any clearly understandable human language (sic!) - 16

17 rules of Dos and Don ts in a class (Appendices to Basic techniques. Rules) 3, the tricks such as flying to England or speaking English to mascots of English heroes, and other authentic materials and motivating props successfully inspire preschoolers to speak a foreign language Disruptive behaviour towards the teacher and other pupils Disruptive behaviour may occur everywhere. It is a problem not only in language classes; therefore, it may be of some help to resort to general advice given by preschool educators. I have already talked about troubles in teaching of preschool age children in section and Now, it would be wise to review some basic disciplinary techniques advised by educators and widely accepted in Helen Doron schools. It is agreed that a disruptive child should be warned not to repeat his unaccepted behaviour. He should also be reminded about the well known consequences of his actions set at the very beginning of a course. The time-out technique is also an accepted tool for teachers who must deal with a child who perseveres in his wrong-doing. (Best discipline. Kromminga) Another child educator urges us to remove instantly the disruptive child who is hurting another, hold him close and help to calm down. Afterwards, he proposes the time out and just after it, an honest and long talk with a child. (Best discipline. Hanlon). All teachers and educators will agree that the most important in the contact with children is to apply the same rules for everybody, propose the same treatment and consequences of their actions. Children need to understand as well, that No means No (How to get your preschooler). Our talk and rules should be clear and straightforward. The article mentioned above gives five simple but important key points meant to solve any disobedience incident. They include: getting down to the child s eye level, staying calm all throughout the incident, not giving in to anything, not giving up, being patient. (How to get your preschooler). The cited above advice will work for any group of children, it does work, as well, in Helen Doron teaching centres. The second lesson plan and the section , proposed in the present study, will deal with the disruptive children problem thoroughly. The reader will also find some useful tips important for those who like to prevent a disease rather then cure it. 3 The Rules are: We speak English, We do not walk around the class or run. We do not disturb each other, We care for our props. We do not break our props. - 17

18 Breaking props and careless handling of authentic materials At the very beginning of this section I would like to focus on definition of the term prop. Unlike you may think my favourite explanation of that word is the one which describes its use in the theatre and film business: an object used by the actors performing in a play or film (Cambridge Advanced Learner s Dictionary. Prop.) and not the one of the support. In fact, lessons for children in Helen Doron school, and I dare to say, in any school for young learners, must be similar to a show, in a way. We know much about a short attention span in children and their love for toys. Teachers should be using that knowledge wisely. And that is precisely what I do during my classes. What is more, I tend to use the maximum of all visual aids. I bring to class a multitude of colourful varied beautiful and catchy authentic materials. It is probably enough to say, that I am a frequent visitor of second hand stores in my town which import from England many truly British authentic materials such as books, magazines, toys, movies, audio recordings, postcards, games and other gadgets. I strive to teach my students respect to all props we use during the class. Since the mentioned above authentic materials, being my own precious property, are perfectly true and authentic, it all starts with the explanation on how unique are the things brought from England, how they should be cared for and respected. I do not forget to mention that some toys were previously used and cared for by British children, not just manufactured for the class. They have history behind. Afterwards, it is useful to underline many times that those things are real. In fact, for many young preschoolers, movies and books heroes are definitely real or maybe even alive and human. It goes without saying, of course, that such a humanized toy born in England will only speak and understand English. The rule of respect for props should be presented together with other rules at the very first lesson. It should be put against the wall. Therefore, any time during the lesson, a teacher may resort to it as to a reminder. The first lesson can also have a personal element. It is useful to talk in the mother tongue of students about their own favourite toys and movies or books heroes to show how precious their toys are for them and, similarly, how precious are to the teacher the props being her property. On the other hand, the element of positive reinforcement is included under the form of small images received after each class to be glued in a personal passport (Appendices Folder. Appendices to Basic Techniques. Images to be glued in a passport). Thanks to consistence and consequence all the above methods are bound to work. - 18

19 2.5. Methodology Basic techniques of class management When one starts a research for the most effective class management techniques, he may quickly discover that those are quite similar to disciplinary techniques applied by parents and educators. That is why I included in my study opinions of experienced teachers and children care givers. Most of them underline how important it is to develop a specified set of written expectations we can live with and enforce (Blegan. Tips). Do notice that the rules should be put on paper for the youngest as well (Appendices to Basic techniques. Rules) Blegan cites in his article other advice which is worth presenting here. He urges teachers and educators to be very consistent and patient at any time, to keep the sense of humour and the sense of perspective and to discipline always quietly and privately. The above advice can be certainly applied in our homes, not only in schools. Teachers, specifically, are asked to create a climate for learning and to keep students actively involved in the lesson. (Blegan. Tips) These statements may have been heard earlier in my Project. Nevertheless, no matter how often they are revealed, they should be repeated almost without end. They should be present in our minds at all times. We should treat them like a mantra: never forget, always put in practice, since they seem to be the key to success. Blegan s article starts with the irony towards the widespread disciplinary technique which is nagging and pleading. He is not the only one to criticize it; other educators and psychologists join him and propose to simply change the tone of voice. A lower calm tone of voice is much more appropriate and efficient in situations when behaviour needs correction. (Reach every child). It is probably quite an obvious thing to say, that the set of rules are meant to be presented or decided upon at the very beginning of a school year or at the beginning of teaching and learning process. Nevertheless, teachers who failed to develop the rules at the very beginning should definitely introduce them at any convenient moment in near future. Once the rules are hung on the wall, visible and known to everyone, the teacher cannot omit to use the follow up which is the system of rewards and consequences 4. Those may efficiently encourage children to stay on task and on their best behaviour. The responsibility for our actions is the important idea children must learn and that does not solely concern the school (Best discipline strategies. Blegan) (Best discipline strategies. Hanlon. Responsibility). 4 An example of a rewards system in my classes is a set of little images with children s heroes which are to be glued in special passports. See: Appendices for Basic techniques. Pictures. - 19

20 It goes without saying, that the task of maintaining discipline in the class is hard work and a continuous process. Introducing the rules, the consequences and the rewards systems is only the very first step. Afterwards, the uncountable amount of times teachers will have to resort to many different techniques when the problem arises. They are especially advised to: establish eye contact with the students, send a silent signal, be it a frown or a hand sign. They can give a quiet reminder, for example: put a hand on somebody s shoulder, or they can redirect the students attention and begin another activity (Best discipline strategies. Blegan). It is often efficient to use humour. In extreme cases teachers may have recourse to a time out technique. (Best discipline strategies. Kromminga) How to deal with behavioural problems with help of authentic materials In the previous section I cited the opinion of many methodologists and educators who underline how important it is to develop a specified set of written expectations we can live with and enforce. (Blegan. Tips) I noticed that those rules in a written form do not concern only the older students but the preschoolers as well. It is precisely why I have used in my work with children the mixed technique of words, signs and images while creating my own teacher s of English set of classroom rules. What is more, I relied as I always do, on the authentic materials' magical temptation power and this time I used a few road signs for my big board of classroom rules. The road signs are similar in every country, therefore, it not a typically English but quite an international element. Nevertheless, it matches perfectly the idea of a British policewoman giving two kinds of tickets for good attitude and misbehaviour (Appendices Folder. Appendices lesson 2. Tickets). Setting the classroom rules was the very first step of my class management for a new school year. The next step, just as most educators advise, was a set of consequences and rewards. The above techniques have been introduced at the very beginning of a teaching process so as to ensure the best for classroom learning climate. I made sure as well, relying on the advice of Blegan and on my own teacher s intuition, that parents become my allies and are always well informed about the behaviour of their children and their learning achievements. The positive element of the Helen Doron school system is that parents are always welcomed to observe the lessons. Thanks to all the above, just within a week or two, all students and parents are well accustomed with the Road signs board and know by heart the rewards and consequences I use. They are quite likely to - 20

21 accept even the fact that I would resort to a time out technique for those children whose behaviour is most severely inappropriate. Such a situation happened only once in my teaching experience when a young girl who often had hysterics was refusing to calm down and disturbed other students participating in the lesson. In most of cases the positive reinforcement, the praise and the encouragement worked perfectly. My students would stay on their best behaviour knowing that at the end of each class as a reward for keeping our class rules they will receive a small beautiful and colourful image with the English stories and movies heroes (Appendices Folder. Appendices to Basic techniques. Pictures for passports). The images were to be glued nicely in a small passport, as we grew to call it, distributed at the beginning of each school year. At the end of each unit the lucky ones who received a full set of tiny pictures, were granted a special treat and good work of the whole class was rewarded with an authentic short movie or an authentic story reading session. The eager participation in speaking English during each class, singing the songs and learning their words by heart was additionally rewarded. I resorted here to a little trick. As you may notice while reading the lesson plans, we invite to our lessons authentic heroes from the cinema and literature. The little mascot of Winnie or Mickey and many more will choose to sit next to a child who wants to speak English. Of course, a teacher will let every child to be a friend of Winnie (Mickey etc), eventually. All the above techniques are of course just the very introduction. They are present in my classes, nevertheless, I believe above all, good planning of each lesson and the use of authentic materials is extremely important to me. I strive to use them at all times, since they are known to be often the efficient problem solvers. - 21

