E-COMMERCE ADOPTION IN SAUDI ARABIA: AN EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS WEB SITES

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3 3.1 Descriptive Analysis Descriptive analysis provides summary statistics on several dimensions in a single table. It computes sample size, mean, minimum, maximum, and standard deviation. The mean value has more statistical significance than average. Standard deviation is a measure of dispersion around the mean. Table 1 shows statistical measures of our four dimensions. Table 1. Dimensions statistics for Saudi web sites survey. Dimension N Min Max Mean Standard deviation Marketing Human interaction Knowledge support e-commerce Valid N 134 The mean value of the marketing dimension is 5.49 in the range of (0-15) that equals to 40 %, and 3.79 standard deviation. This implies that marketing in Saudi web sites is very weak. This is understandable, since most sites have major weaknesses with respect to marketing evaluation criteria. As for the human interaction dimension, the mean value is in the range of (0-45), which equals to 45 %, and its standard deviation is Human interaction is also very weak in Saudi web sites. Similarly, the knowledge support dimension is very weak. The mean value is 5.52 in the range of (0-15), which equals to 37 %, and its standard deviation is This will be further discussed in the next section. The e-commerce dimension has a mean value of 4.22 in the range of (0-25) that equals to 16.8 %, and standard deviation 5.3, which is a considerable value. Hence, the e-commerce dimension is also very poor in Saudi web sites. Those four results reflect the status of Saudi practices in general. It is worth noting that standard deviation is high in the four dimensions. In our opinion this is mainly due to the huge gap in level between few excellent practices and the majority of sites that are extremely poor. 3.2 Detailed Analysis Detailed analysis is presented as frequencies that provide statistics and graphical displays. These are useful for describing many types of dimensions and variables. From a quick look at results, frequency analysis gives immediate indications. The frequency report can be suppressed when a variable has many distinct values. For example, in Table 2 below, 61.2 % of the sample sites are small sites. Here, small is the mode because the other choices of the Estimated size variable, i.e. medium and large, have smaller percentages. However, in some cases, the mode percentage is close to other percentages, in which case it might be important to take this into account. We mention those cases explicitly in our discussion Sample Details (Clustering Variables) Table 2 summaries the details of surveyed Saudi web sites. The mode value is the most frequently occurring (dominant) value. If several values share the greatest frequency of occurrence, each of them can be regarded as a mode. Table 2. Summary of evaluation sample. Variable Mode value Percentage Estimated size Small 61.2 % Site pages Static 61.9 % Site purpose Just advertisement 87.3 % This table shows that most of the Saudi sites are not real commerce sites. They can be seen as only advertising sites for the organization. Consequently, the majority are small in size and static in nature Marketing Dimension Table 3 summaries the details of the marketing dimension in this survey. It shows the mode value of each element in this dimension. Table 3. Summary of marketing dimension. Targeting the right audience Weak 57 % Providing customer-centric services Very weak 59 % Customizability Not applied 81 % 57% of the sites are weak (some of which are very weak) in offering products and ads targeted for the right audience. Similar percentages (59%) of sites are very weak in identifying their customers, realizing their needs and promoting the most appropriate needs. The last figure (81%) shows that most of the sites do not collect information on customers and therefore do not provide any special service due to this lack of customer information. If we add to this figure sites that are rated as weak and very weak, we end up having 95% of the sites with no customizable services Human Interaction Dimension Table 4 summaries human interaction results in this survey. Table 4. Summary of human interaction dimension. Easy to use Weak 50 % Attractiveness Acceptable 81 % Obviousness Strong 50 % Encouragement Weak 64 % Availability Strong 63 %

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