URBAN AGRICULTURE, ATLANTA, & THE REGULATORY CONTEXT JENNA E LEE MASTERS OF CITY & REGIONAL PLANNING SPRING 2011

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "URBAN AGRICULTURE, ATLANTA, & THE REGULATORY CONTEXT JENNA E LEE MASTERS OF CITY & REGIONAL PLANNING SPRING 2011"

Transcription

1 URBANAGRICULTURE,ATLANTA,&THEREGULATORYCONTEXT JENNAELEEMASTERSOFCITY&REGIONALPLANNINGSPRING2011

2 TABLEOFCONTENTS COVERPAGE..1 TABLEOFCONTENTS...2 SUMMARY 3 INDEXOFTABLES... 4 INTRODUCTION...5 BACKGROUND..6 URBANAGRICULTUREHISTORY&REGULATORYCONTEXT. 8 URBANAGRICULTUREPRODUCTION. 11 POTENTIALBENEFITSOFURBANAGRICULTURE...16 OBSTACLESTOURBANAGRICULTURE..19 AGRICULTUREASURBANINFILL:CASESTUDIES/OTHERCITIES.. 23 ANIMALS ATLANTA:OVERVIEW&HISTORY ZONINGFORPRODUCTIONINATLANTAANDFULTONCOUNTY BACKYARD,COMMUNITYGARDENS,&COMMERCIALSALES CONCLUSION/OPPORTUNITIES BIBLIOGRAPHY

3 SUMMARY PROBLEM:Agrowingbodyofresearchinvestigatestherelationshipbetweenthebuilt environmentandhealth,specificallythehealthconsequencesforthosewithinadequateaccess toaffordableandhealthyfood becausetherearenonearbymarketsorbecauseavailablefood isnotaffordable.sustainableurbanagricultureoffersopportunitiesatmanyscalestobring healthyfoodbackintothecityandclosertothoseseekingit;however,today sregulatory systemdoesnotofferclearlegalavenuesforthoseseekingtoinitiateurbanagriculture programsandoperations. PURPOSE:Thepurposeofthisinvestigationistobetterunderstandthepotentialforfood productioninurbanenvironmentsandwayscitiescanreviseregulatoryframeworkstofacilitate andencouragesustainablefoodproduction. METHOD:Ifirstresearchedthecurrentstateoffoodsystemsinurbanenvironmentsand identifiedthepossibilitiesandlimitationsofcommercialurbanagricultureoperations, communitygardens,andhouseholdagriculture.itheninvestigatedtheagricultureinitiativesof othercities.andfinally,iresearchedatlanta scurrenturbanagricultureprojects,conducteda closereadofatlanta srelevantregulatoryframework,andmaderecommendationsto encouragesustainablefoodsystemsinatlanta. CONCLUSION:Cities,counties,localgovernments,communities,andindividualhouseholdsall influencelocalfoodproductionpotentialandeachplayaroleincreatinglong termsustainable foodsystemplans.atthecitylevel,zoningandpolicyupdatesthatallowandencourageurban agriculture,landinventoriesandassessments,andcity sponsoredprogramstoencourage communitygardensandfarmersmarketsarevaluabletoolsfordevelopingasustainablefood system.citiesandcommunitiesareutilizingvacantparcels,publicrightsofway,un usedgreen spaces,andunder usedparkinglotsforbothtemporaryandpermanenturbanagriculture projects.whetherit sanimalhusbandry,raised bedgardening,orsimplyplantingsomeedible greensorfruit bearingtrees,gardenersandpolicymakersarecreatinginnovativewaystomake urbanvacantspaceproductive.citiesthroughoutthecountryareinitiatingurbangardening programsasinterimusesforvacantproperties andothersarecreatingregulatoryframeworks thatestablishpermanentagricultureuses.urbanfarms,communitygardens,andlocalmarkets havebecomeubiquitousinsustainableurbandevelopmentdiscourse andregardlessofthe approach,urbanagricultureisgainingrecognitionasbeingvitaltoeconomic,social,cultural, andenvironmentalsecurity. 3

4 INDEXOFTABLES Photo1.WarGardenattheSheridanSchoolduringWorldWarI.12 Photo2.1941ComicBookCoverPromotingVictoryGardens Photo3.1942TomatoContainerGarden,London 14 Map1.VacantorUnderutilizedParcelsinFultonCounty 20 Table1.TableofTotalFarmAcresandHarvestedCroplandbyMetro AtlantaCounties..30 Map2.MapofPublixandKrogerShoppingCentersinMetro Atlanta..31 Map3.MapofRegionsZonedasAgriculturalDistrictsinFultonCounty...34 Diagram1.DiagramofAverageIntownAtlantaResidentialLotandRabbitEnclosure..37 4

5 INTRODUCTION Inrecentyears,accesstofoodinthecity,particularlyaccesstohealthyfood,hasgarneredmuch attentionfromresearchers,policy makers,andlocalactivists.whereindividualsobtaintheir foodandwhattheyactuallyconsumenotonlyhassocio economicandenvironmental implications butitisalsocriticaltopublichealth.studiesaboundlinkingpovertyand obesity andironically,somethemostimpoverishedneighborhoodsintheunitedstatesare alsosaddledwithsomeofthehighestobesityrates. 1 Todayanestimated80%oftheUnitedStatespopulationresidesincitiesormetroareas and thesenumbersaregrowing. 2 Andaspopulationsgrow,sodoesthedemandforfood andas citiesgrow,sodoesthedistancebetweenfoodproductionandfoodconsumption.theaverage Americanmealtravelsbetween1,500and2,500milesfromitssourcetothetable,whichisan estimated25percentincreaseoverthedistancetraveledin Andanestimated50%of foodproductstransportedislosttospoilage. 4 Thisdramaticchangeislargelyduetothe transformationofagriculturalproductionoverthepastfewdecadesfromsmaller scalefarmsto largeindustrialagri businesses.thischangeinthescaleandgeographyoffoodproductionhas haddetrimentaleffectsonpublichealth,localeconomies,andtheenvironment andsome researchersarguetheseconsequencesamounttoafood securitycrisis. 5 1 Dolnick,S.(2010,March12).TheObesity HungerParadox.TheNewYorkTimes.RetrievedOctober20, 2010,fromhttp://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/14/nyregion/14hunger.html?hp 2 FoodSecurityCoalition.(2003).UrbanAgricultureandCommunityFoodSecurityintheUnitedStates: FarmingfromtheCityCentertotheUrbanFringe.NorthAmericanUrbanAgricultureCommittee,October 2003, FoodSecurityCoalition.(2003).UrbanAgricultureandCommunityFoodSecurityintheUnitedStates: FarmingfromtheCityCentertotheUrbanFringe.NorthAmericanUrbanAgricultureCommittee,October 2003, FoodSecurityCoalition.(2003).UrbanAgricultureandCommunityFoodSecurityintheUnitedStates: FarmingfromtheCityCentertotheUrbanFringe.NorthAmericanUrbanAgricultureCommittee,October 2003, FoodSecurityCoalition.(2003).UrbanAgricultureandCommunityFoodSecurityintheUnitedStates: FarmingfromtheCityCentertotheUrbanFringe.NorthAmericanUrbanAgricultureCommittee,October 2003,

6 BACKGROUND Manyresearchersandactivistsarguethatthecurrentfoodproductionsystem,whichis centereduponmonoculturecropsandintensiveanimalfeedlots,isinefficient,wasteful,and environmentallydamaging.assailantsofthecurrentindustrialagriculturepracticesare compilingagrowinglistofindustrialagriculture soffenses.forinstance,researchersare beginningtolinkindustrialagriculturetolossofbiodiversityamongplantsandanimals. Additionally,fertilizers,pesticides,andanimal antibioticsoftencompromisefoodsafetyand pollutetheenvironment.manylarge scalefarmsalsousewaterresourcesandnon renewable energyatunsustainablerates.andlastly,evidenceexistssuggestingthatthemonocrops producedbysuchoperationsyieldfoodsthatareoftennutritionallypoor. 6 Notincludingenergyrequiredforfoodtransport,theaveragefarmintheUnitedStatesrequires 3kcalofnon renewablefossilfuelenergytoproduce1kcaloffoodenergy andacattlefeedlot requires35kcaloffossilfuelsper1kcaloffoodenergy. 7 SuchinefficienciesoftheAmerican foodsupplysystemwillcontinuetoincreaseastheconsumptionoffactory farmedmeat increases.in2000,theaverageyearlymeatconsumptionpercapitaintheunitedstateswas 195pounds andthisnumberis57poundsgreaterthanthenationalaverageofthethe1950 s. 8 Cattlerequire7kgofgraintoproduce1kgofbeef,pigsrequire4kgper1kgofpork,and poultryrequire2kgper1kgofmeatproduced. 9 6 Horrigan,L.,Lawrence,R.S.,&Walker,P.(2002).HowSustainableAgricultureCanAddressthe EnvironmentalandHumanHealthHarmsofIndustrialAgriculture.EnvironmentalHealthPerspectives, 110(5), Horrigan,L.,Lawrence,R.S.,&Walker,P.(2002).HowSustainableAgricultureCanAddressthe EnvironmentalandHumanHealthHarmsofIndustrialAgriculture.EnvironmentalHealthPerspectives, 110(5), AgricultureFactbook (n.d.).Chapter2:ProfilingFoodConsumptioninAmerica.Retrieved October10,2010,fromwww.usda.gov/factbook/chapter2.htm 9 Horrigan,L.,Lawrence,R.S.,&Walker,P.(2002).HowSustainableAgricultureCanAddressthe EnvironmentalandHumanHealthHarmsofIndustrialAgriculture.EnvironmentalHealthPerspectives, 110(5),