22 3. Class management techniques in practice The three lessons presented in the Diploma Project are a result of the research on class management techniques, strategies of generating and sustaining motivation and the motivational aspect that authentic materials may have in language teaching. The lessons in question resulted as well from my experience in teaching preschoolers, especially in the target three classes. As described in the previous chapters, implementing authentic materials such as English toys, books, audio and video recordings, can have many motivational influences, particularly on young children who show a need for connection between the content of learning and the reality they strive to discover. It is clearly visible how the self-esteem and self-confidence of young children tend to be growing thanks to the application of specific methods of class management based on authentic materials. The choice of topics of the lessons was dictated by the three most frequent disciplinary problems chosen for analysis in this Diploma Project. The most natural seemed to be choosing three different age groups and three different Helen Doron English courses for the sake of clear and varied illustration of the disciplinary troubles. Therefore, the reader of this Diploma Project will find in the first lesson plan the possible solutions to the problem of using the students mother tongue during the class; the second lesson plan will deal with the improper behaviour during English lessons; and the third lesson plan will show how a teacher can instruct her students about the necessary respect for lesson aids and class tools. The activities accompanying all three lessons were supposed to be varied as much as possible in order to raise lessons attractiveness and create an element of novelty. However, I ensured that the tasks are presented in a clear, understandable way so that students motivation to stay on their best behaviour and keep the class rules is increasing. All in all, I planned the lessons to show the richness of the activities I invented or encountered while doing the research for the Project and to test the class management strategies described in the Theoretical Section. I desired, as well, to create the lessons which will provide the maximum of enjoyment and pleasure for the students and for her teacher. - 22

23 3. 1. Lesson 1: The use of native tongue during the class Lesson plan 1: description and the choice of materials The lesson plan 1 was prepared for the lesson with students of English for All Children course. It is the additional lesson of revision of unit 1 of that course. All the eight children who participated in a lesson were aged five to six. It has to be made clear that teachers of Helen Doron Centres are supposed to adhere quite strictly to the line of the course and to include in their teaching all the necessary elements. That is precisely what I did while planning my lesson. Nevertheless, it was possible to me to use not only the Helen Doron aids but also the authentic materials I chose, in order to grab more efficiently the attention of students and to solve the problem of the use of native tongue during English classes. As I mentioned in the previous chapter, the choice of the topic of this lesson was dictated by the problem which frequently occur during English classes, the overuse of students mother tongue. The lesson is constructed around the idea of people and animals speaking English. The children participating in a lesson are meant to grasp the concept of interpersonal communication. All the tasks are thought to encourage children to wake a purely natural for them skill of observing the world of nature as well as listening to people, animals and other creatures, real or imaginative. The lesson takes advantage of such authentic materials as books: Old McDonald s book of animals, Touch and feel. Farm, Maisy s favourite animals, Nursery rhymes and songs and Animal Parade ; songs and poems: Three blind mice, Ten little elephants and Hickory, dickory, dock. All of those materials I consider as valuable as for their literary, musical and cultural value, their content and appropriateness as teaching material. The necessary element of the lesson for children are also such props as toys and games, therefore the lesson 1 included the mascot of Mickey Mouse, paper mice - arts-and-crafts results of my previous classes with the same group of children; and the English game Animal snap. Preschoolers of the age of 5 can already speak nicely and eagerly in their mother tongue. The speech should not be and is not in most cases their problem. They just need encouragement and positive motivation. They also need lots of visual stimuli which a teacher may easily provide thanks to a good decoration of the class. Our students also love cuddly toys. That is why I use for the lesson 1 the introductory mascot of Mickey Mouse. As the lesson itself contains the element of English culture, that is the song any British child knows by heart, - 23

24 Hickory Dickory dock!, I simply use the CD offered by the course. What is more though, I bring to the class pictures of Big Ben clock as well as its huge statue cut out of cardboard, and some pictures presenting the famous mice such as Mickey or Angelina Ballerina. At that very moment I announce and promise to make a movie session of chosen excerpts of the mentioned series. Of course, the film will become the reality only on the condition the class behaves properly and keeps the rules After-class reflections and observations Generally, I may state that the lesson went according to the plan. The aims of the lesson were fulfilled: students reviewed the vocabulary and structures thanks to listening to stories, reciting poems and singing songs, and more importantly, they learned the policy of an English class speaking English. The atmosphere in the class during the lesson was positive and joyful. I noticed that the use of authentic materials, especially the huge cut out Big Ben, made the lesson not only more interesting but also helped me to maintain the discipline and encourage the children to speak English. The most courageous preschoolers, amazed by the immense prop and other nice authentic materials, were eager to speak more then ever. On the other hand, those who are usually quiet and shy became more motivated and curious and participated more actively in a lesson. They spoke with more eagerness and were less intimidated by English vocabulary and pronunciation when it was presented in such a joyful and attractive form. Of course, there were some troubles, such as a momentary chaos around the matter of small pictures to be glued in passports. Unfortunately, I brought the whole sheet of them and showed the variety to the preschoolers, therefore, everybody wanted to have whatever was pleasing to them, which was not possible. Children were meant to get only one kind of pictures each class. It would allow me to check afterwards which students failed to keep the rules at different classes. In simple words, I explained to them shortly my policy and my aims, and that having done, I removed all the pictures except for the ones I could distribute at once. I never repeated that mistake. If I were to conduct this lesson one more time in this class I might want to improve my presentation of the game Animal Snap to avoid any confusion during the performance. I might want, as well, to provide more time for the task as I notice the genuine joy in the eyes of the students playing cards. - 24

25 Lesson plan 1. EFAC course unit 1 revision lesson Lesson info: Lesson length: 45 min Day: Age range: 5-6 Level: beginner or elementary Main aims: Objectives: Materials: Anticipated problems: Stage To teach them that everybody speaks English during the class. To show them how to do it. To teach them basic commands in English and how to respond to them. To teach the vocabulary: numbers, animals and structures: presentations and greetings. To make them understand fully the meaning of a rule We speak English during the class and we do not use Polish and to motivate them to keep that rule thanks to multiple interesting authentic materials. To enable children to use the basic structures and vocabulary fluently. To create in students the need and desire for learning languages and the world, to develop their creativity and curiosity and especially for English culture Textbook: the special Helen Doron workbook for each child 1 Somebody is late or has to go to the bathroom 2 Children do not understand fully what the rule means or they ask too many questions about it. Aids (See: Appen dices to Lesson 1) Board with the rules Ball- the Globe The Globe Old McDonald s Supplementary: authentic materials: the storybooks, the video, the pictures, toys Other aids: crayons Solutions: 1 I explain shortly the situation or task in Polish if needed. 2. To avoid that I start talking about the rules even before the class, I show it and speak about it in Polish. I explain to parents too. I remind the rules before EACH lesson onwards. Aim Procedure Interaction Timing To pass smoothly from Polish to English To teach or revise the greetings structures Hello To revise the vocabulary 1. Teacher says in Polish: Today we fly to America s Disneyland; we will meet there our friend Mickey Mouse. He wants to speak English to you. Remember the rule number1? We speak English here. It is on the wall (pointing to the board) and if you speak English a lot one of our next classes we will watch a movie about another famous Mouse from England Flying and meeting Mickey 2. I am (+name) presentation with help of the ball, the Globe 3. Review senses I see, I hear, smell, taste. Add I speak. Act out for ex.: I see America (point to it on the globe). I see England (point to T-SS SS T T-SS SS-T T-SS

26 book it on the map on the wall). I hear animals (listen to it shortly in the book of Map of England Old McDonald) I speak English with Mickey Mouse! 4 CD with the song To make them 4. Song I have two eyes CD by Helen Doron, Add stanza I have one SS 3 remember the mouth I can speak English with it. vocabulary better thanks to the song 5 Books: Old To revise the 5. Review animals The teacher asks to name animals pointing to pictures in T-SS 3 McDonald s book vocabulary the book Touch and feel. Farm, Old McDonald s book (Teacher says Touch and feel. look, animals speak English. They say quack and in Polish they say Kwak), Farm, Maisy s Maisy s favourite animals 6 the book Animal To revise counting 6. Counting on fingers. Counting animals in the book Animal Parade. T-SS 3 Parade mainly counting elephants 7 CD with the song To memorize the 7. Ten little elephants song by Helen Doron with actions SS 3 vocabulary through the song 8 The book A To revise the 8. Review mouse, mice and senses (revision from EFI). Count mice in the T-SS 5 Treasury of Nursery vocabulary book A Treasury. Teacher says How many mice can you hear? She says rhymes Squeak, squeak, squeak. Pretending to speak different voices as if for different mice. How many can you see? Children count. Teacher sings or reads the rhymes Three blind mice showing pictures in the book. 9 Clock on the wall, To revise the 9. Review Clock point to the clock on the wall, in the book, and bring a T-SS 5 Clock in A vocabulary, to huge carton statue of Big Ben. Show also a postcard with Big Ben. Big Ben SS Treasury, Postcards memorize through clock speaks English - Tic tock. Teacher distributes small mice cut out from with Big Ben, Carton action paper. Says: Mice speak English Squeak squeak. Act out mice running up 24

