1 Clud Cmputing Nvember 09 Infrmatin Assurance Framewrk
2 ABOUT ENISA The Eurpean Netwrk and Infrmatin Security Agency (ENISA) is an EU agency created t advance the functining f the internal market. ENISA is a centre f excellence fr the Eurpean Member States and Eurpean institutins in netwrk and infrmatin security, giving advice and recmmendatins and acting as a switchbard fr infrmatin n gd practices. Mrever, the agency facilitates cntacts between Eurpean institutins, the Member States, and private business and industry actrs. CONTACT DETAILS: This reprt has been edited by: and Internet: Legal ntice Ntice must be taken that this publicatin represents the views and interpretatins f the editrs, unless stated therwise. This publicatin shuld nt be cnstrued t be an actin f ENISA r the ENISA bdies unless adpted pursuant t ENISA Regulatin (EC) N 460/2004. This publicatin des nt necessarily represent the state-f the-art in clud cmputing and it may be updated frm time t time. Third-party surces are quted as apprpriate. ENISA is nt respnsible fr the cntent f the external surces including external websites referenced in this publicatin. This publicatin is intended fr educatinal and infrmatin purpses nly. Neither ENISA nr any persn acting n its behalf is respnsible fr the use that might be made f the infrmatin cntained in this publicatin. Reprductin is authrised prvided the surce is acknwledged. Eurpean Netwrk and Infrmatin Security Agency (ENISA), 2009
3 Clud Cmputing 3 INFORMATION ASSURANCE FRAMEWORK CONTENTS Abut ENISA... 2 Cntact details:... 2 Target Audience... 5 Methdlgy Infrmatin Assurance Framewrk Managing risk Divisin f liabilities Divisin f respnsibilities Sftware as a Service Platfrm as a Service Infrastructure as a Service Applicatin Security in Infrastructure as a service Nte f cautin Nte t gvernments Infrmatin assurance requirements Persnnel security Supply-chain assurance Operatinal security Sftware assurance Patch management... 14
4 4 Clud Cmputing Infrmatin Assurance Framewrk Netwrk architecture cntrls Hst architecture PaaS Applicatin security SaaS Applicatin security Resurce prvisining Identity and access management Authrisatin Identity prvisining Management f persnal data Key management Encryptin Authenticatin Credential cmprmise r theft Identity and access management systems ffered t the clud custmer Asset management Data and Services Prtability Business Cntinuity Management Incident management and respnse Physical security Envirnmental cntrls Legal requirements... 24
5 Clud Cmputing 5 INFORMATION ASSURANCE FRAMEWORK TARGET AUDIENCE The intended audience f this reprt are: Business leaders, in particular SME s t evaluate and mitigate the risks f adpting clud cmputing technlgies. Clud Prvider t standardize their clud cmputing service cmpliance prcess vis a vis laws and regulatins Eurpean plicymakers t decide n research plicy (t develp technlgies t mitigate risks). Eurpean plicymakers t decide n apprpriate plicy and ecnmic incentives, legislative measures, awareness-raising initiatives etc vis-a-vis clud-cmputing technlgies. METHODOLOGY The key sectins f this dcument are based n the brad classes f cntrls frm the ISO 27001/2 and BS25999 standards. Details within these sectins are derived frm bth the standard, as well as industry best practice requirements. Thrughut, we have selected nly thse cntrls which are relevant t clud prviders and third party utsurcers. The detailed framewrk scheduled fr release in 2010 is intended t include additinal standards such as NIST SP
6 6 Clud Cmputing Infrmatin Assurance Framewrk 1. INFORMATION ASSURANCE FRAMEWORK One f the mst imprtant recmmendatins in the ENISA s Clud Cmputing Risk Assessment reprt (see full versin) is the Infrmatin Assurance Framewrk, a set f assurance criteria designed t: 1. assess the risk f adpting clud services (cmparing the risks f maintaining a classical rganizatin and architecture with risks t migrate in a clud cmputing envirnment) and 2. cmpare different Clud Prvider ffers 3. btain assurance frm the selected clud prviders. The preparatin f effective security questinnaires fr third party service prviders is a significant resurce drain fr clud custmers and ne which is difficult t achieve withut expertise in clud-specific architectures. 4. reduce the assurance burden n clud prviders. A very imprtant risk specific t clud infrastructures is intrduced by the requirement fr NIS assurance. Many clud prviders find that a large number f custmers request audits f their infrastructure and plicies. This can create a critically high burden n security persnnel and it als increases the number f peple with access t the infrastructure, which significantly increases the risk f attack due t misuse f security-critical infrmatin, theft f critical r sensitive data etc. Clud prviders will need t deal with this by establishing clear framewrk fr handling such requests. The Framewrk prvides a set f questins that an rganisatin can ask a clud prvider t assure themselves that they are sufficiently prtecting the infrmatin entrusted t them. These questins are intended t prvide a minimum baseline any rganisatin may therefre have additinal specific requirements nt cvered within the baseline. Equally this dcument des nt prvide a standard respnse frmat fr the clud prvider, s respnses are in a free text frmat. Hwever it is intended t feed int a mre detailed cmprehensive framewrk which will be develped as a fllw-up t this wrk, allwing a cnsistent, cmparable set f respnses. Such respnses will prvide a quantifiable metric as t the Infrmatin Assurance maturity f the prvider. It is intended fr the afrementined metric t be cnsistent against ther prviders that allw a cmparisn fr end user rganisatins.