7 Notonlycanthemodernfoodsystembeenvironmentallydamaging,butitcanalsohave extremeimplicationsforpublichealth,especiallyforminoritiesandlow incomeindividuals. 10 Thereisagrowingbodyofresearchinvestigatingtherelationshipbetweenthebuilt environmentandhealth,specificallythehealthconsequencesforthosewithinadequateaccess tohealthyfood whetheritbebecausetherearenomarketsorbecauseavailablefoodisnot affordable.accordingtoresearchers,oneintenfamiliesintheunitedstatesis foodinsecure, meaningtheyexperienceperiodsoftimeinwhichtheyareuncertainofhavingenoughfoodfor allmembersofthehousehold eitherbecauseofinsufficientmoneyorbecauseofinadequate accesstofood. 11 Minorities,low incomeindividuals,andthosewholiveinruralareashavethehighestrateof diseasesstemmingfromadietlackinginnutrient richfood.thebuiltenvironmentisoneofthe greatestcontributorstothehealthdisparitiesthatexistbetweendifferentsocioeconomic classes: low incomeareashavefewersupermarketsandgroceriesthatcarryhealthyfoods thandopredominantlywhite,middle andhigh incomeneighborhoods;storesinlow income neighborhoodsstockfewerhealthyitemsandhavesignificantlylower qualityfreshproduce; whenavailable,thecostoffreshfoodsinlow incomeareasisoftenprohibitive;andpublic transportationtosupermarketsisoftenlacking. 12 Researchersemphasizethedistinctionbetweenaccesstofoodandaccesstohealthy,nutrientrichfood;however,whileanawarenessofhealthycalorieavailabilityisastartingpoint,an assessmentoftheadequacyofaneighborhood sfoodaccessmustconsiderabroaderdefinition ofthe quality offood researchersandpolicymakersshouldalsoconsiderwhetherthe environmentprovidesfoodthatisnutritionallysound,affordable,andculturallyappropriate Friedman,R.R.(2008).Accesstohealthyfoodsinlow incomeneighborhoods:opportunitiesforpublic policy.newhaven,ct.:yaleuniversityruddcenterforfoodpolicy&obesity. 11 Freedman,D.A.,&Bell,B.A.(2009).AccesstoHealthfulFoodsAmonganUrbanFoodInsecure Population:PerceptionsVersusReality.JournalofUrbanHealth,86(6), Friedman,R.R.(2008).Accesstohealthyfoodsinlow incomeneighborhoods:opportunitiesforpublic policy.newhaven,ct.:yaleuniversityruddcenterforfoodpolicy&obesity. 13 Raja,S.,Ma,C.,&Yadav,P.(2008).BeyondFoodDesertsMeasuringandMappingRacialDisparitiesin NeighborhoodFoodEnvironments.JournalofPlanningEducationandResearch,27(4),469. 7

8 Communitygardens,urbanagricultureprograms,andfarmersmarketsseemespecially appropriateinaddressingthisneed.researchshowsthatindividualslivingclosetoa supermarketconsumeahealthierdiet likewise,thosewithaccesstoaffordablefruitsand vegetablestypicallyhavealowerbodymassindex 14 URBANAGRICULTUREHISTORY&REGULATORYCONTEXT TheCityBeautifulmovementofthelate19 th Centuryandearly20 th Centuryemphasizedthe needtobringordertotheurbanframeworkandpurgethecityofanythingpotentially unhealthy,unattractive,orinefficient.thecitybeautifulidealsoughttopushindustryoutof citycenters,andwiththeindustrywentpublicmarketsandanylanduseassociatedwithfood productionorprocessing. 15 Andwhilethispurgingwasperhapsjustifiablegiventheurban contextofthetime,thesystemhasgrowntoascalethatsometimescontributestoun health andenvironmentaldeteriorationinsteadofimprovingthehealthofurbanenvironments. Althoughplannersoftheeradidconsidertheconsequencesofthegeographyoffood productionrelativetotheconsumer,agricultureintheunitedstateswastransformingfroma moreorlesslocalfarmsystemtoamonocropagri businesssystemoperatingonanation wide scale. 16 UndertheUnitedStatestraditionallandusepatternsandgiventhecurrentscaleofproduction, foodisgenerallyproducedoutsideofthecity.contemporaryzoningpracticesareoften targetedastheculpritforthecurrentstateofcities foodsystems;however,sincethecolonial era,separatedlandusepatternshavebeenprevalent wherein,nuisance producingoperations suchasslaughterhousesandtannerieswererelegatedtotheoutskirtsoftown. 17 Today,inthe averagecity sregulatoryframework,manycodesinteracttoregulatefoodproductionlocation, 14 Rundle,A.,Neckerman,K.,Freeman,L.,Lovasi,G.,Purciel,M.,Quinn,J.,etal.(2009).Neighborhood FoodEnvironmentandWalkabilityPredictObesityinNewYorkCity.EnvironmentalHealthPerspective, 117(Number3), Bonfiglio,O.(2009).DeliciousinDetroit.AmericanPlanningAssociation,August/September, Bonfiglio,O.(2009).DeliciousinDetroit.AmericanPlanningAssociation,August/September, Williams,N.(1956).TheEvolutionofZoning.TheAmericanJournalofEconomicsandSociology, 15(3),

9 methods,andaccess stateandfederalagricultureregulations,countyandcityhealthcodes,as wellaslocalzoningordinances. However,whilezoningcodesmaynotbesolelyresponsibleforthecurrentstateoftheaverage city sabilitytocontributetoitsfoodsystem,zoningdoesplayasignificantroleinregulatingthe potentialforfoodproductioninanurbanenvironment.in1926,thestandardstatezoning EnablingActwascreatedinanefforttopreservehealth.Morespecifically,policy makers createdtheact forthepurposeofpromotinghealth,safety,morals,orthegeneralwelfareof thecommunity. 18 TheActgavestatesandlocalgovernmentstheauthoritytoformally regulatelanduses.andtheseregulationsmosttypicallymanifestedintheformofeuclidean zoning,whereby incompatible usesareseparated. Andperhapscreatingexclusivedistrictsandseparatingdistrictsbyusewasalegitimate responsetothehyper industrializedurbanrealityattheturnofthe20 th Century;however, today szoningregulationsperpetuateexclusivezoningdistrictsandsometimesseparate incompatible usesinawaythatcanbecontrarytothepublic sbestinterest.whilethecodes oftenpreventundesirablescenarios,theysometimesalsoprohibitdesirableones,suchas communitygardensorfarmersmarketsinresidentialdistricts. Becauseallowingagricultureasalegallanduseisarguablythefirstcriticalstepinpromoting urbanagriculture,researchersandadvocatesoftenemphasizetheneedtoupdatezoningcodes. However,zoningcodesarenottheonlyrelevantregulations.Agricultureoperationsseekingto sellgoodsmustreceivecertificationfromthehome statedepartmentofagriculture;likewise, organicgrowersmustreceivefederalcertificationandmustalsofolloworganicgrowing guidelines.anyrestrictionssetforthbythesestateandfederalguidelinesactinadditionto localzoningcodes. Post growingactivitiesalsohavetheirownregulatoryframework.ingeorgia,packagedfood productsforsalearegovernedthestateagriculturedepartmentandtheu.s.departmentof 18 AStandardStateZoningEnablingAct,UnitedStatesDepartmentofCommerce(1926),SectionI 9