27 Clock and down the clock. Paper Mice 10 CD with the song To practice the 10. Teacher teaches the song Hickory dickory dock. Many children will T-SS 5 Nursery rhymes vocabulary know it since they had the course EFI. Teacher shows a picture in the book SS Nursery rhymes and reads the text. Then everybody repeats it, then sings with the CD. 11 The game cards To practice the 11. Game Animal snap. SS 5 vocabulary 12 CD with the movie of To motivate them 12 Teacher Do you know another famous mouse? She shows the picture of T-SS 2 Angelina Ballerina to speak English Angelina Ballerina on the cover of the CD. She promises to let them watch the To smoothly pass fragment of the movie at the end of the unit if they speak English. Fly back to to Polish and end Poland the class Homework: To listen to the CD of Helen Doron twice daily 24

28 3.2. Lesson 2: Disruptive behaviour towards the teacher and other pupils Lesson plan 2 description and the choice of materials The lesson plan was prepared for the class of students of English for Infants course. It is the introductory lesson as far as the implementation of the rule of the good behaviour during the class is concerned. It can be conducted by the end of unit 1 of that course or in a middle of it if the students perform well and quickly grasp new vocabulary and English structures. It is unwise and inadvisable to propose such a lesson to young students at the very beginning of the school year. They need time to familiarize themselves with the foreign language and retain a basic few structures and vocabulary. After a few first English classes teaching basis, a different lesson focused on the implementation of a school rule will appear to be enjoyable and interesting. The lesson for this Diploma Project was conducted at the sixth class of English English for Infants course. All the eight children who participated in a lesson were aged four or four and a half. As I mentioned earlier, teachers of Helen Doron Centres are urged to preserve the structure and content of all provided for them lesson plans. The creative skills of the teacher can be always revealed, of course, in the choice of tasks and the way they are performed. However, there are always a few introductory and revision classes free to be planned entirely on our own. The lesson plan 2 is the result of such creative thinking. I managed to use not only the Helen Doron aids but also the authentic materials I chose, in order to solve the disciplinary problem with students behaviour. The lesson is weaved around the idea of people having the power to control the proper behaviour during the lesson. Those dramatic personae are: the guard of the Buckingham Palace and the policewoman. They both provide a good example. They warn and they praise. Children participating in a lesson also learn and review language elements communicating with the concept of a policewoman the vehicles. The lesson makes use of such authentic materials as books: Vehicles sounds, Trevor the steam train, Henry and the elephant. All of those materials I consider as valuable as for their literary and cultural value. They are also very useful as teaching material. The lesson 2 provided children with props such as mobile toys (vehicles) and mascots, as well as it offered the arts-and-crafts activity, a sine qua non during a class for children aged four. During that class children get to know a few new vehicles. On that occasion I bring to the class the double-decker bus toy and the book for toddlers with sounds of vehicles and 28

29 English captions under each picture. Next classes which continue to teach vehicles are a perfect occasion to present the children with the continuation of the vehicles topic in a form of other interesting book series having vehicles for heroes such as: Hot wheels and many more After-class reflections and observations The lesson went according to the plan. The aims of the lesson were achieved as students did various activities improving their understanding and internalizing the rule of a proper behaviour during the class. They also enhanced their listening and speaking skills which is extremely satisfying and gives a teacher an immense pleasure especially in the case of such young children. Students presented also their great memory capacities showing off in front of amazed parents quite an extensive amount of vocabulary and structures. Their knowledge of basic Present Simple Tense was undoubtedly visible to everybody. And last but not least, I noticed also that the use of authentic colorful materials destined for English speaking children raised the curiosity in my students, as well as it helped me to attract and keep their attention on the tasks. As a result, even the most active and difficult to control during the lesson children were motivated and disciplined. The chosen activities seemed to be appropriate for the class and students knowledge. I have striven to use their memory as much as possible and review the maximum vocabulary and structures they got to know during first five lessons of the course. It allowed me to focus their attention on discovering and understanding the class rule of correct attitude towards the teacher and other pupils. In consequence, the students welcomed with joy the new small element of vocabulary novelty in a form of a double-decker bus or a policewoman and her police cap. Since it was mainly a revision lesson as far as the vocabulary and structures are concerned, the children could concentrate on and enjoyed fully new to them authentic books with brand new heroes and their brand new names. They recognized with ease a train in Trevor the steam train, Henry or Gordon, and a fire engine in Freddy (Appendices Folder. Appendices to lesson 2). If I were to conduct this lesson one more time, I would consider asking them to bring their own favourite vehicle toys. I would probably allow them to play with their private toys during the class (task 5), thus reducing the time for choosing and distributing class vehicle toys and smartly avoid the arguments in the matter of a choice of vehicles. 29

30 Lesson plan 2 English for Infants course unit 1 introductory lesson Lesson info: Lesson length: 30 min Day: Tuesday 5 May 2009 Age range: 3-4 Level: beginner Main aims: Objectives: Materials: Anticipated problems: Stage To review the vocabulary (vehicles) and structures: presentations and greetings. To teach them the proper behaviour To make them understand fully the meaning of a rule: Do not disturb others and be quiet during the class and to motivate them to keep the rule. To enable children to use the basic structures and vocabulary fluently, to help them with their understanding skills. To create in students the need and desire for learning languages and the world, to develop there creativity and curiosity in the world and especially in English culture Textbook: the special workbook for each child Supplementary: authentic materials: Other aids: crayons, pictures to colour 1 Somebody is late or has to go to the bathroom 2 Children do not understand fully what the rule means or they ask too many questions about it. Aids (See: Appendices to lesson 2) Board with rules The toy guard The police cap Guard mascot, The Globe ball storybooks, pictures, toys Solutions: 1 I explain shortly the situation or task in Polish if needed. 2. To avoid that I start talking about the rules even before the class, I show it and speak about it in Polish. I explain to parents too. I remind the rules before EACH lesson onwards. Aim Procedure Interaction Timing To introduce the Guard and the rules To make a smooth transition from Polish to English To revise the greetings structures Hello. To present the 1. Teacher says in Polish Today we will go to London and meet the British guard of Buckingham Palace. Today we will talk also how to act during the class. There will be a policewoman who will help us to behave well. She will give tickets for bad behaviour. Do you remember the rule? We do not disturb anybody. We do not shout nor run without permission. The rules are on the board. (Pointing to it). 2. Everybody gets up and flies to London meaning gets up and pretends to fly like a plane. Teacher Landed! We are in London 3. Play with a ball I am (+ name) The guard s presentation - She takes out a mascot of a guard and says Hello. I am the Buckingham Palace Guard. I will be our guard today. T-SS SS T T-SS SS-T T-SS

31 guard mascot 4. Stories of Winnie the To explain who is 4. Teacher shows the Buckingham Palace and the guard in the book. T-SS 1 Pooh - book the guard 5. Toy vehicles To revise the 5. Review vehicles children play with toy cars, buses, trucks, fire engines SS 2 vocabulary 6. Steering wheels Memorizing through 6. Singing a song from Helen Doron Car bus truck with steering wheels T-SS, SS 3 CD with the song action and song and pictures of famous car heroes on them 7. Toy trains and a double- Teaching the 7. Reviewing train and teaching double-decker bus. Show pictures in T-SS 3 decker bus vocabulary books: Trevor the steam train, Thomas and friends and give a toy of a Books Trevor, double-decker bus from London and a few trains to play. Thomas 8. CD with the song Memorizing through 8. Sing Choo choo train, Helen Doron s song, and act out a train T SS 3 action and song 9. Book with vehicles Memorizing the 9. Teach police car and policewoman. Show a book with vehicles and T-SS 2 sounds vocabulary through sounds SS sounds and the personalization 10. A cap of a policeman, Memorizing the rule 10. The teacher puts a cap of a policewoman on and says Hello I am a T-SS 2 tickets and making it true policewoman. I will remind you about our rule: Do not disturb others and understandable during the lesson and I will give you bad tickets for disturbing others and thanks to the props. being noisy during the lesson and good tickets for being good. She shows Extra motivation for tickets. being good. 11. shakers or rattles To make them 11. The teacher says: Sometimes I can allow you to be noisy, for ex. NOW. T-SS, SS 3 remember the rules Teacher smiles, gets up and distributes different home-made rattles (cans 31

32 of the lesson better with sand and beans inside) and gives commands Let s be noisy! Let s be through sound and quiet! With gestures action 12. pictures to colour To make them 12. Colouring a chosen picture of a famous vehicles (photocopies from the SS 3 crayons remember the authentic books brought to the class) vocabulary better through art-andcrafts technique 13. To make a smooth 13. Fly to Poland and say goodbye to the guard SS 1 passage from English to Polish Homework: To listen to the CD of Helen Doron no.1 32