7 Clud Cmputing 7 INFORMATION ASSURANCE FRAMEWORK 2. MANAGING RISK It is wrth nting that althugh it is pssible t transfer many f the risks t an externally prvisined supplier, the true cst f transferring risk is very rarely realised. Fr example, a security incident that results in the unauthrised disclsure f custmer data may result in financial lss t the prvider, hwever the negative publicity and lss f cnsumer cnfidence, and ptential regulatry penalties (PCI-DSS) wuld be felt by the end custmer. Such a scenari highlights the imprtance f distinguishing risk, with cmmercial risk. In that it is pssible t transfer cmmercial risk, but the true risk always remains with the end custmer. Any respnse t the results f a risk assessment - in particular the amunt and type f investment in mitigatin, shuld be decided n the basis f the risk appetite f the rganisatin and the pprtunities and financial savings which are lst by fllwing any particular risk mitigatin strategy. Clud custmers shuld als carry ut their wn, cntext-specific risk analysis. Sme f available Risk Management / Risks Assessment methdlgies can be fund at: As the business and regulatry envirnment changes and new risks arise, risk assessment shuld be a regular activity rather than a ne ff event. 3. DIVISION OF LIABILITIES The fllwing table shws the expected divisin f liabilities between custmer and prvider. Custmer Prvider Lawfulness f cntent Full liability Intermediary liability with Liability exemptins under the terms f the E-cmmerce Directive and its interpretatin. 1 1 Cf. definitin f infrmatin sciety services as prvided fr in Art. 2 f Directive 98/48/EC as well as Art. 2 f Directive 2000/31/EC, in cnjunctin with exemptins cntained in Articles f Directive 2000/31/EC (e- Cmmerce Directive).
8 8 Clud Cmputing Infrmatin Assurance Framewrk Security incidents (including data leakage, use f accunt t launch an attack) Eurpean Data Prtectin Law status Respnsibility fr due diligence fr what is under its cntrl accrding t cntractual cnditins Data cntrller Respnsibility fr due diligence fr what is under its cntrl Data prcessr (external) 4. DIVISION OF RESPONSIBILITIES With respect t security incidents, there needs t be a clear definitin and understanding between the custmer and the prvider f security-relevant rles and respnsibilities. The lines f such a divisin will vary greatly between SaaS fferings and IaaS fferings, with the latter delegating mre respnsibility t the custmer. A typical and ratinal divisin f respnsibility is shwn in the fllwing table. In any case, fr each type f service, the custmer and prvider shuld clearly define which f them is respnsible fr all the items n the list belw. In the case f standard terms f service (ie, n negtiatin pssible), clud custmers shuld verify what lies within their respnsibility SOFTWARE AS A SERVICE Custmer Cmpliance with data prtectin law in respect f custmer data cllected and prcessed Maintenance f identity management system Management f identity management system Management f authenticatin platfrm (including enfrcing passwrd plicy) Prvider Physical supprt infrastructure (facilities, rack space, pwer, cling, cabling, etc) Physical infrastructure security and availability (servers, strage, netwrk bandwidth, etc) OS patch management and hardening prcedures (check als any cnflict between custmer hardening prcedure and prvider security plicy) Security platfrm cnfiguratin (Firewall rules, IDS/IPS tuning, etc) Systems mnitring Security platfrm maintenance (Firewall, Hst IDS/IPS, antivirus, packet filtering) Lg cllectin and security mnitring
9 Clud Cmputing 9 INFORMATION ASSURANCE FRAMEWORK 4.2. PLATFORM AS A SERVICE Custmer Maintenance f identity management system Management f identity management system Management f authenticatin platfrm (including enfrcing passwrd plicy) Prvider Physical supprt infrastructure (facilities, rack space, pwer, cling, cabling, etc) Physical infrastructure security and availability (servers, strage, netwrk bandwidth, etc) OS patch management and hardening prcedures (check als any cnflict between custmer hardening prcedure and prvider security plicy) Security platfrm cnfiguratin (firewall rules, IDS/IPS tuning, etc) Systems mnitring Security platfrm maintenance (firewall, Hst IDS/IPS, antivirus, packet filtering) Lg cllectin and security mnitring 4.3. INFRASTRUCTURE AS A SERVICE Custmer Maintenance f identity management system Management f identity management system Management f authenticatin platfrm (including enfrcing passwrd plicy) Management f guest OS patch and hardening prcedures (check als any cnflict between custmer hardening prcedure and prvider security plicy) Cnfiguratin f guest security platfrm (firewall rules, IDS/IPS tuning, etc) Prvider Physical supprt infrastructure (facilities, rack space, pwer, cling, cabling, etc) Physical infrastructure security and availability (servers, strage, netwrk bandwidth, etc) Hst Systems (hypervisr, virtual firewall, etc)
