1 Spring 2015 Careers in Law A career in law can be very rewarding, as it is about helping individuals and groups with their legal problems. Lawyers represent, advice and advocate their clients in criminal or civil court. Depending on the type of law, the lawyers spend time in court ranging from ten minutes to several hours. For all types of lawyers excellent oral and written communication skills are a must, as they are going to represent their clients in front of a courtroom full of people. In addition, lawyers must be able to remember details, analyze and think objectively, present complicated information, as well as possess good problem solving skills. They must be good advisers and counselors. In order to become a lawyer a higher education and extensive training are required. There are many types of lawyers with different areas of specialization, such as Immigration Lawyer, Family Lawyer, Real Estate, Business, Personal Injury, Criminal Lawyer, Paralegals and so on. Family Lawyers assist individuals with various issues related to marriage, divorce, guardianship, domestic abuse, child custody, and adoption. During the divorce the lawyer represent one spouse in defense against the other and guide the client through divorce process. If the issue is related to children, such as child custody or guardianship, than the child advocates represent and protect the rights of minors. Immigration Law Attorney work in government agencies, immigration law clinics and general practice law firms, they defend the rights of immigrants and refugees and mostly deal with issues related to obtaining citizenship or residency. Immigration Lawyers also work with deportation issues and visa applications. Many people hire immigrant lawyers when they need help with filling out applications for immigration documents. In addition, the career in Immigration Law involves working with people from different cultures and backgrounds. Paralegals or legal assistants are professionals trained to assist lawyers in preparing important documents, researching cases and investigating facts. They do not offer legal services directly to client and work under a lawyer. Paralegals are employed either by a lawyer, a law firm, or a governmental agency. The type of the work paralegal performs depends on the type of law in which he works. However, the most common duties include gathering information and preparing a written report for the attorney, handling administrative tasks, interviewing clients and so on. Written by Flora Sargsyan Criminal Defense Lawyer defend people who have been charged with crime and felonies. They work with cases related to domestic violence, drug crimes, fraud and so on. Criminal Lawyers spend a great amount of time collecting information and evidence so they usually need an assistance of paralegals or private investigators. They use the gathered evidence to build up a good argument in court. Criminal Lawyers interview witnesses and examine the crime scene. Their job also includes traveling to prisons. EDUCATION Persons who want to become Lawyers are required to get an undergraduate degree and three years of Law School. Candidates can major in a variety of areas including political science, criminal justice, public speaking, languages, history, philosophy, psychology, etc. to get useful knowledge for their future jobs. After obtaining a bachelor degree the next step is getting into the Law School. The integral part of law school admission in the United States and many other countries is The Law School Admission test LSAT. Test measures the skills that are considered necessary to become a knowledgeable lawyer. It focuses on reading comprehension, as well as, analytical and logical reasoning. After obtaining the Juris Doctor and graduating from Law School students have to take the Bar Exam in order to obtain a license to practice law. The Bar Exam differs across the states. Based on their own court system they set the rules for admission to practice law. This means that a lawyer who works in one state isn t automatically allowed to practice in another state.