33 3.3. Lesson 3: Breaking props and careless handling of authentic materials Lesson plan 3 description and the choice of materials The lesson plan was prepared for the class of students of More English for Infants course. It is the revision lesson from the point of view of English vocabulary and structures, but it is introductory as far as the implementation of the rule of the respect for props during the class is concerned. It was the eleventh supplementary class of English ending and summing up the first unit of the More English for Infants course. All the sixth children who participated in a lesson were between five and six of age. It was a mixed class of boys and girls. I mentioned in previous chapters that a Helen Doron teacher can always dispose of a few introductory and revision classes free to be planned entirely on her own. The lesson plan 3 came out as a result of such creative thinking, on one hand, but on the other it was the product of reflections after a similar lesson conducted in June 2008 in a group of English for All Children. Just as I planned, I managed to use the authentic materials I chose to be able to deal with the class management problem of students disrespecting props, toys and other school tools. The lesson is created around the concept of preservation and destruction, as well as feelings accompanying the act of creation and respect on one hand, and destruction on the other. The lesson proposes to apply such authentic materials as books: Goldilocks and the Three Bears, Dinosaurs and all that Rubbish, Wibbly Pig is Happy ; audio recordings such as the story of Three Little Pigs, and finally the mascot of British Airways bear. They all have the British provenience. There are, of course, other teaching aids proposed by the teacher for the sake of that lesson; nevertheless, they cannot be considered fully authentic or they are Polish authentic materials. The example of the former are songs such as Goodbye song or When the bears come marching in. Those in fact are the songs prepared by the Helen Doron Centre for special needs of the English teaching course. They are based on traditional chants or songs but due to the simplification and adaptation they cannot be called fully original and authentic. The example of the latter is the book in Polish language Trzy małe świnki. All of those materials I consider as valuable as for their cultural value and useful as teaching material. 33

34 After-class reflections and observations The lesson went just as planned. I managed to achieve the aims of the lesson mentioned in my lesson plan. The young students welcomed with joy the activities I prepared for the class. They were especially overwhelmed and jolly when I proposed to provide them with a short listening experience of a fragment of a story in English Three Little Pigs. I noticed that the mentioned activity and the task of recognizing feelings of different stories heroes actually improved their listening and speaking skills. I observed as well that all the tasks included in my lesson helped them to grasp the full meaning of our class rule that is the respect for props and other school tools. I found the experience of teaching this lesson immensely positive and satisfying since I did not expect such a full understanding and open attitude from four year old children. On the other hand, I can only guess, as I am not a veteran educator, that young preschoolers who like to break and pull apart different things in order to see the inside and the way they work, often become emotionally attached to some objects of their choice. Having analyzed my lesson plan put in practice, I understood therefore, that the task of creating the balloon faces was absolutely perfect for my class. My students drew happy or sad faces on their own or with help of parents participating in our class. They have created a new toy and they would do anything to preserve it from breaking. If I could have a chance to conduct this lesson one more time, I would be obliged to think through the idea of using a book in Polish among other entirely British authentic materials. The trouble was that the students had a tendency to fully switch to their mother tongue seeing the popular edition of the story of Three Little Pigs. I do believe it is wise for a teacher to avoid any situations during the class which distract students and allow for too long personal talks and reactions in Polish such as: Oh, I have the same book at home! My mom reads it to me in the evenings! 34

35 Lesson plan 3: More English for Infants course, unit 2, revision lesson Lesson info: Lesson length: 40 min Day: Age range: 5 Level: elementary Main aims: Objectives: Materials: Anticipated problems: Stage To review the vocabulary and structures: presentations and greetings. To teach them the respect for props To make them understand fully the meaning of a rule: Respect the props and all things and to motivate them to keep the rule. To enable children to use the basic structures and vocabulary fluently, to help them with their understanding skills. To create in students the need and desire for learning languages and the world, to develop there creativity and curiosity in the world and especially in English culture Textbook: the special workbook for each child Supplementary: authentic materials: the Other aids: crayons, pictures to colour storybooks, the pictures, toys Somebody is late or has to go to the bathroom Solutions: I explain shortly the situation or task in Polish if needed Aids (See: Appendices to lesson 3) Board with rules BA bear toy Faces of dinosaurs the book Dinosaurs and all that Rubbish CD with the song Aim Procedure Interaction Timing To introduce the BA bear and the rules To make a smooth transition from Polish to English Memorizing through action Revising the vocabulary: happy, sad, angry Teaching the word break. 1. The teacher says in Polish We will go to London today with a bear that flies in British planes. Today we will talk as well about how to respect all toys and other things we use during the lesson. The rules are on the board. Look! 2. Everybody gets up, the BA bear too, and flies to London meaning gets up and pretends to fly like a plane. Teacher Landed! We are in London 3. Brain gym (actions put together with sentences- you clap your knees with your hands) I am happy I am angry 4. Flash quickly faces of dinosaurs: Happy, sad, and angry. Act out. Show pictures in the book Dinosaurs and all that rubbish. Ask Are they happy, sad or angry? 5. Song with gestures and mimics If you are happy CD by Helen Doron. In a middle of the song the teacher says When you re angry stamp your feet, do not break anything! Let s sing the teacher adds the words to T-SS T-SS T-SS T-SS SS T-SS

36 Memorizing through the song When you re angry do not break our props action and music 6. Teaching the word blow, blew I blew the balloons. Then, the teacher 6. Balloons, Markers Teaching the rule asks: How are you today? Distributes balloons with eyes and noses, asks to SS 5 Respect for props draw the mouth: happy sad or angry. They have to draw and say I am T SS through the arts-and- happy today etc. The teacher says then: Do you like your balloons? You do crafts. Memorizing not want anybody to break it right? I also do not like anything to be broken the word break. here. She says this in Polish too. 7. When the bears go marching in song on Helen Doron s CD, actions 7. CD with the song To make a change for the song SS 3 from the peaceful activity and provide some movement 8. Story Goldilocks and the three bears. Teacher shows a picture of a 8. The book Goldilocks Memorizing the rule broken chair. Tells the story. Asks questions Is he sad or happy? Why? I T-SS 5 and the Three Bears Respect for props will be sad when you break things (acts out for better understanding) thanks to the story. Memorizing and reviewing the 9. Pictures in the book: Wibly Pig is happy. Questions Is he happy? vocabulary Why? 9. The book: Wibbly pig Memorizing the T-SS 3 vocabulary and the 10. The teacher shows a picture of a big bad Wolf in the Polish book Three rule through pictures little pigs. He is angry. Listen to him now fragment of a story of Three 10. The Polish book Three To help them little pigs on audio CD (Then I huff and I puff and I ll blow your house T-SS 7 little pigs, audio CD memorize the down!) He breaks the house of two pigs! But he did not catch them! with the story vocabulary, 36

37 structures and the rules of the classroom thanks to 11. Goodbye song song by Helen Doron the listening of a story 11. CD with a song To break the calm 12. Fly back to Poland SS 3 activity and provide movement. 12. To make a smooth SS 1 passage from English to Polish Homework: To listen to the CD of Helen Doron no.1 37

38 4. Conclusions In my Diploma Project I made an effort to analyse carefully and thoroughly a psychological and practical situation of preschool private English education and class management methods ready to be used in such schools. I scrutinized with care multiple methodological sources and thanks to them I was able to propose at the very beginning of my Project some necessary and clear definitions of important for us terms, such as young learners and authentic materials. It was an absolutely necessary background for my Project, which allowed me to continue the study with quite a thorough analysis of advantages and drawbacks of teaching young learners. Such an analysis created a great introduction for the behavioural schema of child s development. All the above elements of the theoretical part of my Diploma Project were meant to help a reader to understand certain problems in teaching foreign languages to young learners in private schools, but it was also a good moment to think through and, probably, accept the concept of windows of learning (Time 54). I have striven to explain to the reader how a wonderful moment to discover the world and learn languages is the preschool age, this age when the mentioned windows of opportunity (Time 57) are still open and a child is ready to acquire with ease an exceptional amount of knowledge and skills. What is worth remembering is that I did try to make the reader understand how amazing but also how a difficult task it is to teach preschoolers. My personal experience obtained during my work in Helen Doron Centres was a decisive element in the choice of a subject for my Project. I understood that I do want to transfer to others my practical ideas concerning class management and application of authentic materials. In my work with children, I have always paid special attention to their use in language learning tasks. Thanks to my research, I was able to make the reader fully aware of pros and cons of the use of authentic materials in the teaching of young learners. I came to the conclusion that advantages outnumber difficulties. It can only be repeated infinite number of times how valuable a tool they can be to teachers who have to solve disciplinary problems in their classes. I hope that my general ideas concerning the basic use of authentic materials, be it small images to glue in language passports, the board of rules made up of road signs or again toy mascots - native speakers of English, traveling with children to English speaking countries, will help to solve problems with behaviour troubles in some preschool classes. Thinking of fellow teachers of young learners, I created my lesson plans for the Diploma 38

39 Project with great care. Each of the plans proposed here is meant to solve a different disciplinary problem. The reader will find solutions to: the overuse of mother tongue - in the first lesson plan, the troubles with students behaviour - in the second plan, and the careless handling of class tools and props - in the third lesson plan. Of course, all materials for any English language lesson ought to be chosen with care, responsibility and full awareness of their usefulness and of their relevance to the set language goals. On the other hand, I believe that total lack of authentic sources in class and exceptional ignorance in the matter could result in a loss of motivation in children, boredom and lower effectiveness of a chosen teaching method. 39