10 10 Clud Cmputing Infrmatin Assurance Framewrk Guest systems mnitring Security platfrm maintenance (firewall, Hst IDS/IPS, antivirus, packet filtering) Lg cllectin and security mnitring Where clud custmers are respnsible fr the security f their Infrastructures (in IaaS), they shuld cnsider the fllwing: APPLICATION SECURITY IN INFRASTRUCTURE AS A SERVICE IaaS applicatin prviders treat the applicatins within the custmer virtual instance as a black bx and therefre are cmpletely agnstic t the peratins and management f a custmer s applicatins. The entire stack custmer applicatin, run time applicatin platfrm (.Net, Java, Ruby, PHP etc) is run n the custmers server (n prvider infrastructure) and is managed by custmers themselves. Fr this reasn it is vitally imprtant t nte that the custmer must take full respnsibility fr securing their clud deplyed applicatins. Here is a brief checklist/descriptin relating t best practice fr secure applicatin design and management: Clud deplyed applicatins must be designed fr the internet threat mdel (even if they are deplyed as part f VPC - virtual private clud). They must be designed/embedded with standard security cuntermeasures t guard against the cmmn web vulnerabilities (see OWASP guides ). Custmers are respnsible fr keeping their applicatins up t date and must therefre ensure they have a patch strategy (t ensure their applicatins are screened frm malware and hackers scanning fr vulnerabilities t gain unauthrised access t their data within the clud) Custmers shuld nt be tempted t use custm implementatins f Authenticatin, Authrisatin and Accunting (AAA) as these can becme weak if nt prperly implemented. In summary enterprise distributed clud applicatins must run with many cntrls in place t secure hst (and netwrk see previus sectin), user access, applicatin level cntrls (see OWASP guides relating t secure web/nline applicatin design). Als please nte many main stream vendrs such as Micrsft, Oracle, Sun etc publish cmprehensive dcumentatin n hw t secure the cnfiguratin f their prducts.
11 Clud Cmputing 11 INFORMATION ASSURANCE FRAMEWORK 5. NOTE OF CAUTION The series f questins detailed within the prceeding sectin are a selectin f cmmn cntrls. It is nt intended t be an exhaustive list; equally certain questins may nt be applicable t particular implementatins. Subsequently this list shuld be used as a baseline f cmmn cntrls, and further detail shuld be sught where required NOTE TO GOVERNMENTS The fllwing cntrls are aimed primarily at SMEs assessing clud prviders. They may als be useful t gvernments with the fllwing prviss. The characteristics f the clud used shuld be cnsidered carefully in relatin t any gvernment bdy s infrmatin classificatin scheme. The use f public cluds even with favurable respnses frm the fllwing questinnaire is nt recmmended fr anything but the lwest assurance classes f data. Fr higher assurance classes f data, the list f suggested checks in this reprt is valid but shuld be supplemented with additinal checks. This reprt is nt intended t cver such cntrls, but the fllwing are examples f issues which shuld be cvered: Des the prvider ffer transparent infrmatin and full cntrl ver the current physical lcatin f all data? High assurance data is ften restricted by lcatin. Des the prvider supprt the data classificatin scheme used? What guarantees des the prvider ffer that custmer resurces are fully islated (e.g., n sharing f physical machines)? Assuming physical machines are nt shared between custmers, t what degree are strage, memry and ther data traces fully erased befre machines are reallcated. Des the prvider supprt r even mandate physical tken based 2-factr authenticatin fr client access? Des the prvider hld ISO 27001/2 certificatin? What is the scpe f the certificatin? D the prducts used by the prvider have Cmmn Criteria certificatins? At which level? Which prtectin prfile and security target fr the prduct?