10 Agriculture.TheGeorgiaDepartmentofCommunityHealthregulatespreparedfoodproducts thatareservedfresh,andlocalcountyhealthdepartmentsadministertheseregulations. 19 Theoriginalwordsfromthepurposestatementofthezoningenablingstatute topromotethe health,safety,morals,orthegeneralwelfareofthecommunity canbere interpretedbya modernreaderasofferingtheperfectplatformforanargumentpromotingurbanagriculture, communitygardens,foodsystemsplanning,andrevisedgardeningregulations.giventherates offoodinsecurity,increasingobesityrates,andtherisingcostsassociatedwithourcurrentfood system,thezoningframeworkshouldbereconsideredandrevised.inmanycommunities,the currentsystemisdamagingpublicandenvironmentalhealthinsteadofpromotingit. Inancientcitiesaroundtheworld,agriculturewasincorporatedintoacity sframework.roman, NativeAmerican,andPersiancivilizations(tonameafew)alldevelopedhighlyurbanizedareas thatalsohadthecapacitytoprovidethecitywithitsfoodneeds,mostofwhichwasproduced withinthecity sboundaries. 20 Walledmedievalcitiesoftenhadfarmingspaceinsidethecity walls andsimilarinteriorgardenspaceexistedincastlesandmonasteriesaswell. 21 Similarly, citiesthroughouthistoryoftenorientedprivatebuildingsandresidencesinsuchawaythat allowedspaceforadjacentgardensandorchardsorinteriorcourtyardgardens. 22 IntheUnitedStatesthroughouttheIndustrialEraandwellintothe20 th century,animalstables, feedlots,stockyards,andprocessingfacilitiesexistedwithincitylimits.forexample,newyork Citydistilleriesandbrewerieshadadjacentcattlestables.Intheseoperations,thecattleatethe 19 ProcessingandValueAdded.(n.d.).GeorgiaOrganics.RetrievedApril13,2011,from 20 Mougeot,L.(n.d.).UrbanFoodProduction:Evolution,OfficialSupportandSignificance.CityFarmer: Canada'sOfficeofUrbanAgriculture.RetrievedMarch21,2011,fromhttp://www.cityfarmer.org/lucpreindst28.html#luc%20preindust 21 Mougeot,L.(n.d.).UrbanFoodProduction:Evolution,OfficialSupportandSignificance.CityFarmer: Canada'sOfficeofUrbanAgriculture.RetrievedMarch21,2011,fromhttp://www.cityfarmer.org/lucpreindst28.html#luc%20preindust 22 Mougeot,L.(n.d.).UrbanFoodProduction:Evolution,OfficialSupportandSignificance.CityFarmer: Canada'sOfficeofUrbanAgriculture.RetrievedMarch21,2011,fromhttp://www.cityfarmer.org/lucpreindst28.html#luc%20preindust 10

11 leftovergrainandproduced swillmilk, which,althoughpoorquality,wastheprimarysourceof milkforcityresidents. 23 Likewise,Chicagoisinfamousforitsvaststockyards,whichprovided 82%ofthemeatconsumedintheUnitedStatesattheturnofthe20 th century. 24 However,aspreviouslydiscussed,astheIndustrialEra sdense,pollutingmanufacturingdistricts continuedtoexpand,theneedtoregulateurbanfoodproductionandmanufacturingindustries becamedire andthisledtourbanismpatternswithanincreasinglyrigidandformalseparation ofuses.inresponsetotheextremedensitiesofindustrialcities,utopianplannersofthe20 th centurybeganfavoringdecentralizedurbanforms,whereincountrysideandcitywouldno longerbedistinguishable.oftenintheseidealizedplans,agriculturalproductionprimarily informedthespatialconfiguration. 25 Whilemostoftheseutopianplansnevercametofruition, thisplanningmovementeffectivelypurgedcentralcitiesofthoseusesdeemedunhealthyand unattractive,includingpublicmarketsandfoodproductionfacilities. 26 Simultaneously,withthe riseofzoningregulationsandautomobiletransportation,agriculture,animalproduction,and foodprocessingmovedfurtherintothecountryside andthroughoutthemiddle20 th century, Americanfoodsystemstransformedintotheindustrialagriculturesystemsweknowtoday. 27 URBANAGRICULTUREPRODUCTION Eventhoughthemajorityofcities foodsupplyandproductionfacilitiesmovedintoruralareas duringthemid 20 th century,thereisahistoricaltraditionintheunitedstatesofurban gardeningintimesofeconomicstressandinsecurity.forinstance,governingofficials campaignedforresidentstosupplementfoodsupplieswithhomegardeningduringthe 23 Philpott,T.(2010,August3).TheHistoryofUrbanAgricultureShouldInspireitsFuture.GristABeacon inthesmog.retrievedmarch22,2011,fromhttp://community wealth.org/_pdfs/articlespublications/urban ag/article philpott.pdf 24 Philpott,T.(2010,August3).TheHistoryofUrbanAgricultureShouldInspireitsFuture.GristABeacon inthesmog.retrievedmarch22,2011,fromhttp://community wealth.org/_pdfs/articlespublications/urban ag/article philpott.pdf 25 Waldheim,C.(n.d.).NotesTowardaHistoryofAgrarianUrbanism.Places:DesignObserver.Retrieved March26,2011,fromhttp://places.designobserver.com/entry.html?entry= Bonfiglio,O.(2009).DeliciousinDetroit.AmericanPlanningAssociation,August/September, Bonfiglio,O.(2009).DeliciousinDetroit.AmericanPlanningAssociation,August/September,

12 depressionofthe1890s,andwithvictorygardensduringworldwarsiandii.likewise,during theseperiodsofwar,schoolfarmingprogramswerealsoofteninitiatedasameansof supplementingfoodsupplyandeducationchildren. 28 Andtoday,bothgardeningandfarm toschoolprogramsaregrowinginpopularity. Onecouldarguethattoday semergenteconomic,environmental,andhealthcrisisis comparabletotheperiodsofeconomicdistressofthe20 th Centuryandthatitwarrantsa responselikethatgivenduringthecountry spreviousdepressionsandperiodsofwar.in2009, FirstLadyMichelleObamaplantedagardenonthesouthlawnoftheWhiteHouse.Itisquite tellingthatthelastvegetablegardenplantedattheu.s.whitehousewaseleanorroosevelt s victorygardenduringworldwarii. 29 Photo1.WarGardenattheSheridanSchoolduringWorldWarI Bonfiglio,O.(2009).DeliciousinDetroit.AmericanPlanningAssociation,August/September, White,Mason,andMayaPrzybylski."theproductivesurface."Onfarming.Barcelona:Actar;, Print. 30 Levenston,M.(n.d.).SheridanSchoolWarGardens between1910and1920 CityFarmerNews. NewStoriesFrom'UrbanAgricultureNotes' CityFarmerNews.RetrievedMay3,2011,from school war gardens between 1910 and 1920/ 12

13 Photo2.1941ComicBookCoverPromotingVictoryGardens Levenston,M.(n.d.).Superman,BatmanandRobinareVictoryGardenersin1941 CityFarmerNews. NewStoriesFrom'UrbanAgricultureNotes' CityFarmerNews.RetrievedMay3,2011,from batman and robin are victory gardeners in 1941/ 13

14 Photo3.1942TomatoContainerGarden,London. 32 Additionally,inthe1970s,manyAmericancitiesinstituted Farm a Lot programstoencourage residentstofarmvacantcitylots andtoday,programssuchasthisareresurgingincitiesacross thecountry. 33 City,state,andfederalpolicy makersarebeginningtoreacttothegrowing concernsoverfoodsecurity,andmanyarereinstatingandrevampingvacantparcelandpublic landsgardeninginitiativesthathavebeenforgottenfordecades.forinstance,thestateof Michiganrecentlyreinstatedavacantlotgardeningprogram the GardenforGrowth Program, whereby,for$50,residentsleasevacantstatelandsforgardening Levenston,M.(n.d.).1942 Waitressesgathertomatoesfromcontainergardenonstreet City FarmerNews.NewStoriesFrom'UrbanAgricultureNotes' CityFarmerNews.RetrievedMay3,2011, fromhttp://www.cityfarmer.info/2009/09/13/waitresses gather tomatoes from container garden onstreet/ 33 Bonfiglio,O.(2009).DeliciousinDetroit.AmericanPlanningAssociation,August/September, Bonfiglio,O.(2009).DeliciousinDetroit.AmericanPlanningAssociation,August/September,

