Case Study: A Lexicogrammar Approach to Checking Quality, Looking at one or two Cases of Comparative Translation 1

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1 Case Study: A Lexicogrammar Approach to Checking Quality, Looking at one or two Cases of Comparative Translation 1 1. Example of a translation exercise Source Text (Dassault Aviation) Target Text 1 Target text 2 1. La conception numérique, qui préside à la production du Falcon 7X, s'appuie sur la modélisation de toutes les pièces d'un avion en 3D. 2. Cette représentation virtuelle a pu voir le jour grâce au logiciel de conception CATIA, développé par Dassault Systèmes. 3. Grâce à CATIA, la maquette physique disparaît au profit d'une maquette numérique. 4. Inaugurée sur le Rafale et le Falcon 2000, la maquette numérique présente une définition 3D complète de l'avion ainsi qu'une gestion de l'appareil pièce à pièce. 5. Elle est le référentiel unique du produit dans l'entreprise. 6. Cette méthode de conception numérique est aujourd'hui utilisée dans le monde entier par les industries aéronautiques, automobiles, navales etc. 7. Le développement du programme Falcon 7X a repoussé les limites de la conception numérique en mettant en oeuvre un ensemble d'outils informatiques novateurs : le Product Lifecycle Management. The digital design which is at the heart of the production of the Falcon 7X, is based on modelling all the aircraft parts in 3D. This virtual representation has been made possible thanks to the CATIA design software, a development of Dassault systems. Thanks to CATIA, the physical model has been replaced by a digital one. First used on the Rafale and the Falcon 2000, the digital model gives a complete 3D definition of the aircraft as well as the part-by-part management of the plane. This has become the single reference point for the product in the company. This method of digital design is used today worldwide by industries such as aeronautics, car-manufacturing and ship-building. The development of the Falcon 7X program has pushed back the limits of digital design by establishing a suite of innovative computer-based tools: the Product Lifecyle Management. Digital design, which controls production of the Falcon 7X, is based on 3D modelling of all aircraft parts. This virtual representation was made possible thanks to the CATIA design software developed by Dassault Systèmes. With CATIA, The physical mockup is replaced by a digital mockup. First used for the Rafale and Falcon 2000, the digital mockup presents a complete 3D definition of the aircraft and the management of each individual part. It is the sole reference for the product within the company. Today this digital design method is used across the globe in the aerospace, automobile, ship-building and other industries. The development of the Falcon 7X programme pushed the envelope of digital design by using a set of innovative software tools: Product Lifecycle Management. 1 All examples on this handout are taken from: Gledhill, Christopher A lexicogrammar approach to checking quality: Looking at one or two cases of comparative translation. Depraetere, Ilse (réd.), Perspectives on Translation Quality (Text, Translation, Computational Processing 9). Berlin : Mouton de Gruyter,

2 2. Discussing differences: Linguistic terminology Linguistic Level Representative Examples Text avion... appareil > aircraft... plane / aircraft... (0), grâce à CATIA > thanks to CATIA / with CATIA disparaît > has been replaced / is replaced... Syntax Phraseology Lexis Morphology Orthography Typography aujourd'hui utilisée > today worldwide / today... across the globe méthode de conception numérique > method of digital design / digital design method être au coeur > is at the heart of / controls mettre en oeuvre > establishing a set / using a set présente une définition > gives a definition / presents a definition repousser les limites > pushed back the limits / pushed the envelope voir le jour > (be) made possible maquette > model / mockup, référentiel unique > single reference point / sole reference industries aéronautiques > aeronautics / aerospace industries industries...automobiles, navales etc. > car-manufacturing and ship-building / automobile, ship-building and other industries. disparaît > has been replaced / is replaced... le Product Lifecycle Management > Product Lifecycle Management / the Product Lifecyle Management programme > programme / program Dassault Systèmes > Dassault systems / Dassault Systèmes 2