2 PSYCHOLOGY Psychology is the study of the human mind and behavior. Research in psychology seeks to understand and explain thought, emotion and behavior. Psychology seeks to understand how we think, feel and act. A great amount of psychology is devoted to the study of mental health, but this is just the beginning of what psychology is about. There are so many different types of psychology which include, mental health treatment, performance enhancement, self-help, ergonomics, and many other areas affecting health and daily life. In addition to mental health, we can apply psychology to our daily lives. Psychology has changed from how it was back then and how it is today. Psychology was created out of both philosophy and biology. These two subjects date as far back as the early Greek thinkers including Aristotle and Socrates. The word psychology is derived from the Greek word psyche, literally meaning 'life' or 'breath.' Derived meanings of the word include 'soul' or 'self.' Psychology today is based off of scientific methods to study and understand human behavior. CAREERS IN PSYCHOLOGY There are many different subfields in psychology, which include, Clinical Psychologists, Cognitive and Perceptual Psychologists, Community Psychologists Counseling Psychologists, Developmental Psychologists, Educational Psychologists, Engineering Psychologists, Environmental Psychologists, Evolutionary Psychologists, Experimental Psychologists, Forensic Psychologists, Health Psychologists, Industrial/organizational Psychologists, Neuropsychologists, (and behavioral neuropsychologists) Quantitative and Measurement Psychologists, Rehabilitation Psychologists, School Psychologists, Social Psychologists, and Sport Psychologists. Some of the best paying jobs in psychology are Industrial/ Organizational Psychologists. Psychiatry has the average pay of $167,610 per year approximately eight years of post-undergraduate study. After earning a bachelor's degree, aspiring psychiatrists must graduate from medical school and then complete a four-year residency. 2
3 PSYCHIATRY Psychiatry is one of the highest paying fields in psychology. However, salaries can vary within this field depending upon your specialty area, where you are employed, and the type of work you perform. Second is Industrial/ Organizational Psychologists, which has the average pay of $97,820. There are opportunities available at the master's degree level, earning a doctorate degree in industrial-organizational psychology offers greater opportunities and higher salaries. Industrial-Organizational Psychologists use their knowledge of psychology to solve workplace issues. Increasing worker productivity, selecting the best employees for particular jobs, and developing market research surveys are just a few of the things that an Industrial- Organizational Psychologist might do. According to the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, the top five percent of their members earn in excess of $250,000 a year. The typical starting salary for a master's degree graduate is around $40,000, while the starting salary for a doctoral graduate is approximately $55,000. The third high paying job is Neuropsychologists which has the average pay of $90,460 per year. A doctoral degree in neuropsychology or clinical neuropsychology is required. Neuropsychologists specialize in the study of the brain and cognitive science. People who work in this field often perform cognitive tests, run brain scans, assess people suffering from brain injury, and study how drugs impact the nervous system. They may work at colleges and universities, hospitals, research centers, mental health clinics, and pharmaceutical labs. Written by: Anisa Havanjyan 3
4 Why people choose nursing? People choose nursing for a variety reasons:. A parent, aunt or grandmother was/is nurse. You care about people. A life-changing events. For the money. You want to care for your loved ones Nursing is a noble career option. It s a career that allows you to help save people s lives, bring cheer, and comfort to those in need. You ll learn the value of life as a nurse, when you see people fighting to stay alive. Every breath of life is a gift and no one learns this lesson better than someone who nurses a dying patient day and night. People with strong values, respect for human life, compassion for suffering and empathy will be attracted to the nursing career. ASSOCIATE DEGREE IN NURSING (ADN) Associate Degree in Nursing (ADN) is a two-year degree offered by community colleges and hospital-based schools of nursing that prepares individuals for a defined technical scope of practice. An associate degree is an undergraduate academic degree. An associate degree is awarded to students who complete 90 quarter credit hours or 60 semester credit hours of schooling. Typically, on a full-time schedule, this requires two years to complete. Other requirements include "general education" courses, such ASN and BSN Nursing Program as English composition, algebra, social interaction, humanities, and others. Some people refer to associate degrees as "two-year" degrees because it is possible to obtain the degree in approximately that length of time. For students who place into developmental courses, the time will be extended since these credits will not apply toward the associate degree. Some high school graduates students who enter college with a high amount of transfer credits (AP, CST) could finish the degree in less than two years. Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of people, their families, so they may maintain or recover optimal health and quality of life. Nursing includes a range of specialties and definitions that vary from country to country. Nursing is the fastest-growing occupation in the United States. According to the American Nurses Association (ANA) website, The primary employment setting for registered nurses involved general medical and surgical hospitals percent of registered nurses jobs are in that sector. (nursingworld.org) OBTAINING A BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN NURSING (BSN) A Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) is usually earned for an undergraduate course of study that nominally requires three to five years of study (depending on institution and field of study). In the United States medical students pursue an undergraduate medical education and receive bachelor's degrees in medicine and surgery (MBBS, BMBS, BM, MB ChB, etc.). Some people go to the universities for bachelor degree after when they earn their AA degree in community colleges. In this case you have to show them your original transcript from college which shows that you already complete all prerequisites that you need to. This takes a two year study in university plus two years in college that you did and you are ready to get your BA degree. 4
5 HOW TO BECOME A NURSE... There are variety of different positions in the field of nursing, and each requires a specific level of education. All nursing education programs require a combination of classroom and hands-on training, but the specific requirements vary depending on the type of nurse you'd like to be. For example, if you're hoping to become a Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA) or Licensed Practical Nurse, you will likely need to earn a certificate or diploma in nursing. The basic path for becoming a Registered Nurse (RN) is the Associate Degree in Nursing. Though a bachelor's degree is not necessary to become an RN, it's common for RNs to pursue a Bachelor of Science in Nursing either before or after they become nurses. Current RNs can complete an accelerated RN-BSN program, which could lead to career advancement opportunities. There are two types of undergraduate program especially for Registered Nurses (RN): Associate Degree in Nursing (AND) and Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BS/BSN). WHAT NURSES DO? Nurses develop a plan of care, working with physicians, therapists, the patient, the patient's family and other team members, that focuses on treating illness to improve quality of life. Moreover, nurses may help coordinate the patient care performed by other members of an interdisciplinary health care team such as therapists or medical practitioners. Nurses provide care both interdependently, for example, with physicians, and independently as nursing professionals. Nurses care for individuals of all ages and cultural backgrounds who are healthy and ill in a holistic manner based on the individual's physical, emotional, psychological, intellectual, social, and spiritual needs. Nurses practice in all healthcare settings: hospitals, nursing homes, medical offices, ambulatory care centers, community health centers, schools, and clinics. They save lives, prevent complications, prevent suffering, protect patients from the risks that occur when illness and vulnerability make it difficult, impossible, or even lethal for patients to perform the activities of daily living. Nurses strive to achieve the best possible quality of life for their patients, regardless of disease or disability. Nurses use clinical judgment to protect, promote, and optimize health, prevent illness and injury, and support in health care for individuals, families, communities, and populations. Written by: Marina Yeghikyan 5
6 BEST PAYING JOBS FOR BUSINESS MAJORS Your goals determine where you ll be in the future. If you plan on majoring in business. IT (Information Technology) Project Manager: Project managers in the IT field create project plans for the development of new products and releases. They ensure that departments work together to meet deadlines, perform tasks, allocate resources appropriately and maintain quality. IT project management is the process of planning, organizing, and delineating responsibility for the completion of an organization s specific information technology goals. Project management are guided through five stages: initiation, planning, executing, controlling and closing. Typical median pay: $95,000 Cost Estimators: Cost estimators earn a base pay of $60,320 yearly. Cost estimators are the business industry s forecasters. Cost estimators job responsibilities vary within the specific field of specialization. Cost estimators generally focus on the cost, size, and duration of future business projects and endeavors. Cost estimators fore case the profitability of new projects, products, or purchases, while asserting material, labor, location, and machinery (including computer) projections. Cost estimators gather information for proposals products, and other aspects of business to determine the most cost effective strategy to maximize profits in business. Financial Advisor: Financial advisors figure out how to best manage your money. They meet with clients and help them determine budgeting and retirement plans, investing strategy and other financial responsibilities. Financial advisors get their clients on track to meet their money goals. Salary: $67,520 Training- Earning the trusts of clients hinges on building and maintaining a deep level of financial expertise. A bachelor s degree is necessary, and an advanced degree can be an effective marketing tool. Chief Executive Officers (CEOs): CEO s earn $160,440 as an average yearly salary in a multitude of business fields. CEOs are responsible for overseeing operations of many businesses. CEOs are the highest ranking individuals within as company, corporation, organization or agency. CEOs handle the better part of decision making with companies. CEOs report to a board of directors. They manage the delegation of responsibility within a business as well as internal and external operations, marketing, strategy, financing, human resource issues, hiring and termination of employees, compliance with safety regulations, sales and public relations. Written by: Jean Mascardo