15 However,creatingproductivefoodenvironmentsdoesnothavetoberelegatedsolelytovacant parcels.communitieseverywhereareusingalmostanyopenspaceavailable.inadditiontothe traditionalparkplots,opportunisticgardenersareutilizingroofs,frontyards,sideyards, medians,andeveninterstateunderpasses. 35 Publicallyandprivatelyinitiatedprogramsto implementedibleurbanlandscapes,fruit bearingsidewalkplantings,andvacantparcelgardens arealsogrowingrampantinmanycities. Notonlyissuchgardeningspaceavailablethroughoutanygivencity,butthesespacesalsohave thepotentialtobehugelyproductive.inriodejaneirointhe1980s,gardenerscultivatedabout 425acresofopenspaceunderelectricaltransmissionlinesandyielded$10millionworthof produce. 36 Small scaleeffortslikecommunitygardensandhouseholdplotscanpotentially produceahousehold syearlyvegetableneeds. 37 Inadditiontogardening,urbanpublicspacecanalsobeusedforanimalgrazing.Inmanycities aroundtheworld,sheepandgoatsareusedasanecologicallyfriendlyandpicturesquemeans oflawnmowing. 38 FiveU.S.statetransportationdepartmentscurrentlygrazeanimalsalongside roadwaystokeepgrassesdown. 39 Theseanimalscouldpotentiallybepermanentfixturesincity parksandopenspacesandusedasasourceformilk,cheese,andevenwool. 35 Schell Lambert,T.(2010,March18).HayesValley:AFormerFreewayTurnsintoaFarm GOOD. GOODMagazine.RetrievedMarch21,2011,fromhttp://www.good.is/post/hayes valley a formerfreeway turns into a farm/ 36 Mougeot,L.(n.d.).UrbanFoodProduction:Evolution,OfficialSupportandSignificance.CityFarmer: Canada'sOfficeofUrbanAgriculture.RetrievedMarch21,2011,fromhttp://www.cityfarmer.org/lucpreindst28.html#luc%20preindust 37 Barrs,R.(n.d.).UrbanAgricultureinVancouver.CityFarmer'sUrbanAgricultureNotes.Retrieved March21,2011,fromhttp://www.cityfarmer.org/barrsUAvanc.html# Sidawy,E.(2017,November10).SheepGrazingaLondonPark.InnovCity.RetrievedMarch21,2011, fromhttp://www.innovcity.com/2010/11/17/sheep grazing a london park/ 39 Latshaw,G.(2009,July1).MoreUseGrazingSheep,GoatsAgainstInvasiveWeeds,Vines.USAToday. RetrievedMarch21,2011,fromhttp://www.usatoday.com/news/offbeat/ animalgrass_n.htm 15

16 POTENTIALBENEFITSOFURBANAGRICULTURE Inresponse,localgovernmentsarebeginningtogiveconsiderationtofoodsystemsplanning initiativesthatencouragelocalfoodproduction,improveaccesstohealthyfood,andpromote environmentalandeconomicsustainability.communitygardens,householdfoodproduction, andurbanagricultureallhavearoleinaddressingtheseissues.asustainableagriculturesystem hasthepotentialtoboostlocaleconomies,leadtofinancialsavingsforfamilies,improveoverall health,andbenefitcommunitiesandtheenvironment. Anetworkoflocalfoodsourcescanalsoofferlocaleconomicdevelopmentopportunities. Urbanagricultureandcommunitygardenscanprovideopportunitiesforentrepreneurship.If zoningordinancesallow,andifagrowerfulfillstherequirementsofotherapplicablehealthand foodsafetycodes,householdgardeners,communitygardeners,andurbanfarmerscansellfood directlytomarketsandrestaurants.likewise,iftheregulatoryframeworkallows,gardeners couldalsoselltheirsurplustoneighborsdirectlyfromtheircommunitygardenplotorhome.in additiontothebenefitsoflocalentrepreneurship,urbanagriculturecanalsofosterdirectlocal relationshipsbetweenfoodproducersandconsumers andthisnotonlybuildscommunity,as discussedabove,butsmallfarmingstart upscanalsohavelargeimpactsonlocaleconomies. Smallfarmingoperationscanalsoboostregionaleconomiesbykeepingconsumerdollarslocal. Researchofindependenthogfarmsrevealsthatsmallindependentfarmscreatemorejobs, morelocalincomepercapita,andgeneratemorelocalspending moneygeneratedbythese smallerscaleagricultureproducersismorelikelytostayinthelocalcommunityandproduce localeconomymultipliereffects. 40 Furthermore,researchdonebytheMaineOrganicFarmers andgardenersassociationestimatesthataweeklyexpenditureof$10perfamilyonlocalfood wouldinject$104millionintothelocaleconomy. 41 InGeorgia,ifeveryhouseholdspentonly 40 Horrigan,L.,Lawrence,R.S.,&Walker,P.(2002).HowSustainableAgricultureCanAddressthe EnvironmentalandHumanHealthHarmsofIndustrialAgriculture.EnvironmentalHealthPerspectives, 110(5), FoodSecurityCoalition.(2003).UrbanAgricultureandCommunityFoodSecurityintheUnitedStates: FarmingfromtheCityCentertotheUrbanFringe.NorthAmericanUrbanAgricultureCommittee,October 2003,

17 $10aweekonlocallyproducedfood,$1.9billioncouldbeinjectedintoGeorgia slocal economy. 42 Alocalfoodsystemalsohasthepotentialtogenerateregionalenergysavingsanddecreased transportationcosts.withmorelocalfoodmarketsandincreasedavailability,householdswill potentiallymakefewertripstothegrocerystore.plus,localanddirectproducer/consumer patternsdecreasetotalfoodmilestraveled.thisdecreasecreatesdirectmonetarysavingsand ismoreenvironmentallysustainable.alocalnetworkofcommunitygardens,urbanagriculture, andhomegardeningcanalsohavefinancialimpactsatthehouseholdlevel.fewerhousehold tripstoadistantgrocerystoredecreasefamilyandindividualtransportationcosts. Abackyardgardenorplotinacommunitygardencanalsoleadtosignificantsavingsona household soverallfoodcosts.accordingtothegeorgiadepartmentofagriculture,a10x20 gardenplot,whichcouldfitintheaveragebackyard,cancreate$600infreshfoodannually. 43 A groupofphiladelphiagardenersreporteda$700savingsinyearlyfoodcostsperfamily. Andintermsofcitywideyields,inSingapore,urbanfarmsproduce80%ofthepoultryconsumed bysingaporeresidentsand25%ofconsumedvegetables. 44 Likewise,astudyfoundthatLondon residentscouldproduce232,000tonsoffruitsandvegetablesifthecityembracedurban agriculture. 45 ABostoncommunitygardeningprojectreportsa12,000 poundyieldbetween twogardenslocatedonvacantcitylots WhatIfGeorgiansAteGeorgiaProduce?.(n.d.).GeorgiaOrganics.RetrievedApril12,2011,from 43 APlanforAtlanta'sSustainableFoodFuture.(n.d.).ALFI AtlantaLocalFoodInitiative.Retrieved February12,2011,fromhttp://www.atlantalocalfood.org/ 44 FoodSecurityCoalition.(2003).UrbanAgricultureandCommunityFoodSecurityintheUnitedStates: FarmingfromtheCityCentertotheUrbanFringe.NorthAmericanUrbanAgricultureCommittee,October 2003, FoodSecurityCoalition.(2003).UrbanAgricultureandCommunityFoodSecurityintheUnitedStates: FarmingfromtheCityCentertotheUrbanFringe.NorthAmericanUrbanAgricultureCommittee,October 2003, FoodSecurityCoalition.(2003).UrbanAgricultureandCommunityFoodSecurityintheUnitedStates: FarmingfromtheCityCentertotheUrbanFringe.NorthAmericanUrbanAgricultureCommittee,October 2003,

18 Creatingcommunityaccesstofreshfoodcanalsohaveapositiveimpactonthehealthofurban residents,particularlyforunderservedcommunities. 47 Researchshowsthataccesstofreshfood marketscanleadtoincreasesinnutritionalfoodintake,decreasesinhealthcarecosts,and improvementinoverallmentalandphysicalhealth. 48 Localaccesstofoodproduction,especially intheformoflocalfarmersmarketsandcommunitygardens,canalsohavearegenerative effectonsocialandpublichealth andalthoughthesebenefitsareperhapsmoreintangible thanmonetarysavings,theyarenolesscritical.communitygardensandlocalmarketshavethe potentialtofosteralocalidentityandbuildcommunitybonds. 49 Asawarenessofthe consequencesoffoodchoicecontinuestorise,thepublicisincreasinglydemandingfood productswithtraceableorigins and,forsomeconsumers,knowingtheoriginsofonesfood createsasenseofconnectednesswithotherpeopleandplaces. 50 Manyurbanconsumerswithoutlocalfarmersmarkets,orwithouttheabilitytogrowtheirown food,areshowinganincreasingdesiretofeelaconnectionwiththeirfoodsource,whetheritbe ageneralassurancethatfoodwasproducedorganicallyoranactualrelationshipwiththe farmerherself.andsuchconsumersarefindingcreativewaystomakethisconnection. Virtual gardens areemergingontheinternet.onebritishweb company, MyVeggiePatch, allows urbancustomerstoparticipate(viatheinternet)ingrowingtheirowngardenplotlocatedin ruralengland.customerslogontothewebsitetoviewtheirplotandgiveinputonplot maintenance andafterharvest,theproducefromtheirplotisdeliveredtotheirdoor. 47 FoodSecurityCoalition.(2003).UrbanAgricultureandCommunityFoodSecurityintheUnitedStates: FarmingfromtheCityCentertotheUrbanFringe.NorthAmericanUrbanAgricultureCommittee,October 2003, FoodSecurityCoalition.(2003).UrbanAgricultureandCommunityFoodSecurityintheUnitedStates: FarmingfromtheCityCentertotheUrbanFringe.NorthAmericanUrbanAgricultureCommittee,October 2003, Shigley,P.(2009).WhenAccessistheIssue:WhatCitiesAreDoingtoGetHealthyFoodinto UnderservedNeighborhoods.Planning,75(8), Holloway,L.(2002).VirtualVegetablesandAdoptedSheep:EthicalRelation,AuthenticityandInternet MediatedFoodProductionTechnologies.Area,34(1),