40 5. Bibliography Berardo, Sacha A. The use of authentic materials in the teaching of reading. The reading matrix, 2.2 (September 2006) May 2009 <http://www.readingmatrix.com/articles/berardo/article.pdf> Best discipline strategies for the preschool classroom. Mukichi, Masimba, B. Coles, R.L.Hanlon, C.Kromminga. Helium- online journal. 15 May <http://www.helium.com/ items/ best-discipline-strategies-for-the-preschoolclassroom> Blegan, M.B. Creating a climate for learning: effective classroom management techniques. Education World. The educator s best friend. 15 May < Brewster, J., G.Ellis, D.Girard, The primary English teacher s guide, Essex: Pearson Education Ltd, Cambridge Advanced Learner s Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Cameron, Lynne. Teaching languages to young learners. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Disciplining your preschooler. Keepkidshealthy.com a Pediatrician s guide to your children s health and safety. 22 May 2009 <http://www.keepkidshealthy.com/preschool/ preschooldiscipline.html> Dr. Maldonado. Problems in preschool children. An online slideshow. 18 May <http://www.kaimh.org/slides/preschpr/index.htm> Doron, Helen and Debbie Sarussi. English for infants: Teacher guide. Helen Doron Ed Effective discipline for children. Psychosocial Paediatrics Committee. Canadian Paediatric Society (CPS) Paediatrics & Child Health 2004; 9(1): Reference No. PP May 2009 <http://www.cps.ca./english/statements/pp/pp04-01.htm> Gordon, Thomas. Wychowanie bez poraŝek w szkole. Warszawa: Instytut Wydawniczy Pax, Harmer, Jeremy. The practice of English language teaching. New York: Longman How to get your preschooler to listen to you and respect you. Scribd. 15 May <http://www.scribd.com/doc/13484/how-to-get-your-preschoolers-to-listen-to- Respect-You> Ilg, Frances L., Bates Ames L., Baker, S.M. Rozwój psychiczny dziecka od 0 do 10 lat. Gdansk: Gdanskie Towarzystwo Psychologiczne, Kilickaya, Ferit. Authentic Materials and Cultural Content in EFL Classrooms. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. X, No. 7, July May 2009 <http://iteslj.org/techniques/kilickaya-autenticmaterial.html> 40

41 McCloskey, Mary L. Seven instructional principles for teaching young learners of English. Georgia State University. TESOL Symposium. San Diego May 2009 <http://home.comcast.net/~educoatlanta/handouts05/ McCloskey_TESOL_ Symposium02.pdf> Margaret Risk. Meltdown moments. Dealing with preschool temper tantrums. iparenting Media. 18 May 2009 <http://www.preschoolerstoday.com/resources/articles/ meltdown.htm> Martinez, Alejandro G. Authentic Materials: An Overview. Karen s Linguistics Issues. Free Resources for teachers and students of English. February May 2009 <http://www3.telus.net/linguisticsissues/authenticmaterials.html> Moon, Jayne. Children learning English. Macmillan ELT, Nash, Madelaine. Fertile minds. Time. February 10, Scrivener, John. Learning teaching. A guidebook for English language teachers. Oxford: Macmillan Publishers Ltd., Phillips, Sarah. Young learners. Resource books for teachers. Oxford UP, Pre-school discipline. Reach Every Child. Horace Mann. Educated Financial Solutions. 18 May 2009 <http://www.reacheverychild.com/feature/preschool.html> Public Health Grey Bruce Health Unit. Positive discipline tips for every age. 22 May 2009 <http://www.publichealthgreybruce.on.ca/family/preschool/ PositiveDisciplineTips- EveryAge.htm> ---. Behaviour and discipline. 22 May 2009 <http://www.publichealthgreybruce.on.ca/ Family/Preschool/ BehaviourAndDiscipline.htm> Telep, Valya. Discipline for young children. Virginia State University. Publication Number , posted June May 2009 <http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/family/ / html> Teri Brown. The tiniest bullies. Dealing with bullying in daycare. Parenting. 18 May 2009 <http://att.iparenting.com/preschoolers/bullies.htm> Ur, Penny. A course in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Vancouver English Centre. Definition of TEYL. 14 May 2009 <http://www.vec.ca/english/10/teyl.cfm> Vernon, Shelley. Homepage. Teaching English games:esl articles and tips: Teaching English with stories in the preschool ESL classroom. 14 May 2009 <http://www.teachingenglishgames.com/articles/teaching_english_with_stories_in_the _Preschool_ESL_Classroom.htm> ---. Ideas and tips for successful classes. 14 May 2009 <http://www.teachingenglishgames.com/articles/teaching_esl_preschool_ideas_and_t ips_for_successful_classes.htm> 41

42 6. Appendices Appendices to Basic techniques of class management Rule 1 Rule 2 Rule 3 Small pictures for passports 42

43 010341DDAC 43

44 s 44

45 45

46 46

Tibiscus University of Timişoara, România. 1. Aspects of the Computer Assisted English Language Learning

Tibiscus University of Timişoara, România. 1. Aspects of the Computer Assisted English Language Learning The Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Classes for English as a Second Language Ioana Iacob Tibiscus University of Timişoara, România ABSTRACT. The present study aims to evaluate the efficiency of the

More information

Using the Second Step: Social-Emotional Skills for Early Learning and Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA-P2) Preschool Program Together

Using the Second Step: Social-Emotional Skills for Early Learning and Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA-P2) Preschool Program Together Using the Second Step: Social-Emotional Skills for Early Learning and Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA-P2) Preschool Program Together The Second Step program and DECA Preschool Program are both

More information

How to set limits on your child s behaviour... and stick to them A guide for parents

How to set limits on your child s behaviour... and stick to them A guide for parents How to set limits on your child s behaviour... and stick to them A guide for parents West Lothian Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) Introduction Children have to be helped to learn how

More information

Uniwersytet Warszawski

Uniwersytet Warszawski Uniwersytet Warszawski Centrum Kształcenia Nauczycieli Języków Obcych i Edukacji Europejskiej Uniwersyteckie Kolegium Kształcenia Nauczycieli Języka Angielskiego Przemysław Żygadło Nr albumu: 226155 Computer-Assisted

More information

Fostering Self-Esteem During Difficult Times

Fostering Self-Esteem During Difficult Times Name Date Class Emotional Development from Four to Six Section 14 1 Fostering Self-Esteem During Difficult Times Psychologists define self-esteem as confidence in one s ability to face life s problems,

More information

Powerful English Speaking

Powerful English Speaking Powerful English Speaking Table of Contents I. Introduction II. The Effortless English System Overview III. Body IV. Mind V. Method VI. Next Step VII. Doʼs & Donʼts VIII. Lessons Introduction What is English

More information

Nurturing Early Learners

Nurturing Early Learners Nurturing Early Learners A Curriculum Framework for Kindergartens in Singapore A Guide for Parents A Strong Start for Every Child 1 A Strong Start for Every Child A Word to Parents Parents know that the

More information

Local view modeling for ETA in BitTorrent

Local view modeling for ETA in BitTorrent University of Warsaw Faculty of Mathematics, Computer Science and Mechanics VU University Amsterdam Faculty of Sciences Joint Master of Science Programme Piotr Powałowski Student no. 209403 (UW), 1735543

More information

Contents. A Word About This Guide... 3. Why Is It Important for My Child to Read?... 4. How Will My Child Learn to Read?... 4

Contents. A Word About This Guide... 3. Why Is It Important for My Child to Read?... 4. How Will My Child Learn to Read?... 4 Contents A Word About This Guide............................... 3 Why Is It Important for My Child to Read?................ 4 How Will My Child Learn to Read?....................... 4 How Can I Help My

More information

Good Stewards Ministry www.earnestandroline.com. Teacher Training Workshop. Workbook Written & Complied By: Pastor Earnest & Sis.

Good Stewards Ministry www.earnestandroline.com. Teacher Training Workshop. Workbook Written & Complied By: Pastor Earnest & Sis. Good Stewards Ministry www.earnestandroline.com Teacher Training Workshop Workbook Written & Complied By: Pastor Earnest & Sis. Roline Thomas I. Mastering the Basics The Importance of Sunday School The

More information

Ideals and realities: Reflecting team used for clinical group supervision without clients present.

Ideals and realities: Reflecting team used for clinical group supervision without clients present. 1 Ideals and realities: Reflecting team used for clinical group supervision without clients present. Av Sissel Reichelt For most family therapists research is not a favorite activity. When you believe

More information

Making Reading Content Comprehensible for Intermediate Language Learners. Colin Dalton. University of Houston-Downtown, United States

Making Reading Content Comprehensible for Intermediate Language Learners. Colin Dalton. University of Houston-Downtown, United States Making Reading Content Comprehensible for Intermediate Language Learners Colin Dalton University of Houston-Downtown, United States 0135 The European Conference on Language Learning 2013 Official Conference

More information

What Can Help Improve Social Interaction and Development?