12 12 Clud Cmputing Infrmatin Assurance Framewrk 6. INFORMATION ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS 6.1. PERSONNEL SECURITY The majrity f questins relating t persnnel will be similar t thse yu wuld ask yur wn IT persnnel r ther persnnel wh are dealing with yur IT. As with mst assessments, there is a balance between the risks and the cst. What plicies and prcedures d yu have in place when hiring yur IT administratrs r thers with system access? These shuld include: pre-emplyment checks (identity, natinality r status, emplyment histry and references, criminal cnvictins, and vetting (fr senir persnnel in high privilege rles)). Are there different plicies depending n where the data is stred r applicatins are run? Fr example, hiring plicies in ne regin may be different frm thse in anther. Practices need t be cnsistent acrss regins. It may be that sensitive data is stred in ne particular regin with apprpriate persnnel. What security educatin prgram d yu run fr all staff? Is there a prcess f cntinuus evaluatin? Hw ften des this ccur? Further interviews Security access and privilege reviews Plicy and prcedure reviews SUPPLY-CHAIN ASSURANCE The fllwing questins apply where the clud prvider subcntracts sme peratins that are key t the security f the peratin t third parties (eg, a SaaS prvider utsurcing the underling platfrm t a third party prvider, a clud prvider utsurcing the security services t a managed security services prvider, use f an external prvider fr identity management f perating systems, etc). It als includes third parties with physical r remte access t the clud prvider infrastructure. It is assumed that this entire questinnaire may be applied recursively t third (r nth) party clud service prviders. Define thse services that are utsurced r subcntracted in yur service delivery supply chain that are key t the security (including availability) f yur peratins. Detail the prcedures used t assure third parties accessing yur infrastructure (physical and/r lgical). D yu audit yur utsurcers and subcntractrs and hw ften? Are any SLA prvisins guaranteed by utsurcers lwer than the SLAs yu ffer t yur custmers? If nt, d yu have supplier redundancy in place?
13 Clud Cmputing 13 INFORMATION ASSURANCE FRAMEWORK What measures are taken t ensure third party service levels are met and maintained? Can the clud prvider cnfirm that security plicy and cntrls are applied (cntractually) t their third party prviders? 6.3. OPERATIONAL SECURITY It is expected that any cmmercial agreement with external prviders will include service levels fr all netwrk services. Hwever, in additin t the defined agreements, the end custmer shuld still ensure that the prvider emplys apprpriate cntrls t mitigate unauthrised disclsure. Detail yur change cntrl prcedure and plicy. This shuld als include the prcess used t re-assess risks as a result f changes and clarify whether the utputs are available t end custmers. Define the remte access plicy. Des the prvider maintain dcumented perating prcedures fr infrmatin systems? Is there a staged envirnment t reduce risk, e.g., develpment, test and peratinal envirnments, and are they separated? Define the hst and netwrk cntrls emplyed t prtect the systems hsting the applicatins and infrmatin fr the end custmer. These shuld include details f certificatin against external standards (e.g., ISO 27001/2). Specify the cntrls used t prtect against malicius cde. Are secure cnfiguratins deplyed t nly allw the executin f authrised mbile cde and authrised functinality (e.g., nly execute specific cmmands)? Detail plicies and prcedures fr backup. This shuld include prcedures fr the management f remvable media and methds fr securely destrying media n lnger required. (Depending n his business requirements, the custmer may wish t put in place an independent backup strategy. This is particularly relevant where time-critical access t back-up is required.) Audit lgs are used in the event f an incident requiring investigatin; they can als be used fr trubleshting. Fr these purpses, the end custmer will need assurance that such infrmatin is available: Can the prvider detail what infrmatin is recrded within audit lgs? Fr what perid is this data retained? Is it pssible t segment data within audit lgs s they can be made available t the end custmer and/r law enfrcement withut cmprmising ther custmers and still be admissible in curt? What cntrls are emplyed t prtect lgs frm unauthrised access r tampering? What methd is used t check and prtect the integrity f audit lgs?