19 Likewise,anotheronlinecompanyallowscustomerstoadoptasheeplocatedinItalyandplay theroleofavirtualshepherd thecustomerthenpurchasesthesheep sofferings:milk,cheese, wool.whilevirtualshepherdingisprobablyamusingandacreativesolutiontourbanfood deserts,ifcitydwellersfindthemselvesthisdesperatelydisconnectedfromtheirfoodsuppliers, moretangibleoptionsexistandshouldbeincorporatedinamericancities.communitygardens, localurbanagricultureoperations,andlocalfarmcsa scanplayasignificantroleintheprocess ofprovidinghealthyfoodenvironmentsforurbanconsumers. OBSTACLESTOURBANAGRICULTURE Althoughcitiesarereevaluatingtheirregulatoryframeworksandcomprehensiveplansinan efforttoaddressthenewdemandforfoodplanning,manyobstaclesandchallengesexistfor thoseseekingtoinitiateanurbanagricultureproject,whetheritbeabackyardgarden,a communitygarden,orurbanfarmwithcommercialintentions.inadditiontoissuesof economicsandthesuitabilityofland,shortgrowingseasons,time,knowledge,andskillscanbe obstaclesforcitydwellersseekingtosupplementtheirnutritionalneedswithgardening. Maintainingagardenorraisinganimalstakesatimecommitmentthatmightbeimplausiblefor manyworkinghouseholds.likewise,unlessraisedonafarm,mostpeoplemightnothavethe knowledgeorskillstosuccessfullyraisefood.however,communitygardensandfarmtoschool programscanofferopportunitiesforeducation. Availabilityandaffordabilityoflandissometimesalsoproblematicforthoseseekingtofarmfor profit.eventhoughpropertyvacancyratesaresoaringtoday,anindividualororganization seekingtoinitiateacommunitygardengenerallycannotaffordtopurchaseland andurban propertyvaluesmostlikelypriceoutcommercialfarmersgiventhelimitedprofitpotentialof smallscaleagriculture.toovercomethis,minneapolisrecentlyinitiatedalandassessment process,wherebypubliclyownedvacanciesarerankedbasedonredevelopmentpotentialand likelihood. 51 TheresultsofMinneapolis vacantlandassessmentestimatedthatthecitywould stillhaveasurplusofvacantland,evenwithfuturegrowthandredevelopmenttrends. Minneapolis UrbanAgriculturePlansetsforthrecommendationsforpreservingthislandfor agricultureusesandpoliciestoencourageitsaffordabilityandavailability. 51 TheUrbanAgriculturePlan.(n.d.).CityofMinneapolis,Minnesota OfficialWebSite.Retrieved February12,2011,fromhttp://www.ci.minneapolis.mn.us/cped/urban_ag_plan.asp 19

20 However,eventhoughtheremightbeasurplusofavailableland,muchofitisstillprivately ownedincitieswithoutrobustvacantlandbankingprograms.privatelyownedlandcannot simplybezonedforanexclusiveagricultureusewithoutriskinglegaltakingslawsuits.52 Therefore,citieswithamajorityofprivatelyownedvacanciescouldimplementotherpolicies thatincentivizeagricultureinurbanareas. Map1.VacantorUnderutilizedParcelsinFultonCounty.Forcitiessufferingfromsoaringvacancyrates forresidentssufferingfromalackofhealthyandaffordablefoodchoices,urbanagricultureoffersa sustainablemeansofbeginningtoaddresstheseissues.asdiscussedbelow,atlantaandfultoncounty haveanabundanceofvacantandunderutilizedproperties.perhapsinconjunctionwithinitiativesalready 52LaCroix,C.J.(2010).UrbanAgricultureandOtherGreenUses:RemakingtheShrinkingCity.Urban Lawyer,42(2),

Agriculture Technology Economic Cluster Wireless Broadband Infrastructure ROBERT TSE

Agriculture Technology Economic Cluster Wireless Broadband Infrastructure ROBERT TSE Agriculture Technology Economic Cluster Wireless Broadband Infrastructure ROBERT TSE San Joaquin Valley Agriculture Technology Economic Cluster FRANCE CALIFORNIA World Economies California is 9 th Largest

More information

Bölümü, Ankara 2. Abstract: Key words: Batman University Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 1, Number 1, (2012)

Bölümü, Ankara 2. Abstract: Key words: Batman University Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 1, Number 1, (2012) 1* 2 1 * 2 Bölümü, Ankara 2 - - - - Abstract: Key words: 555 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Batman Üniversitesi - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . - -. - - - - Batman Üniversitesi - - - - - - - - - - - - -

More information

Goal 2 Assure the sustainability of agricultural assets (farm land and water quality) in Kentucky

Goal 2 Assure the sustainability of agricultural assets (farm land and water quality) in Kentucky Next Generation Farming Committee [Summary of Goals by LG] Goal 1 Make farming attractive to the next generation A coordinated marketing campaign that highlights young farmers and why they have chosen

More information

Using Solvency Ratios to Predict Future Profitability

Using Solvency Ratios to Predict Future Profitability Using Solvency Ratios to Predict Future Profitability Gregg Ibendahl (ibendahl@ksu.edu) Kansas State University Department of Agricultural Economics August 2015 http://www.agmanager.info/kfma/newsletters/research/solvencyratios.pdf

More information

HOW AGRICULTURAL PROPERTY

HOW AGRICULTURAL PROPERTY HOW AGRICULTURAL PROPERTY IS VALUED IN COLORADO We have prepared this brochure to explain how agricultural properties are valued for property tax purposes. For further information please visit our website

More information

EU Milk Margin Estimate up to 2014

EU Milk Margin Estimate up to 2014 Ref. Ares(215)2882499-9/7/215 EU Agricultural and Farm Economics Briefs No 7 June 215 EU Milk Margin Estimate up to 214 An overview of estimates of of production and gross margins of milk production in

More information

Agriculture Technology and The Future of Farming

Agriculture Technology and The Future of Farming Agriculture Technology and The Future of Farming It s Not Your Grandfather s Farm, Anymore Robert Tse USDA Rural Development Embassy Suites Hotel Monterey, CA January 29, 2015 It s Not Your Grandfather

More information

National Accounting Systems, Agricultural Statistics for Policy Analysis

National Accounting Systems, Agricultural Statistics for Policy Analysis National Accounting Systems, Agricultural Statistics for Policy Analysis Workshop on Measuring Sustainable Agriculture, Food Security and Poverty Alleviation for enhancing Accountability in the Post 2015

More information

Zoning to Support Local Food Systems. Craig Richardson Clarion Associates Chapel Hill, NC crichardson@clarionassociates.com

Zoning to Support Local Food Systems. Craig Richardson Clarion Associates Chapel Hill, NC crichardson@clarionassociates.com Zoning to Support Local Food Systems Craig Richardson Clarion Associates Chapel Hill, NC crichardson@clarionassociates.com Local Food Systems Regulatory Tools to Remove Barriers Bronze (Good) Silver (Better)

More information

Supporting Small Farm, Local Markets and Organic Agriculture in NY. Anu Rangarajan Dept of Horticulture Cornell Small Farms Program

Supporting Small Farm, Local Markets and Organic Agriculture in NY. Anu Rangarajan Dept of Horticulture Cornell Small Farms Program Supporting Small Farm, Local Markets and Organic Agriculture in NY Anu Rangarajan Dept of Horticulture Cornell Small Farms Program ABOUT THE PROGRAM. Our Mission.. A Few of Our Programs.. Small Farm Extension

More information

1400 Independence Avenue, SW. Room 2646-S, STOP 0268 Washington, DC 20250-0201 Applicant Name: BioAgriCert s.r.l. (BAC) Est. Number: N/A Physical Address: Via dei Macabraccia 8 40033 Casalechhio di Reno

More information

Zurich Staff Legal. Experienced. Collaborative. Focused on Results.