What Can Help Improve Social Interaction and Development? What Can Help Improve Social Interaction and Development? Supporting social interaction is an important piece of the student s educational plan, as increasing social interaction and competency are vital

More information

Parent Education Activities

Parent Education Activities PART III: PARENT EDUCATION Parent education sessions need to be planned and should follow a similar sequence each time. The suggested sequence is listed here and is explained later in this article. Also,

More information

INTRODUCTION TEACHING TIPS. THE NURSERY CLASS Purpose

INTRODUCTION TEACHING TIPS. THE NURSERY CLASS Purpose INTRODUCTION THE NURSERY CLASS Purpose Letter to Parents The purpose of the nursery class is to help children learn the restored gospel of Jesus Christ and live it. The nursery class should help the children

More information

Empowering Your Ministry

Empowering Your Ministry Empowering Your Ministry 1 Ten Things That Will Empower Your Youth Ministry Programs 1. Have a clear vision. Spend time visioning for the highest quality program you can imagine and then create a plan

More information

TIME-OUT AS A DISCIPLINE TECHNIQUE

TIME-OUT AS A DISCIPLINE TECHNIQUE CENTER FOR EFFECTIVE PARENTING TIME-OUT AS A DISCIPLINE TECHNIQUE critical. Parents should make sure that all other adults who discipline their children use the same technique. The time-out procedure described

More information

University of Toronto TEFL Online

University of Toronto TEFL Online University of Toronto TEFL Online 403 (v41) Reflection Journal Submission - Unit 4 Name: RAHEEL KHAN Score: 100% Passmark: 100% Attempted: Tuesday, February 11, 2014 Attempt Number: 3 Time Taken: 00:09:51

More information

Growing Up With Epilepsy

Growing Up With Epilepsy Teaching Students with Epilepsy: Children with epilepsy often experience learning issues as a result of their seizures. These may include ongoing problems with motor skills or cognitive functions, as well

More information

Effective teaching and classroom management is about whole child - and whole school development for knowledge, skills and human values

Effective teaching and classroom management is about whole child - and whole school development for knowledge, skills and human values Effective teaching and classroom management is about whole child - and whole school development for knowledge, skills and human values During the past years as an outcome of the UN Study on Violence against

More information

Gifted and talented checklist for parents Things my young child has done

Gifted and talented checklist for parents Things my young child has done Gifted and talented checklist for parents Things my young child has done The following is a checklist of characteristics of gifted young children. The examples after each item are there to help you to

More information

Assessment of the project

Assessment of the project Assessment of the project International Marketing Offensive for Smart Phones in China 1. Assessment of the project itself In November 2014 we started preparing our project which was an international marketing

More information

DISCUSSING THE QUESTION OF TEACHING FORMAL GRAMMAR IN ESL LEARNING

DISCUSSING THE QUESTION OF TEACHING FORMAL GRAMMAR IN ESL LEARNING DISCUSSING THE QUESTION OF TEACHING FORMAL GRAMMAR IN ESL LEARNING Savitskaya T.N. Siberian State Aerospace University named after Reshetnev M.F., Krasnoyarsk, Russia В статье автор обобщает точки зрения

More information

Back to School: Working with Teachers and Schools

Back to School: Working with Teachers and Schools Back to School: Working with Teachers and Schools Starting school each fall is a challenge for the student and parents. The following article offers some valuable suggestions as your child starts a new

More information

Coaching Strategies in CDI & PDI to Match Caregiver Style: The Many PCIT Adventures in Hundred Acre Wood

Coaching Strategies in CDI & PDI to Match Caregiver Style: The Many PCIT Adventures in Hundred Acre Wood Coaching Strategies in CDI & PDI to Match Caregiver Style: The Many PCIT Adventures in Hundred Acre Wood EMMA G IRARD, PSY.D. PRESCHOOL 0-5 PROGRAMS RIVERSIDE COUNTY DEPT OF MENTAL HEALTH 15 TH A N N U

More information

TeachingEnglish Lesson plans. Conversation Lesson News. Topic: News

TeachingEnglish Lesson plans. Conversation Lesson News. Topic: News Conversation Lesson News Topic: News Aims: - To develop fluency through a range of speaking activities - To introduce related vocabulary Level: Intermediate (can be adapted in either direction) Introduction

More information

Case Study: Jane Dhillon. 2. Why do I think Jane has a non-verbal learning disability?

Case Study: Jane Dhillon. 2. Why do I think Jane has a non-verbal learning disability? Case Study: Jane Dhillon 1. Background information on Jane Dhillon 2. Why do I think Jane has a non-verbal learning disability? Three issues in this course that relate to Jane: 3. Memory 4. Peer relationships

More information

Alabama Cooperative Extension System, Alabama A&M and Auburn Universities

Alabama Cooperative Extension System, Alabama A&M and Auburn Universities Alabama Cooperative Extension System, Alabama A&M and Auburn Universities Getting Young Children Ready To Learn HE-0722 RAISING CAN DO KIDS Parents want their children to grow up to succeed in life. They

More information

Reading Aloud with Children of All Ages

Reading Aloud with Children of All Ages with Children of All Ages Derry Koralek THE SINGLE MOST IMPORTANT ACTIVITY for building knowledge for their eventual success in reading is reading aloud to children, stressed Becoming a Nation of Readers,

More information

Play helps children feel good about themselves

Play helps children feel good about themselves Play helps children feel good about themselves Contents Children develop their social and emotional skills through play How do young children play? Play helps children develop a positive sense of self

More information

How To Grow Your Child s Mind

How To Grow Your Child s Mind How To Grow Your Child s Mind Areas we will cover: Growth Mindsets Philosophy for Children (P4C) Mindfulness Special Announcement. You are so clever. You seem to be able to turn your hand to anything.

More information

Family Engagement and Ongoing Child Assessment

Family Engagement and Ongoing Child Assessment Family Engagement and Ongoing Child Assessment The partnership between parents and Head Start staff is fundamental to children s current and future success and their readiness for school. This relationship

More information

Great customer experience People are the key!

Great customer experience People are the key! Great customer experience People are the key! People are at the core of business success and providing a great customer experience! I suspect when I talk about people I m talking about means customers.

More information

SJO GLOSSA ul. Dietla 103 31-031 Kraków, Polska tel +48 12 429 40 51 info@glossa.pl www.polskikrokpokroku.pl

SJO GLOSSA ul. Dietla 103 31-031 Kraków, Polska tel +48 12 429 40 51 info@glossa.pl www.polskikrokpokroku.pl Polski krok po kroku will immerse you in the Polish environment and you will have no choice but to use Polish all the time, in all types of everyday situations. Together with a group of friends from different

More information

Psychic Lotto Formula 3-Step Formula Secret Template To Lottery Secrets Module 3

Psychic Lotto Formula 3-Step Formula Secret Template To Lottery Secrets Module 3 Page 1 Table of Content The Psychic Lotto Formula Jackpot to Success System... 4 Part 1 Channeling the Power of Your Mind to Success... 6 Part 2 Visualization... 12 Part 3 Integrating Luck and Making it

More information

Supporting your child after a burn injury

Supporting your child after a burn injury Royal Manchester Children s Hospital Supporting your child after a burn injury Information for Parents and Carers of Young Children 2 Contents Page Introduction 4 Trauma and children 4 Normal reactions

More information

What people who attend Linton Sellen s Leadership Training have to say:

What people who attend Linton Sellen s Leadership Training have to say: What people who attend Linton Sellen s Leadership Training have to say: Excellent course, couldn t have been better. Training content and knowledge and delivery are exceptional. I've been to many management

More information

A PhD in Public Affairs?

A PhD in Public Affairs? A PhD in Public Affairs? The Basics A Doctor of Philosophy degree, abbreviated Ph.D. for the Latin Philosophiae Doctor, is an advanced academic degree earned in many fields, signifying major interests

More information

Common Time-Out Mistakes And Problems

Common Time-Out Mistakes And Problems If Your Child Rebels Against Time-Out Time-out Common Time-Out is not expected Mistakes And to work Problems if parents make more than 2 or 3 time-out mistakes. - Lynn Clark 99 Chapter 12 Common Time-Out

More information

Integrated Skills in English ISE I

Integrated Skills in English ISE I Integrated Skills in English ISE I Reading & Writing exam Sample paper 1 Your full name: (BLOCK CAPITALS) Candidate number: Centre: Time allowed: 2 hours Instructions to candidates 1. Write your name,

More information

Integrated Skills in English ISE II

Integrated Skills in English ISE II Integrated Skills in English ISE II Reading & Writing exam Sample paper 2 Your full name: (BLOCK CAPITALS) Candidate number: Centre: Time allowed: 2 hours Instructions to candidates 1. Write your name,

More information

0 3 Months. Smile spontaneously. By 2 3 months, your baby s social smiles are signs that she knows who you are.