14 14 Clud Cmputing Infrmatin Assurance Framewrk Hw are audit lgs reviewed? What recrded events result in actin being taken? What time surce is used t synchrnise systems and prvide accurate audit lg time stamping? SOFTWARE ASSURANCE Define cntrls used t prtect the integrity f the perating system and applicatins sftware used. Include any standards that are fllwed, e.g., OWASP, SANS Checklist, SAFECde. Hw d yu validate that new releases are fit-fr-purpse r d nt have risks (backdrs, Trjans, etc)? Are these reviewed befre use? What practices are fllwed t keep the applicatins safe? Is a sftware release penetratin tested t ensure it des nt cntain vulnerabilities? If vulnerabilities are discvered, what is the prcess fr remedying these? PATCH MANAGEMENT Prvide details f the patch management prcedure fllwed. Can yu ensure that the patch management prcess cvers all layers f the clud delivery technlgies i.e., netwrk (infrastructure cmpnents, ruters and switches, etc), server perating systems, virtualisatin sftware, applicatins and security subsystems (firewalls, antivirus gateways, intrusin detectin systems, etc)? NETWORK ARCHITECTURE CONTROLS Define the cntrls used t mitigate DDS (distributed denial f-service) attacks. Defence in depth (deep packet analysis, traffic thrttling, packet black-hling, etc) D yu have defences against internal (riginating frm the clud prviders netwrks) attacks as well as external (riginating frm the Internet r custmer netwrks) attacks? What levels f islatin are used? fr virtual machines, physical machines, netwrk, strage (e.g., strage area netwrks), management netwrks and management supprt systems, etc. Des the architecture supprt cntinued peratin frm the clud when the cmpany is separated frm the service prvider and vice versa (e.g., is there a critical dependency n the custmer LDAP system)? Is the virtual netwrk infrastructure used by clud prviders (in PVLANs and VLAN tagging 802.1q architecture) secured t vendr and/r best practice specific standards (e.g., are MAC spfing, ARP pisning attacks, etc, prevented via a specific security cnfiguratin)?
15 Clud Cmputing 15 INFORMATION ASSURANCE FRAMEWORK HOST ARCHITECTURE Des the prvider ensure virtual images are hardened by default? Is the hardened virtual image prtected frm unauthrized access? Can the prvider cnfirm that the virtualised image des nt cntain the authenticatin credentials? Is the hst firewall run with nly the minimum prts necessary t supprt the services within the virtual instance? Can a hst-based intrusin preventin service (IPS) be run in the virtual instance? PAAS APPLICATION SECURITY Generally speaking, PaaS service prviders are respnsible fr the security f the platfrm sftware stack, and the recmmendatins thrughut this dcument are a gd fundatin fr ensuring a PaaS prvider has cnsidered security principles when designing and managing their PaaS platfrm. It is ften difficult t btain detailed infrmatin frm PaaS prviders n exactly hw they secure their platfrms hwever the fllwing questins, alng with ther sectins within this dcument, shuld be f assistance in assessing their fferings. Request infrmatin n hw multi-tenanted applicatins are islated frm each ther a high level descriptin f cntainment and islatin measures is required. What assurance can the PaaS prvider give that access t yur data is restricted t yur enterprise users and t the applicatins yu wn? The platfrm architecture shuld be classic sandbx des the prvider ensure that the PaaS platfrm sandbx is mnitred fr new bugs and vulnerabilities? PaaS prviders shuld be able t ffer a set f security features (re-useable amngst their clients) d these include user authenticatin, single sign n, authrisatin (privilege management), and SSL/TLS (made available via an API)? SAAS APPLICATION SECURITY The SaaS mdel dictates that the prvider manages the entire suite f applicatins delivered t endusers. Therefre SaaS prviders are mainly respnsible fr securing these applicatins. Custmers are nrmally respnsible fr peratinal security prcesses (user and access management). Hwever the fllwing questins, alng with ther sectins within this dcument, shuld assist in assessing their fferings: What administratin cntrls are prvided and can these be used t assign read and write privileges t ther users?