Zurich Staff Legal. Experienced. Collaborative. Focused on Results. Zurich Staff Legal Experienced. Collaborative. Focused on Results. Staff Legal How We Deliver We are located where you need us, with more than 250 attorneys in our national network of 48 offices that cover

More information

How Crop Insurance Works. The Basics

How Crop Insurance Works. The Basics How Crop Insurance Works The Basics Behind the Policy Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Board of Directors Approve Policies Policy changes General direction of program Risk Management Agency Administers

More information

Measuring Women Status And Gender Statistics in Cambodia Through the Surveys and Census

Measuring Women Status And Gender Statistics in Cambodia Through the Surveys and Census Global Forum on Gender Statistics 27 29 March 2012, Dead Sea, Jordan Measuring Women Status And Gender Statistics in Cambodia Through the Surveys and Census By Mrs. Hang Lina, Deputy Director General National

More information

Pasture Lease Agreement

Pasture Lease Agreement Pasture Lease Agreement This lease made in duplicate the day of, (month) BETWEEN (year) of, (Landlord's Name) (Address) in the County of Cleveland, North Carolina, hereinafter called the "Landlord", being

More information

TECHNICAL APPENDIX Investment in Water Resource Management

TECHNICAL APPENDIX Investment in Water Resource Management TECHNICAL APPENDIX Investment in Water Resource Management This information relates to applications for funding under the Water Resource Management strand of the Farm Competitiveness theme. There are separate

More information

Agricultural finance for smallholder farmers: Rethinking traditional microfinance risk and cost management approaches

Agricultural finance for smallholder farmers: Rethinking traditional microfinance risk and cost management approaches Agricultural finance for smallholder farmers: Rethinking traditional microfinance risk and cost management approaches With evidence from Uganda, Kenya, Benin and Cameroon Daniela Röttger Luxembourg, 13

More information

Highlights of Organic Issues within National Agric Policy (20013)

Highlights of Organic Issues within National Agric Policy (20013) Highlights of Organic Issues within National Agric Policy (20013) (Ministry of Agriculture Food Security and Cooperatives Tanzania By. Mibavu, G. M. 1 Outline i. Introduction ii. Opportunities on Organic

More information

United States Department of Agriculture. Office of Inspector General

United States Department of Agriculture. Office of Inspector General United States Department of Agriculture Office of Inspector General Farm Service Agency Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program Audit Report 03702-0001-31 What Were OIG s Objectives To assess whether

More information

A Seat at the Table: Resource Guide for Local Governments to Promote Food Secure Communities

A Seat at the Table: Resource Guide for Local Governments to Promote Food Secure Communities A Seat at the Table: Resource Guide for Local Governments to Promote Food Secure Communities How It Started In June 2008, the Provincial Health Services Authority, Union of BC Municipalities, and BC Healthy

More information

Characteristics of Private Farms and Family Farm Labour in Hungary by Settlement Size

Characteristics of Private Farms and Family Farm Labour in Hungary by Settlement Size Characteristics of Private Farms and Family Farm Labour in Hungary by Settlement Size Zsolt Andrási Drafter, HCSO E-mail: Zsolt.Andrasi@ksh.hu Pál Bóday Head of Section, HCSO E-mail: Pal.Boday@ksh.hu The

More information

Item 1 Cover Page. Ara Capital (ACap) Asset Management, Inc.

Item 1 Cover Page. Ara Capital (ACap) Asset Management, Inc. Item1 CoverPage AraCapital(ACap)AssetManagement,Inc. 15260VenturaBlvd.,Suite1200 ShermanOaks,CA91403 818.358.3823 www.acapam.com March2011 ThisBrochureprovidesinformationaboutthequalificationsandbusinesspracticesofAra

More information

LLC ENTITY FORMATION. This is a Questionnaire. The purpose of this Limited Liability Company questionnaire is

LLC ENTITY FORMATION. This is a Questionnaire. The purpose of this Limited Liability Company questionnaire is LLC ENTITY FORMATION This is a Questionnaire. The purpose of this Limited Liability Company questionnaire is for us to determine what must be done to form a proper LLC for you. Its purpose is to fully

More information

Agricultural Land Assessment. Valuation Procedure For Property Tax Purposes

Agricultural Land Assessment. Valuation Procedure For Property Tax Purposes Agricultural Land Assessment Valuation Procedure For Property Tax Purposes 1 Basic Formula Average Annual Net Cash Rental Capitalization Rate Land Full Cash Value 2 Valuation Statute 42-13101. Valuation

More information

Urban Farm Home School Program at Zenger Farm Spring 2015

Urban Farm Home School Program at Zenger Farm Spring 2015 Spring 2015 About the Program and Zenger Farm: Urban Farm Home School Program offers home schooled children ages 5.5** 12 the opportunity to experience the importance of healthy food, organic farming practices,

More information

Harvesting energy with fertilizers

Harvesting energy with fertilizers Harvesting energy with fertilizers Sustainable agriculture in Europe 1 Harvesting energy with fertilizers The reason for agriculture s existence is to supply energy to mankind. Agriculture converts solar

More information

Commercial Fruit Production. Essential Commercial Fruit Production Decisions

Commercial Fruit Production. Essential Commercial Fruit Production Decisions 2014 Farming For Profit Workshop Series Commercial Fruit Production Essential Commercial Fruit Production Decisions The questions in this document are intended to help you make the key decisions necessary

More information

GRP Rangeland Insurance For Wyoming

GRP Rangeland Insurance For Wyoming GRP Rangeland Insurance For Wyoming John Hewlett*, Joel Schumacher, James B. Johnson, and Gary W. Brester Objective Analysis for Informed Agricultural Marketing Policy Paper No. 8 October 2006 (Revised)

More information

NJALA UNIVERSITY ADVERTISEMENT, FOR 2014/15 ACADEMIC YEAR ADMISSIONS

NJALA UNIVERSITY ADVERTISEMENT, FOR 2014/15 ACADEMIC YEAR ADMISSIONS NJALA UNIVERSITY ADVERTISEMENT, FOR 2014/15 ACADEMIC YEAR ADMISSIONS Applications are hereby invited for admission into Certificate, Diploma, Undergraduate and Postgraduate Courses Tenable at Njala University

More information

Conditional Approval of a School Garden Food Source for San Diego Unified District

Conditional Approval of a School Garden Food Source for San Diego Unified District San Diego Unified School District Food Services Department Garden to Café Program County of San Diego Department of Environmental Health Food and Housing Division www.sandi.net/food www.sdcdeh.org 6735

More information

EZ/RC Census Tract NSP Table

EZ/RC Census Tract NSP Table - Population PCT_LOW - Percent of 2008 Population in Households At or Below 50% AI Page 1 of 47 CT 2008 Less Than 50% AI PCT_LOW Greene-Sumter, AL Renewal Community Greene County AL 063 974300 No Data

More information

When little becomes much! Jimma and Cornell Universities join hands in developing climate smart Programs in Ethiopia using US Embassy s seed grant

When little becomes much! Jimma and Cornell Universities join hands in developing climate smart Programs in Ethiopia using US Embassy s seed grant When little becomes much! Jimma and Cornell Universities join hands in developing climate smart Programs in Ethiopia using US Embassy s seed grant Figure 1: Degraded and restored landscapes Global climate

More information

Özet: - - - - - Abstract: Key words: Batman University Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 1, Number 1, (2012)

Özet: - - - - - Abstract: Key words: Batman University Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 1, Number 1, (2012) Özet: - - - - - Abstract: Key words: International participated Science and 125 - - - - - - - - Batman Üniversitesi - - - - - - - - - - International participated Science and - - - - - Batman Üniversitesi

More information

American Farmland Trust Conference Lexington, KY Oct. 21, 2014

American Farmland Trust Conference Lexington, KY Oct. 21, 2014 Economic Importance of Agriculture to Local Economies American Farmland Trust Conference Lexington, KY Oct. 21, 2014 The Impact of Agriculture on the Economy of Fayette Co., Kentucky Leigh Maynard University

More information

Edible Landscapes and Urban Agriculture in San Diego

Edible Landscapes and Urban Agriculture in San Diego Edible Landscapes and Urban Agriculture in San Diego First Lady Michelle Obama visits New Roots Garden in San Diego Fibonacci Corporate Garden at Alexandria Real Estate Equities Fresh produce on display

More information

Group Risk Income Protection

Group Risk Income Protection Group Risk Income Protection James B. Johnson and John Hewlett* Objective Analysis for Informed Agricultural Marketing Policy Paper No. 13 July 2006 Decision Making * University of Wyoming, Extension Educator

More information

1!of!5! www.reentryeducationnetwork.org!!!reentryeducationnetwork@gmail.com!

1!of!5! www.reentryeducationnetwork.org!!!reentryeducationnetwork@gmail.com! TheNewYorkReentryEducationNetworkPlatform: UsingthePowerofEducationtoTransformtheLivesofJustice@InvolvedNewYorkers EducationisIndividualandCommunityEmpowerment Accesstoeducationisoneofthemostpersonallyandfinanciallyempoweringwaysforpeople

More information

Grain Stocks Estimates: Can Anything Explain the Market Surprises of Recent Years? Scott H. Irwin

Grain Stocks Estimates: Can Anything Explain the Market Surprises of Recent Years? Scott H. Irwin Grain Stocks Estimates: Can Anything Explain the Market Surprises of Recent Years? Scott H. Irwin http://nationalhogfarmer.com/weekly-preview/1004-corn-controversies-hog-market http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/sb10001424052970203752604576641561657796544

More information

Investing In Our Communities.