3 3. Comparing differences of phraseology 3a. push back the limits or push the envelope? PUSHED BACK THE LIMITS 1a Tawhid Abdullah, Managing Director of Damas commented: "The new Harmony designs have pushed back the limits of the possible and have explored new venues. 1b His show has pushed back the limits of what is acceptable on TV. American talk shows encourage their contestants to get violent... 1c 1d 1e He explains the development of the sun-centered model of the universe in Renaissance Europe. He then tells how the development of the telescope, photography, and spectroscopy pushed back the limits of the observable universe and eventually brought astronomy into the twentieth century. IAt each major premiere, the adventurers of the last century pushed back the limits of the impossible. In all these dreams of the politicians and merchants, sailors and geographers, who pushed back the limits of the unknown world, there is the same glitter of gold and precious stones, the same odour of far-fetched spices. PUSHED THE ENVELOPE 2a It was not the grandfather ofall first person shooters, but when the first Doom was released by Id in 1993 it pushed the envelope of this brand spankin new genre 2b After he pushed the envelope of computer-generated special effects in The Abyss, director James Cameron turned this hotly anticipated sequel to Terminator into a well-written, action-packed showcase for advanced special effects and for one of the most invincible villains ever imagined. 2c Radiohead pushed the envelope of modern rock, and this album was their strongest melding of convention and adventurousness. 2d 2e Each creation pushed the envelope of design and displayed thorough attention toward wear ability and technique. Artists such as Prince, Sting and Bjork, have pushed the envelope of creativity for years. But artists of their caliber who possess such sublime talent and... PUSHED THE ENVELOPE BY USING 3a In recent years, laparoscopic surgeons have pushed the envelope by using minimally invasive approaches for increasingly sophisticated procedures. 3b 3c 3d 3e In example after example, the Obama administration has pushed the envelope by using the Internet to give citizens a view of the inner workings of the government, David Erickson, director of e-strategy for Tunheim Partners, told the E-Commerce Times. "This team has pushed the envelope by using existing commercial materials combined with cutting edge technology To become "Internet Famous, according to Brett is to be an initiator, not a follower. For example, when social media first came on to the scene, those that became the most successful in blogging and developing apps were those that pushed the envelope, by using new tools and searching out new terrain to maneuver... Hence, creative effectiveness was of paramount importance, and we pushed the envelope by using the strategic combination of newage marketing tools. And there is no better feeling than to get awarded a Global Effie for it" 3

4 3b. present a definition or give a definition? Terminology and Translation Methodology GIVE 4a The kinetic NMR method described in this work gives a complete picture of the reconstitution process in water, close to industrial conditions 4b 4c 4d 4e Coupled with some recent results on the computational complexity of the separability problem, which has been shown to be NP-hard, this hierarchy of tests gives a complete and also computationally and theoretically appealing characterization of mixed bipartite entangled states. The above URI gives a complete snaphot of the Indian Stock Market. The face plate gives a complete description of all signals with their pin numbers and explains the DB25/9 conversion. This simulation gives a complete overview of strategic leadership approaches. PRESENT 5a Table 5 presents a complete list of N-body scalar operators for N less than five. 5b Now in its fourth edition, this book presents a complete course in electrocardiography (ECG) for students and a reference for advanced trainees and 5c The outcome of the Evergreen T4 Meetings, this book presents a complete overview of T4 research, from its earliest history to its latest developments. 5d This document presents a complete numerical example for the document Proposal for the risk model (using standard modelling and equations).... 5e This paper presents a complete integrated NLG system which uses a Description logic for the content determination module, CREATE 6a VRcontext's Walkingside product automatically creates a complete 3D virtual model of facilities, merging files from diverse data sources and proprietary 6b DELMIA QUEST creates a complete 3D digital factory environment for process flow simulation and analysis, accuracy, and profitability 6c With these types of design programs, the architect or designer creates a complete 3D model that contains information about all the components and structures 6d Parish and Müller [15] present a system that creates a complete 3D city model using a small set of statistical and geographical input... 6e Here, the computer creates a complete 3D environment, and the user, represented by their own avatar, can move around the 3D space, meet and interact with PRODUCE 7a After one full revolution, which takes 30 to 60 min, the system produces a complete 3D data sheet (see Fig. 1). 7b 7c 7d 7e Within a couple of seconds, the system produces a complete 3D digital map of the tile surface and then automatically finds and quantifies defects. Interpretation begins with the density map and the (provided) amino-acid sequence(s) of the protein forming the crystal, and produces a complete 3D molecular model of the protein. Finally, a simple mathematical inverse Fourier-transform produces a complete 3D reconstructed object. Laser profiling equipment, also utilized at GME, produces a complete 3D survey of the rock face in front of the boreholes. PROVIDE 8a Starting from the engine data, our propeller design software enables us to define the aerodynamic and structural characteristics of the propeller, and provides a 3D definition of the propeller compatible with most CAD software. 8b The trace information preferably provides a complete definition of the place in and/or contribution to one or more ECMPs 4