16 16 Clud Cmputing Infrmatin Assurance Framewrk Is the SaaS access cntrl fine grained and can it be custmised t yur rganisatins plicy? RESOURCE PROVISIONING In the event f resurce verlad (prcessing, memry, strage, netwrk)? What infrmatin is given abut the relative pririty assigned t my request in the event f a failure in prvisining? Is there a lead time n service levels and changes in requirements? Hw much can yu scale up? Des the prvider ffer guarantees n maximum available resurces within a minimum perid? Hw fast can yu scale up? Des the prvider ffer guarantees n the availability f supplementary resurces within a minimum perid? What prcesses are in place fr handling large-scale trends in resurce usage (eg, seasnal effects)? 6.4. IDENTITY AND ACCESS MANAGEMENT The fllwing cntrls apply t the clud prvider s identity and access management systems (thse under their cntrl) AUTHORISATION D any accunts have system-wide privileges fr the entire clud system and, if s, fr what peratins (read/write/delete)? Hw are the accunts with the highest level f privilege authenticated and managed? Hw are the mst critical decisins (e.g., simultaneus de-prvisining f large resurce blcks) authrised (single r dual, and by which rles within the rganisatin)? Are any high-privilege rles allcated t the same persn? Des this allcatin break the segregatin f duties r least privilege rules? D yu use rle-based access cntrl (RBAC)? Is the principle f least privilege fllwed? What changes, if any, are made t administratr privileges and rles t allw fr extrardinary access in the event f an emergency? Is there an administratr rle fr the custmer? Fr example, des the custmer administratr have a rle in adding new users (but withut allwing him t change the underlying strage!)?
17 Clud Cmputing 17 INFORMATION ASSURANCE FRAMEWORK IDENTITY PROVISIONING What checks are made n the identity f user accunts at registratin? Are any standards fllwed? Fr example, the e-gvernment Interperability Framewrk? Are there different levels f identity checks based n the resurces required? What prcesses are in place fr de-prvisining credentials? Are credentials prvisined and de-prvisined simultaneusly thrughut the clud system, r are there any risks in de-prvisining them acrss multiple gegraphically distributed lcatins? MANAGEMENT OF PERSONAL DATA What data strage and prtectin cntrls apply t the user directry (eg, AD, LDAP) and access t it? Is user directry data exprtable in an interperable frmat? Is need-t-knw the basis fr access t custmer data within the clud prvider? KEY MANAGEMENT Fr keys under the cntrl f the clud prvider: Are security cntrls in place fr reading and writing thse keys? Fr example, strng passwrd plicies, keys stred in a separate system, hardware security mdules (HSM) fr rt certificate keys, smart card based authenticatin, direct shielded access t strage, shrt key lifetime, etc. Are security cntrls in place fr using thse keys t sign and encrypt data? Are prcedures in place in the event f a key cmprmise? Fr example, key revcatin lists. Is key revcatin able t deal with simultaneity issues fr multiple sites? Are custmer system images prtected r encrypted? ENCRYPTION Encryptin can be used in multiple places where is it used? data in transit data at rest data in prcessr r memry? Usernames and passwrds? Is there a well-defined plicy fr what shuld be encrypted and what shuld nt be encrypted?
18 18 Clud Cmputing Infrmatin Assurance Framewrk Wh hlds the access keys? Hw are the keys prtected? AUTHENTICATION What frms f authenticatin are used fr peratins requiring high assurance? This may include lgin t management interfaces, key creatin, access t multiple-user accunts, firewall cnfiguratin, remte access, etc. Is tw-factr authenticatin used t manage critical cmpnents within the infrastructure, such as firewalls, etc? CREDENTIAL COMPROMISE OR THEFT D yu prvide anmaly detectin (the ability t spt unusual and ptentially malicius IP traffic and user r supprt team behaviur)? Fr example, analysis f failed and successful lgins, unusual time f day, and multiple lgins, etc. What prvisins exist in the event f the theft f a custmer s credentials (detectin, revcatin, evidence fr actins)? IDENTITY AND ACCESS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS OFFERED TO THE CLOUD CUSTOMER The fllwing questins apply t the identity and access management systems which are ffered by the clud prvider fr use and cntrl by the clud custmer IDENTITY MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORKS Des the system allw fr a federated IDM infrastructure which is interperable bth fr high assurance (OTP systems, where required) and lw assurance (eg. username and passwrd)? Is the clud prvider interperable with third party identity prviders? Is there the ability t incrprate single sign-n? ACCESS CONTROL Des the client credential system allw fr the separatin f rles and respnsibilities and fr multiple dmains (r a single key fr multiple dmains, rles and respnsibilities)? Hw d yu manage access t custmer system images and ensure that the authenticatin and cryptgraphic keys are nt cntained within in them?