Investing In Our Communities. Investing In Our Communities. Seattle s housing reality 2,813 people are living without shelter in Seattle. Over 45,000 Seattle households pay over half of their income on housing. Average rent for a 1-bedroom

More information

China and the WTO: Implications for Grain Trade. Dr. Thomas I. Wahl IMPACT Center Washington State University

China and the WTO: Implications for Grain Trade. Dr. Thomas I. Wahl IMPACT Center Washington State University China and the WTO: Implications for Grain Trade Dr. Thomas I. Wahl Center Washington State University Overview of Presentation Background Why are we interested in China Current trade situation Demographics

More information

HEALTH CARE IN THE HEARTLAND:

HEALTH CARE IN THE HEARTLAND: HEALTH CARE IN THE HEARTLAND: 2007 Health Insurance Survey of Missouri Farm and Ranch Operators Authors: Bill Lottero, Carol Pryor, and Mark Rukavina, The Access Project Jeffrey Prottas, Brandeis University,

More information

Personal Study Assignment #1: Inventory Assessment

Personal Study Assignment #1: Inventory Assessment The purpose of this activity is for you to conduct an inventory of your farm business assets. Think about your farm business and list all of the assets you own and/or control that make up the farm business.

More information

Connie Davis, MSN Executive Director Cherokee Nation Health Services

Connie Davis, MSN Executive Director Cherokee Nation Health Services Overview of the Cherokee Nation Health System & Efforts to Eradicate Diabetes and Obesity through Culturally Appropriate Treatment, Education, & Prevention Connie Davis, MSN Executive Director Cherokee

More information

Gardens in the Front Yard, Chickens in the Back Yard, and Living Lawnmowers: A Report on Urban Farming

Gardens in the Front Yard, Chickens in the Back Yard, and Living Lawnmowers: A Report on Urban Farming Gardens in the Front Yard, Chickens in the Back Yard, and Living Lawnmowers: A Report on Urban Farming Erin Hartigan Assistant County Attorney Lake County Sarah Taitt Assistant County Attorney Osceola

More information

Helping New Ag Producers Grow

Helping New Ag Producers Grow Helping New Ag Producers Grow Objectives Who is Northwest Farm Credit Services? What services do we provide? How are loan decision made? What are some obstacles our applicants face? Who is Northwest FCS?

More information

Impact Design: A Sustainable Design Process for Primary Schools in Africa

Impact Design: A Sustainable Design Process for Primary Schools in Africa Impact Design: A Sustainable Design Process for Primary Schools in Africa Michael Garrison, Professor of Architecture The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA ABSTRACT: In the summer of 2011

More information

Commodity Profile: Tomatoes, fresh market

Commodity Profile: Tomatoes, fresh market Agricultural Issues Center University of California Created October 25 Commodity Profile: Tomatoes, fresh market by Hayley Boriss, Junior Specialist Henrich Brunke, Assistant Specialist brunke@primal.ucdavis.edu

More information

Measuring the Economic Impact of Agritourism on Farms

Measuring the Economic Impact of Agritourism on Farms Measuring the Economic Impact of Agritourism on Farms Greg Thessen Director, Iowa Field Office USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service NASS an Agency within USDA USDA Organizational Chart Secretary

More information

CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Direct Farm Marketing and Risk Management

CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Direct Farm Marketing and Risk Management CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Direct Farm Marketing and Risk Management Consumer Buying and Eating Habits are Changing... 2 Managing Your Farm s Legal Liabilities is Critical for Direct Marketers... 3 How

More information

SOIL TEST LEVELS AND NUTRIENT BUDGETS IN THE WESTERN U.S.

SOIL TEST LEVELS AND NUTRIENT BUDGETS IN THE WESTERN U.S. SOIL TEST LEVELS AND NUTRIENT BUDGETS IN THE WESTERN U.S. Robert L. Mikkelsen and Paul E. Fixen Potash & Phosphate Institute ABSTRACT The status of potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) nutrient concentrations

More information

As stewards of the land, farmers must protect the quality of our environment and conserve the natural resources that sustain it by implementing

As stewards of the land, farmers must protect the quality of our environment and conserve the natural resources that sustain it by implementing N A T U R A L R E S O U R C E C O N S E R V A T I O N As stewards of the land, farmers must protect the quality of our environment and conserve the natural resources that sustain it by implementing conservation

More information

OLR RESEARCH REPORT ANALYSIS OF STATE SMALL BUSINESS LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAMS. By: Michelle Kirby, Associate Analyst

OLR RESEARCH REPORT ANALYSIS OF STATE SMALL BUSINESS LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAMS. By: Michelle Kirby, Associate Analyst OLR RESEARCH REPORT February 19, 2013 2013-R-0054 ANALYSIS OF STATE SMALL BUSINESS LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAMS By: Michelle Kirby, Associate Analyst You asked for an analysis of state small business loan guarantee

More information

Farmers for Chicago (FFC) - New Farmer Incubation Program

Farmers for Chicago (FFC) - New Farmer Incubation Program Farmers for Chicago (FFC) - New Farmer Incubation Program "We must strengthen and grow both rural AND urban farming to support a sustainable, secure food system for everyone Will Allen, Founder and CEO,

More information

Creating a Healthier Valley: Looking forward the next 100 years of Collaboration

Creating a Healthier Valley: Looking forward the next 100 years of Collaboration 2345 E. San Ramon Ave. MS MH 30 Fresno, CA 93740 559.278.4014 www.csufresno.edu/publichealth Creating a Healthier Valley: Looking forward the next 100 years of Collaboration A White Paper July 2012 1 Contents

More information

Arizona City Attorneys Association 2015 Annual Meeting. LAND USE ODDITIES Ellen Van Riper. Pigs can fly in the City of Phoenix

Arizona City Attorneys Association 2015 Annual Meeting. LAND USE ODDITIES Ellen Van Riper. Pigs can fly in the City of Phoenix Arizona City Attorneys Association 2015 Annual Meeting LAND USE ODDITIES Ellen Van Riper Pigs can fly in the City of Phoenix Not all land use regulations are found in your city s Zoning Ordinance. General

More information

ZAMBIA EMERGENCY HUMANITARIAN FOOD ASSISTANCE TO FLOOD VICTIMS

ZAMBIA EMERGENCY HUMANITARIAN FOOD ASSISTANCE TO FLOOD VICTIMS AFRICAN DE DEVELOPMENT BANK Prepared by: OSAN Original: English ZAMBIA EMERGENCY HUMANITARIAN FOOD ASSISTANCE TO FLOOD VICTIMS DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND AGRO-INDUSTRY, OSAN April 2008 The Government

More information

TAILORING CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE TO LOCAL CONTEXTS AND CONDITIONS OF SMALLHOLDER FARMERS IN AFRICA

TAILORING CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE TO LOCAL CONTEXTS AND CONDITIONS OF SMALLHOLDER FARMERS IN AFRICA TAILORING CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE TO LOCAL CONTEXTS AND CONDITIONS OF SMALLHOLDER FARMERS IN AFRICA Marc Corbeels, Bernard Triomphe, Pablo Tittonell, François Affholder, Rabah Lahmar, Eric Scopel, Véronique

More information

Baltimore Food Policy Initiative: A Catalyst to Address Health, Economic and Environmental Disparities

Baltimore Food Policy Initiative: A Catalyst to Address Health, Economic and Environmental Disparities Baltimore Food Policy Initiative: A Catalyst to Address Health, Economic and Environmental Disparities Mayor Stephanie Rawlings-Blake Baltimore City mayor@baltimorecity.gov August 29 th, 2014 Baltimore

More information

ZONING INFORMATION LIVESTOCK AND PASTURE MAINTENANCE STANDARDS

ZONING INFORMATION LIVESTOCK AND PASTURE MAINTENANCE STANDARDS City of Lewiston, Idaho Community Development Department Page 1 Section 37-195. Purpose. ZONING INFORMATION LIVESTOCK AND PASTURE MAINTENANCE STANDARDS The purpose of this article is to provide standards

More information

Brief Historical Background of Anglican Church of Rwanda

Brief Historical Background of Anglican Church of Rwanda ANGLICANE CHURCH OF RWANDA The Rwanda Context Rwanda is located in Central and East Africa with a population of approximately 11 million. It is a country dominated by hills known as the Country of thousand

More information

Leveraging the (re)insurance sector for financing integrated drought management practices

Leveraging the (re)insurance sector for financing integrated drought management practices Leveraging the (re)insurance sector for financing integrated drought management practices Roger Stone, University of Southern Queensland, Australia. World Meteorological Organisation, Commission for Agricultural