5 8c 8d 8e associated with the identified It is obvious in all this that the Burgers vector provides a complete definition of the dislocation. The data model provides a complete definition of the ISO zonal and nodal configuration. Photo Backup provides a complete solution for handling photographs from digital cameras. SHOW 9a If you break the hologram into two pieces each of them will still show a complete 3D image albeit with slightly lower resolution 9b 9c 9d 9e Here we show a complete 3d model of the field in terms of sequencial stratigraphy. Figure 8 shows a complete 3D model of the upper arch, including teeth, of a human as it might be displayed on a monitor of a general purpose Figure 7 shows a complete 3D model of a fish brain made semi-transparent with several inner objects in different colors. Figs 3 and 4 show a complete 3D view 4. The Lexicogrammar Approach The Lexicogrammar approach: i) is a functional and forensic approach to language, ii) it uses empirical data, in particular corpora, to identify differences in usage in equivalent texts, iii) and evaluates these details in terms of the ambient phraseology : the preferred way of saying things in a particular discourse ; iv) it assumes that each sign in the language has its own lexicogrammar : its particular niche in the language system, v) the main tool used to identify the phraseology of a particular discourse, and the lexicogrammar of a sign, is collocation, a measure of the mutual dependency that holds between a sign and the other signs that habitually occur in its context. 4.1 Statistical / Textual perspective : Collocation Meaning by collocation is an abstraction at the syntagmatic level and is not directly concerned with the conceptual or idea approach to the meaning of words. One of the meanings of night is its collocability with dark, and of dark, of course, collocation with night. (Firth, 1957, 196) Collocation is the syntagmatic association of lexical items, quantifiable, textually, as the probability that there will occur at n removes (a distance of n lexical items) from an item x, the items a, b, c... Any given item thus enters into a range of collocation, the items with which it is collocated being ranged from more to less probable. (Halliday,1961, 276). 4.2 Semantic / Syntactic perspective : Lexicogrammar There is in every language a level of organization a single level which is referred to in everyday speech as the wording ; technically it is a lexicogrammar, the combination of grammar and vocabulary. The point is that grammar and vocabulary are not two different things; they are the same thing seen by different observers. (Halliday, 1992, 63)...sense and pattern tend to be associated with each other, such that a particular sense of a verb may be identified by its pattern. The verb recover has two main senses: to get better following an illness or period of unhappiness, and to get back something that was lost. The first of these senses has the pattern V from n (e.g. He is recovering from a knee injury) [...] and V (e.g. It took her three days to recover), whilst the second has the pattern V n (e.g. Police... recovered stolen goods). (Hunston and Francis, 1998, 51). 5