0 3 Months. Smile spontaneously. By 2 3 months, your baby s social smiles are signs that she knows who you are. 0 3 Months Your baby was born relationship ready and in her first three months of life is actively trying to make sense of her world. Before she can even speak, your baby is communicating with her facial

More information

Cornerstone Christian College Student Management System

Cornerstone Christian College Student Management System Cornerstone Christian College Student Management System The Cornerstone Charter To ensure all students are able to develop the learning outcomes described within the Australian curriculum and the Early

More information

Module 6; Managing Large Classes

Module 6; Managing Large Classes Module 6; Managing Large Classes Approaches to Language Teaching: Extension; Video Length: Approximately 11 Minutes; Notes to the Trainer; For best results, have participants go through the readings for

More information

CORE-INFO: Emotional neglect and emotional abuse in pre-school children

CORE-INFO: Emotional neglect and emotional abuse in pre-school children CORE-INFO: Emotional neglect and emotional abuse in pre-school children Introduction This leaflet summarises what is currently known about children aged less than six years who have been emotionally neglected

More information

PROFESSIONAL BACKGROUND

PROFESSIONAL BACKGROUND Statement of Benjamin S. Fernandez, MSEd, Lead School Psychologist Loudon County Public Schools, Virginia NASP Briefing: Effective Discipline Policies and Practices Thursday, April 18, 2013 My name is

More information

Steps to Becoming an Inclusive Learning-Friendly Environment

Steps to Becoming an Inclusive Learning-Friendly Environment Steps to Becoming an Inclusive Learning-Friendly Environment Description of tool: This tool suggests steps that school staff (or a dedicated team) might take to create a more inclusive, learning-friendly

More information

Moses. July 11-12, 2015. God has a plan for us. Exodus 2-4; Jeremiah 29:11

Moses. July 11-12, 2015. God has a plan for us. Exodus 2-4; Jeremiah 29:11 rd 3 5 July 11-12, 2015 Moses Exodus 2-4; Jeremiah 29:11 God has a plan for us. th Connect Time (20 minutes): Five minutes after the service begins, split kids into groups and begin their activity. Remember

More information

Pre-Primary Education ( PPE11 )

Pre-Primary Education ( PPE11 ) FACULTY OF EDUCATION Bachelor s Degree Programmes Pre-Primary Education ( PPE11 ) EDUC180 INTRODUCTION TO EDUCATION This course aims to help students understand the general law of the human education system.

More information

DAY ONE ICE-BREAKERS AND INTRODUCTION. Hello. Name of the activity Objectives

DAY ONE ICE-BREAKERS AND INTRODUCTION. Hello. Name of the activity Objectives DAY ONE ICE-BREAKERS AND INTRODUCTION Hello This will set the tone for the workshop: it is easy and fun, it helps participants to relax and start to get to know each other. 5 minutes None Group work The

More information

When a Parent Has Mental Illness Helping Children Cope

When a Parent Has Mental Illness Helping Children Cope When a Parent Has Mental Illness Helping Children Cope World Fellowship for Schizophrenia and Allied Disorders 124 Merton Street, Suite 507 Toronto, Ontario, M4S 2Z2, Canada Email: info@world-schizophrenia.org

More information

3Session. Why Do Children Do What They Do? Positive Solutions for Families. The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning

3Session. Why Do Children Do What They Do? Positive Solutions for Families. The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Why Do Children Do What They Do? 3Session Positive Solutions for Families The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning Learner Objectives Suggested Agenda Examine why children

More information

Stepping Outside the Box: Some Additional Thoughts Part II Robert Brooks, Ph.D.

Stepping Outside the Box: Some Additional Thoughts Part II Robert Brooks, Ph.D. Stepping Outside the Box: Some Additional Thoughts Part II Robert Brooks, Ph.D. This will be my last article until September. I want to wish my readers a relaxing summer and to mention that in addition

More information

How to Brief an Agency

How to Brief an Agency How to Brief an Agency Contents: Introduction - Introduction - What makes a good brief? - Important Steps to take - Finalising the Brief - Evaluating the Agency's proposal Giving a thorough brief to your

More information

PRESCHOOL. Curriculum for the Preschool Lpfö 98

PRESCHOOL. Curriculum for the Preschool Lpfö 98 PRESCHOOL Curriculum for the Preschool Lpfö 98 Revised 2010 Orders to: Fritzes kundservice SE-106 47 Stockholm Telephone: +46 (0)8 598 191 90 Fax: +46 (0)8 598 191 91 E-mail: order.fritzes@nj.se www.fritzes.se

More information

Role Plays for Teacher Classroom Management

Role Plays for Teacher Classroom Management Role Plays for Teacher Classroom Management Collaboration, Workshop 1 After Vignette #4 Making connection with quiet child Practice making a connection with a child who is quiet, shy, or sad. Think about

More information

Rodel Exemplary Teacher Initiative

Rodel Exemplary Teacher Initiative Rodel Exemplary Teacher Initiative Five Traits of Exemplary Teachers in High-Potential Classrooms 1. Passionate Belief System 2. Motivation and Student Engagement 3. Focus on Subject Matter 4. Effective

More information

Global engagement. An International Baccalaureate education for all

Global engagement. An International Baccalaureate education for all Learning stories Language and learning Inclusive education Global engagement Multiple programme schools Learning stories from the IB continuum share examples of good practice from IB World Schools in order

More information

Table of Contents Page Introduction... 3 Key Feedback Principles... 4 Types of Feedback... 5

Table of Contents Page Introduction... 3 Key Feedback Principles... 4 Types of Feedback... 5 P r o v i d i n g q u a l i t y f e e d b a c k a g o o d p r a c t i c e g u i d e Table of Contents Page Introduction... 3 Key Feedback Principles... 4 Types of Feedback... 5 Positive Feedback... 5 Developmental

More information

The Use of Pictures and Illustrations in Teaching English

The Use of Pictures and Illustrations in Teaching English Hirosaki University Repository The Use of Pictures and Illustrat Title Teaching English Author(s) Uematsu, Hajime Citation 21 世 紀 教 育 フォーラム, 7, 2012, p.45-50 Issue Date 2012-03-31 URL http://hdl.handle.net/10129/4790

More information

COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING READING

COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING READING Лю Пэн COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING READING Effective Elementary Reading Program Effective approach must contain the following five components: 1. Phonemic awareness instruction to help children learn

More information

PERFORMANCE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

PERFORMANCE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Document Number SOP2009-056 File No. 08/470-02 (D009/8429) Date issued 16 September 2009 Author Branch Director Workforce Unit Branch contact Strategic Projects Coordinator

More information

Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Nursery & Primary School. Modern Foreign Language Policy

Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Nursery & Primary School. Modern Foreign Language Policy Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Nursery & Primary School Modern Foreign Language Policy September 2014 Review Date: September 2016 INTRODUCTION This subject policy is one in a series that makes up the Whole

More information

Purpose: To acquire language and the ability to communicate successfully with others

Purpose: To acquire language and the ability to communicate successfully with others Purpose: To acquire language and the ability to communicate successfully with others The language development and communication domain involves the development of the ability to use language to communicate

More information

Presentation Skills. Careers & Employability Service www.mmu.ac.uk/careers/guides

Presentation Skills. Careers & Employability Service www.mmu.ac.uk/careers/guides Presentation Skills This guide is part of the Applications and Interviews series. For more guides in the series please visit the website below. Careers & Employability Service www.mmu.ac.uk/careers/guides

More information

A Guide for Using Big Books in the Classroom

A Guide for Using Big Books in the Classroom Why Big Books? A Guide for Using Big Books in the Classroom There s something spectacular about Big Book versions of good children s books. Neither adults nor children can resist the urge to touch and

More information

Curriculum Development Institute Education Bureau 2010

Curriculum Development Institute Education Bureau 2010 Curriculum Development Institute Education Bureau 2010 Reading is the foundation for learning. Early childhood is a critical stage in the developmental process. The development of a good reading habit

More information

MODULE 4: Communication

MODULE 4: Communication MODULE 4: Communication Materials Flipchart paper, pens, toffees (or other chewy sweets), empty crisp packets, other items with different textures or sounds such as rattles, squeaky toys, ball, doll, cell

More information

Share books and talk together

Share books and talk together Share books and talk together Babies love to communicate. They are born sociable and come into the world with a willingness to communicate and learn. Their experiences in their early years shape their

More information

Vernon Park Primary School. Teaching and Learning Policy

Vernon Park Primary School. Teaching and Learning Policy Vernon Park Primary School Teaching and Learning Policy The school s approach to teaching and learning is based upon the school vision: At Vernon Park Primary School we aim to provide all children, parents,

More information

Planning and Leading Sports Activities

Planning and Leading Sports Activities 5 Planning and Leading Sports Activities Introduction A good sports leader can direct certain sporting situations or sports sessions to help guide and motivate groups of people on skills, regulations and

More information

MAIN CHALLENGES IN TEACHING ENGLISH TO CHILDREN AGED 6-12

MAIN CHALLENGES IN TEACHING ENGLISH TO CHILDREN AGED 6-12 MAIN CHALLENGES IN TEACHING ENGLISH TO CHILDREN AGED 6-12 For the last 15 years it has become a European standard to introduce foreign languages, especially English, in primary schools and kindergartens.

More information

Developing An Environment Where Children Can Learn. (Classroom Management)

Developing An Environment Where Children Can Learn. (Classroom Management) California State University Los Angeles Education Specialist Intern Program Developing An Environment Where Children Can Learn An Introduction (Classroom Management) Helpful Hints Series #5 from Dr. Barry

More information

You are going to listen to Jay talking about a special sign language for babies that her son Benen used when he was little.

You are going to listen to Jay talking about a special sign language for babies that her son Benen used when he was little. Task 1 Lead-in Discuss the questions below: 1. Does your country have a sign language? 2. If so, who uses it? 3. Have you seen anyone using it a. in real life b. on television or on the internet? 4. Did

More information

Providing Support for Special Needs Children By The U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Posted June 1998.