19 Clud Cmputing 19 INFORMATION ASSURANCE FRAMEWORK AUTHENTICATION Hw des the clud prvider identify itself t the custmer (ie, is there mutual authenticatin)? when the custmer sends API cmmands? when the custmer lgs int the management interface? D yu supprt a federated mechanism fr authenticatin? 6.5. ASSET MANAGEMENT It is imprtant t ensure the prvider maintains a current list f hardware and sftware (applicatins) assets under the clud prviders cntrl. This enables checks that all systems have apprpriate cntrls emplyed, and that systems cannt be used as a backdr int the infrastructure. Des the prvider have an autmated means t inventry all assets, which facilitates their apprpriate management? Is there a list f assets that the custmer has used ver a specific perid f time? The fllwing questins are t be used where the end custmer is deplying data that wuld require additinal prtectin (i.e.. deemed as sensitive). Are assets classified in terms f sensitivity and criticality? If s, des the prvider emply apprpriate segregatin between systems with different classificatins and fr a single custmer wh has systems with different security classificatins? 6.6. DATA AND SERVICES PORTABILITY This set f questins shuld be cnsidered in rder t understand the risks related t vendr lck-in. Are there dcumented prcedures and APIs fr exprting data frm the clud? Des the vendr prvide interperable exprt frmats fr all data stred within the clud? In the case f SaaS, are the API interfaces used standardised? Are there any prvisins fr exprting user-created applicatins in a standard frmat? Are there prcesses fr testing that data can be exprted t anther clud prvider shuld the client wish t change prvider, fr example? Can the client perfrm their wn data extractin t verify that the frmat is universal and is capable f being migrated t anther clud prvider?
20 20 Clud Cmputing Infrmatin Assurance Framewrk 6.7. BUSINESS CONTINUITY MANAGEMENT Prviding cntinuity is imprtant t an rganisatin. Althugh it is pssible t set service level agreements detailing the minimum amunt f time systems are available, there remain a number f additinal cnsideratins. Des the prvider maintain a dcumented methd that details the impact f a disruptin? What are the RPO (recvery pint bjective) and RTO (recvery time bjective) fr services? Detail accrding t the criticality f the service. Are infrmatin security activities apprpriately addressed in the restratin prcess? What are the lines f cmmunicatin t end custmers in the event f a disruptin? Are the rles and respnsibilities f teams clearly identified when dealing with a disruptin? Has the prvider categrised the pririty fr recvery, and what wuld be ur relative pririty (the end custmer) t be restred? Nte: this may be a categry (HIGH/MED/LOW). What dependencies relevant t the restratin prcess exist? Include suppliers and utsurce partners. In the event f the primary site being made unavailable, what is the minimum separatin fr the lcatin f the secndary site? INCIDENT MANAGEMENT AND RESPONSE Incident management and respnse is a part f business cntinuity management. The gal f this prcess is t cntain the impact f unexpected and ptentially disrupting events t an acceptable level fr an rganizatin. T evaluate the capacity f an rganizatin t minimize the prbability f ccurrence r reduce the negative impact f an infrmatin security incident, the fllwing questins shuld be asked t a clud prvider: Des the prvider have a frmal prcess in place fr detecting, identifying, analyzing and respnding t incidents? Is this prcess rehearsed t check that incident handling prcesses are effective? Des the prvider als ensure, during the rehearsal, that everyne within the clud prvider s supprt rganisatin is aware f the prcesses and f their rles during incident handling (bth during the incident and pst analysis)? Hw are the detectin capabilities structured? Hw can the clud custmer reprt anmalies and security events t the prvider? What facilities des the prvider allw fr custmer-selected third party RTSM services t intervene in their systems (where apprpriate) r t c-rdinate incident respnse capabilities with the clud prvider?