6 4.3 Discourse / Pragmatic perspective : Phraseology In general, studies of fixed expressions [...] concentrate on their typological and syntagmatic properties. Attention is given to such things as the degree of their lexical and syntactic frozenness, or their transformation potential: and even the primary characteristic of idioms, their non-compositionality as lexical units, may be seen as a matter of the interpretation of a syntagm. However, it is their paradigmatic properties which are of importance in relation to interaction. Fixed expressions represent meaningful choices on the part of the speaker / writer. (Moon, 1994, 117). I intend to use the term phraseology to refer specifically to the rhetorical or pragmatic use of an expression. The term then stands in contrast to Halliday s lexico-grammar which refers strictly to the cline between lexis on the one hand and grammatical systems on the other (Halliday 1985). The term also contrasts with the notion of collocational continuum in lexicology (Howarth 1996), which refers to collocations as they become less like phrases and more like words. The discoursal / rhetorical approach claims that the pragmatic value of a particular expression constitutes an important aspect of a theory of phraseology. (Gledhill, 2000, 17) 5. References 5.1 Webography 5.2 Bibliogaphy Bowker, Lynne Using specialized native-language corpora as a translation resource: A pilot study. Meta 43(4): Coulthard, Malcolm & Johnson Alison An Introduction to forensic linguistics: language in evidence. London, Routledge. Firth, John Rupert Papers in linguistics Oxford, Oxford University Press. Frath, Pierre & Christopher Gledhill Qu est-ce qu une unité phraséologique? Cahiers de l institut de linguistique de Louvain 31(2-4) Gledhill, Christopher Collocations in science writing. Tübingen, Gunter Narr Verlag. Gledhill, Christopher A lexicogrammar approach to checking quality: Looking at one or two cases of comparative translation. In Depraetere, Ilse (ed.) Perspectives on Translation Quality (Text, Translation, Computational Processing 9). Berlin : Mouton de Gruyter, Halliday, Michael. A.K Categories of the theory of grammar. Department of English Language and General Linguistics Monographs. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, Halliday, Michael. A.K Language as system and language as instance: the corpus as a theoretical construct. In Jan Svartvik (ed.) Directions in corpus linguistics; Stockholm 4-8 August 1991, Howarth, Peter A Phraseology in English academic writing. Tübingen, Max Niemeyer. Hunston, Susan & Francis, Gill Verbs observed: a corpus-driven pedagogic grammar, Applied linguistics, 19/1, Mel-čuk, Igor La phraséologie et son rôle dans l enseignement/apprentissage d une langue étrangère. Etudes de Linguistique Appliquée 92, Moon, Rosamund The analysis of fixed expressions in text. In Malcoml Coulthard (ed). Advances in written text analysis, London, Routledge, Pecman, Mojca De la phraséologie à la traductologie proactive : essai de synthèse des fondements théoriques soustendant la recherche en phraséologie. Méta, 50(4), Pearson J. (1996) Electronic texts and concordances in the translation classroom Teanga16. Dublin: IRAAL Corpus to Corpus: A Study of Translation Equivalence Siepmann, Dirk Idiomaticité et traduction : essai d'une systématisation. In Blumenthal, Peter & S. Mejri (eds.), Les séquences figées: entre langue et discours. Stuttgart, Steiner, Sinclair John McH., Payne Jonathan, & Pérez Hernandez, Chantal Corpus to corpus: A study of translation equivalence. Special issue of International journal of lexicography 9(3): Todiraşcu, Amalia, Christopher Gledhill, Ulrich Heid, Marion Weller, Dan Stefânescu, Dan Tufiş, & François Rousselot, Vers un dictionnaire de collocations multilingue, Cahiers de linguistique 33(1) : Tucker, Gordon Between grammar and lexis: Towards a systemic functional account of phraseology. In C. Matthiessen, R. Hasan & J. Webster (eds.) Continuing discourse on language: a functional perspective. London, Equinox. Xiao, Richard Z. & Yue, Ming. 2008, Using corpora in translation studies: the state of the art. In P. Baker (ed.) Contemporary approaches to corpus linguistics. London, Continuum. 6

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