Providing Support for Special Needs Children By The U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Posted June 1998. Providing Support for Special Needs Children By The U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Posted June 1998. All children can succeed with the right support. Being

More information

MFL Policy 2014. Policy confirmed by the Governing Body of Our Lady Immaculate Roman Catholic Primary School on: Date: 23.9.14

MFL Policy 2014. Policy confirmed by the Governing Body of Our Lady Immaculate Roman Catholic Primary School on: Date: 23.9.14 MFL Policy 2014 Policy confirmed by the Governing Body of Our Lady Immaculate Roman Catholic Primary School on: Date: 23.9.14 Signature: (Chair of Governors) To be reviewed on: Rationale for Teaching Languages

More information

Jack s Dyslexia Index indicates he has dyslexic difficulties that are mild in extent.

Jack s Dyslexia Index indicates he has dyslexic difficulties that are mild in extent. Dyslexia Portfolio Report for Jack Jones Assessed by Sue Thompson on 05/08/2009 Report for parents When a child is identified as dyslexic, additional support will be needed from both school and home to

More information

Parents recording social workers - A guidance note for parents and professionals

Parents recording social workers - A guidance note for parents and professionals Parents recording social workers - A guidance note for parents and professionals The Transparency Project December 2015 www.transparencyproject.org.uk info@transparencyproject.org.uk (Charity Registration

More information

Potty Training. When are children ready to potty train?

Potty Training. When are children ready to potty train? Potty Training It can be messy! There will be accidents! Potty training is an important milestone for your child, but learning to gain control of the bowel and bladder can be a complicated process and

More information

Creative Scotland, Youth Music Initiative. Case Study Young Music Makers in Edinburgh. Helping young people believe in themselves.

Creative Scotland, Youth Music Initiative. Case Study Young Music Makers in Edinburgh. Helping young people believe in themselves. Creative Scotland, Youth Music Initiative Case Study Young Music Makers in Edinburgh Helping young people believe in themselves. About this case study This case study was developed as part of Creative

More information

Modern Foreign Languages (MFL) Policy 2013

Modern Foreign Languages (MFL) Policy 2013 Modern Foreign Languages (MFL) Policy 2013 Revised by: Head, staff & governors: Date: Dec 2013 Next Review: December 2016 or sooner if regulations / circumstances change 1 Rationale for Teaching Languages

More information

School Authority: 9879- Society For Treatment of Autism (Calgary Region)

School Authority: 9879- Society For Treatment of Autism (Calgary Region) Project ID:30156 - Art Therapy for Autistic Preschool Kindergarten School Authority: 9879- Society For Treatment of Autism (Calgary Region) Scope: 60 Students, Grades prek to K, 1 School PROJECT PLAN Project

More information

ThisPersonal checking account lesson is designed to be for grades 9-12 Financial Literacy

ThisPersonal checking account lesson is designed to be for grades 9-12 Financial Literacy ThisPersonal checking account lesson is designed to be for grades 9-12 Financial Literacy classes. Financial Literacy is a state graduation requirement. 1 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this lesson

More information

OUR PAST THROUGH FILM

OUR PAST THROUGH FILM OUR PAST THROUGH FILM Watching old footage helps us to learn more about what life was like in the past, and it can also help us access our own memories. This activity pack will help you run some activities

More information

Best Practices in Teaching Writing Charles Whitaker, Ph.D.

Best Practices in Teaching Writing Charles Whitaker, Ph.D. Best Practices in Teaching Writing Charles Whitaker, Ph.D. Following is a list of selected teaching practices that are well recognized in the profession as being effective in helping students develop as

More information

Inside: Overview of the eight intelligences, In the Montessori School, Harmonious Development

Inside: Overview of the eight intelligences, In the Montessori School, Harmonious Development International Montessori Schools and Child Development Centres Brussels, Belgium www.international-montessori.org Brussels Introduction to the Eight Intelligences Inside: Overview of the eight intelligences,

More information

Emerging Use of ICT for Teaching and Learning in Schools of Pakistan

Emerging Use of ICT for Teaching and Learning in Schools of Pakistan Article Summary Tazmeen Sultan is part of the Educational Technology team at a Private School, in Lahore, Pakistan. Her responsibilities include facilitating the effective use of computers and other instructional

More information

Designing for Children - With focus on Play + Learn

Designing for Children - With focus on Play + Learn Designing for Children - With focus on Play + Learn The role of toys in early childhood Gayatri Menon, Faculty and Coordinator, Toy and Game design program, National Institute of Design,India, gayatri@nid.edu,menon.gayatri@gmail.com

More information

Making a successful transition to year 1

Making a successful transition to year 1 Readership: early years, primary Making a successful transition to year 1 Do children make a smooth transition from the foundation stage to key stage 1? This was the question our research team set out

More information

Choral Reading Type: Strategy Literacy Skill: Reading Domain:

Choral Reading Type: Strategy Literacy Skill: Reading Domain: Choral Reading Strategy Literacy Skill: Reading Fluency Grade Level Uses: K-20 Special Population: N/A; Need to modify the reading for ELL and Special Needs with accommodations Cognitive Process: Comprehension

More information

Teaching in a preschool or kindergarten classroom is. The Teacher s Role

Teaching in a preschool or kindergarten classroom is. The Teacher s Role 02-Nielsen-4953.qxd 5/18/2006 11:52 AM Page 14 2 The Teacher s Role 14 Teaching in a preschool or kindergarten classroom is challenging. It is physically demanding because there is rarely a moment to sit

More information

Modern Foreign Languages (MFL)

Modern Foreign Languages (MFL) Modern Foreign Languages (MFL) Fordcombe C.E. Primary School Reviewed & Approved by the Full Governing Body: Jan 2013 Next Review due Jan 2016 Signed:. Name (print) Mrs Sarah Finch Position: Chair of Governors

More information

S. No. WHAT KIDS WANTS THEIR PARENTS TO KNOW. 1 Encourage me when I do a good job ! " #$ % & "

S. No. WHAT KIDS WANTS THEIR PARENTS TO KNOW. 1 Encourage me when I do a good job !  #$ % & 1 Encourage me when I do a good job 2 Let me teach you some things. Don't always be the teacher! " #$ % & " '()&% 3 Don't show too much affection in public ( # &% 4 Let me take some risks; you did when

More information

Complete a Relationships Presentation

Complete a Relationships Presentation Complete a Relationships Presentation Speech Tips 1. I am so scared of giving my speech. How do I get over my nervousness? Nervousness is natural. Think of it as a friend rather than an enemy. You need

More information

Fact Sheet #1: Skills to Expect from 0 to 18 months

Fact Sheet #1: Skills to Expect from 0 to 18 months Fact Sheet #1: Skills to Expect from 0 to 18 months Mental Skills Remember people and objects that are not present Imitate other people s facial expressions, sounds, and actions Imitate what they see on

More information

Joseph in Egypt. Genesis 39:2-3 the LORD was with Joseph and gave him success in everything he did.

Joseph in Egypt. Genesis 39:2-3 the LORD was with Joseph and gave him success in everything he did. Joseph in Egypt Teacher Pep Talk: Joseph s brothers had seen their chance to get rid of him and they did. They sold him into slavery in Egypt. But the LORD was with Joseph in Egypt and gave him success

More information

IDS was thrilled to begin 2014 by completing our 100th custom office! Look inside to see what amazing dental offices we ve been creating over the

IDS was thrilled to begin 2014 by completing our 100th custom office! Look inside to see what amazing dental offices we ve been creating over the IDS was thrilled to begin 2014 by completing our 100th custom office! Look inside to see what amazing dental offices we ve been creating over the last few months as we work towards our next 100 offices!

More information

Teaching Pre-Service Mainstream Teachers about TESOL. Laurie France. 1.0 Volunteering to Teach Linda Lord s LIT311 Class About TESOL

Teaching Pre-Service Mainstream Teachers about TESOL. Laurie France. 1.0 Volunteering to Teach Linda Lord s LIT311 Class About TESOL This assignment was one that I gave to my EDU 360 class. By the time students get to this point in the TESOL (Teaching English to speakers of other languages) major, they have learned a lot about writing,

More information

Z E S Z Y T Y N A U K O W E WYśSZEJ SZKOŁY PEDAGOGICZNEJ W RZESZOWIE SERIA FILOLOGICZNA ZESZYT 42/2001 STUDIA ANGLICA RESOVIENSIA 2

Z E S Z Y T Y N A U K O W E WYśSZEJ SZKOŁY PEDAGOGICZNEJ W RZESZOWIE SERIA FILOLOGICZNA ZESZYT 42/2001 STUDIA ANGLICA RESOVIENSIA 2 Z E S Z Y T Y N A U K O W E WYśSZEJ SZKOŁY PEDAGOGICZNEJ W RZESZOWIE SERIA FILOLOGICZNA ZESZYT 42/2001 STUDIA ANGLICA RESOVIENSIA 2 Marcin KLEBAN SOME FACTORS CONDITIONING LEARNER AUTONOMY: SOCIAL CHANGES

More information

St. Barnabas Church of England Aided Primary School

St. Barnabas Church of England Aided Primary School St. Barnabas Church of England Aided Primary School Vision: All children are created uniquely and loved by God. We are entrusted with the privilege of nurturing and developing these children. Providing

More information