More information

Jennifer Lucas, RN, MSN, FNP-BC Jaclyn Taverna, RN, MSN, FNP-BC

Jennifer Lucas, RN, MSN, FNP-BC Jaclyn Taverna, RN, MSN, FNP-BC Jennifer Lucas, RN, MSN, FNP-BC Jaclyn Taverna, RN, MSN, FNP-BC Review current overweight and obesity national and international trends. Provide accurate non-biased information about food. Recognize that

More information

Submission to the Queensland Competition Authority. Regulated Retail Electricity Prices 2013-14 Transitional Issues & Cost Components and Other Issues

Submission to the Queensland Competition Authority. Regulated Retail Electricity Prices 2013-14 Transitional Issues & Cost Components and Other Issues Submission to the Queensland Competition Authority Transitional Issues & Cost Components and Other Issues January 2013 Queensland Farmers Federation Ltd. A.C.N. 055 764 488 A.B.N. 44 055 764 488 PO Box

More information

Maricopa Orchards, LLC Small Business ET16-0315

Maricopa Orchards, LLC Small Business ET16-0315 DELEGATION ORDER Approval Date: December 23, 2015 Training Proposal for: Maricopa Orchards, LLC Small Business ETP Regional Office: Sacramento Analyst: M. Jones CONTRACTOR Type of Industry: Agriculture

More information

Impact of Fuel Price Increases on Texas Crops

Impact of Fuel Price Increases on Texas Crops Impact of Fuel Price Increases on Texas Crops Chris R. Eggerman Research Assistant Department of Agricultural Economics Texas A&M University College Station, Texas 77843-2124 creggerman@ag.tamu.edu James

More information

Government Decree on Compensation for Damages Caused by Predatory Animals (277/2000; amendments up to 821/2001 included)

Government Decree on Compensation for Damages Caused by Predatory Animals (277/2000; amendments up to 821/2001 included) 1 NB: Unofficial translation Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Finland Government Decree on Compensation for Damages Caused by Predatory Animals (277/2000; amendments up to 821/2001 included) Chapter

More information

Salud America! The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Research Network to Prevent Obesity Among Latino Children

Salud America! The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Research Network to Prevent Obesity Among Latino Children Salud America! The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Research Network to Prevent Obesity Among Latino Children SUCCESS STORY: 2015 Learning Gardens Map Out Healthy Options In Florida, access to healthy food

More information

ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF NORTH CAROLINA AGRICULTURE AND AGRIBUSINESS

ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF NORTH CAROLINA AGRICULTURE AND AGRIBUSINESS ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF NORTH CAROLINA AGRICULTURE AND AGRIBUSINESS $76 BILLION Agriculture and Agribusiness, including the farming, processing, wholesaling and retailing of food, natural fiber and forestry

More information

Airport Transportation: The Search for Benefits of Rural Airports

Airport Transportation: The Search for Benefits of Rural Airports Airport Transportation: The Search for Benefits of Rural Airports Ken Casavant,, Eric Jessup, and Jon Newkirk School of Economic Sciences Washington State University The Project Commissioned by the WSDOT

More information

Grafik Başlığı. Grafik Başlığı. 1. How old are you? up to 25 44 up to 65 45 above 11

Grafik Başlığı. Grafik Başlığı. 1. How old are you? up to 25 44 up to 65 45 above 11 1. How old are you? up to 25 44 up to 65 45 above 11 up to 25 up to 65 above 2. Marital and family status: SINGLE 40 MARRIED/LONG TERM RELATIONSHIP60 KID 25 SINGLE MARRIED/LONG TERM RELATIONSHIP KID 3.

More information

Assess Your 2011 Tax Situation By: Bart Peters. Kentucky Farm Business Management Program

Assess Your 2011 Tax Situation By: Bart Peters. Kentucky Farm Business Management Program COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, LEXINGTON, KY, 40546 Agricultural Economics - Extension No. xxx KENTUCKY FARM BUSINESS MANAGEMENT PROGRAM STATE NEWSLETTER Vol.

More information

Single Family Housing

Single Family Housing Section 502/523/504 Programs Home Ownership Programs Section 502 Direct 100% Section 502 Guaranteed 100% Section 523 Self Help Program Home Repair Programs Section 504 Loan/Grant Program Section 502 Direct

More information

San Jacinto County Appraisal District PO Box 1170 Coldspring, Texas 77331 936-653-1450 936-653-5271 (Fax)

San Jacinto County Appraisal District PO Box 1170 Coldspring, Texas 77331 936-653-1450 936-653-5271 (Fax) San Jacinto County Appraisal District PO Box 1170 Coldspring, Texas 77331 936-653-1450 936-653-5271 (Fax) (Referenced) Property Tax Code Section 23.51 Guidelines to Qualify for 1-d-1 Open Space Land Appraisal

More information

Fayette County Appraisal District

Fayette County Appraisal District Fayette County Appraisal District Agricultural Guidelines July 7, 2010 A SUPPLEMENT TO THE STATE OF TEXAS PROPERTY TAX MANUAL FOR THE APPRAISAL OF AGRICULTUAL LAND AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES AND

More information

Federal Crop Insurance: The Basics

Federal Crop Insurance: The Basics Federal Crop Insurance: The Basics Presented by Shawn Wade Director of Communications Plains Cotton Growers, Inc. 4517 West Loop 289 Lubbock, TX 79414 WWW.PLAINSCOTTON.ORG Why Federal Crop Insurance? Every

More information

Looking to the Future: 4 Danish scenarios for future farming

Looking to the Future: 4 Danish scenarios for future farming Looking to the Future: 4 Danish scenarios for future farming Christian Ege, Danish Ecological Council Tommy Dalgaard, Aarhus University Alex Dubgaard, University of Copenhagen 1 A Danish project: Future

More information

Agricultural Conservation Easements and Farmland Trusts

Agricultural Conservation Easements and Farmland Trusts Agricultural Conservation Easements and Farmland Trusts Maxwell Norton, Program Leader Agricultural Productivity UC Agriculture and Natural Resources Ag Conservation Easements (ACE) Similar to selling

More information

Public health agencies alone cannot assure the nation s health. Nation Prevention Council A premium on cross sector efforts. Health Determinants

Public health agencies alone cannot assure the nation s health. Nation Prevention Council A premium on cross sector efforts. Health Determinants DESIGN FOR PUBLIC HEALTH: HOW TO INTEGRATE PUBLIC HEALTH AND PLANNING Steve White, MURP, Oregon Public Health Institute Amalia Leighton, PE, SvR Design Kara Martin, MUP, Urban Food Link Brendon Haggerty,

More information

Animal Welfare During a Disease Outbreak. Dr. Patrick Webb Director, Swine Health Programs

Animal Welfare During a Disease Outbreak. Dr. Patrick Webb Director, Swine Health Programs Animal Welfare During a Disease Outbreak Dr. Patrick Webb Director, Swine Health Programs Making the A List.. 1 Economic Impacts of FMD Center for Agricultural and Rural Development Food and Agricultural

More information

MSU Extension s high-quality and affordable educational opportunities

MSU Extension s high-quality and affordable educational opportunities MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION CATALOG Food & Health MSU Extension s high-quality and affordable educational opportunities promote healthy lifestyles and empower Michigan residents to take control

More information

CARMEL PLACE, NEW YORK, NY

CARMEL PLACE, NEW YORK, NY CARMEL PLACE, NEW YORK, NY Carmel Place (formerly known as MY MICRO NY), winner of the adapt NYC competition, optimizes modular construction to provide the city with housing solutions for the expanding

More information

Technical/Business Planning: For Small-Scale Oilseed Processing and Biodiesel Production

Technical/Business Planning: For Small-Scale Oilseed Processing and Biodiesel Production Agricultural Marketing Resource Center Value-added Agriculture Profile Iowa State University November 2008 Technical/Business Planning: For Small-Scale Oilseed Processing and Biodiesel Production By Gary

More information

JAN 2 2 2016 AUTHORIZING THE ISSUANCE OF SPECIAL PURPOSE REVENUE BONDS FOR HAWAII RENEWABLE RESOURCES, LLC.

JAN 2 2 2016 AUTHORIZING THE ISSUANCE OF SPECIAL PURPOSE REVENUE BONDS FOR HAWAII RENEWABLE RESOURCES, LLC. THE SENATE TWENTY-EIGHTH LEGISLATURE, 0 STATE OF HAWAII JAN 0 A BILL FOR AN ACT S.B. NO. %7 AUTHORIZING THE ISSUANCE OF SPECIAL PURPOSE REVENUE BONDS FOR HAWAII RENEWABLE RESOURCES, LLC. BE IT ENACTED

More information

Building Agribusiness Risk Management System: Strategy and Stages of Development

Building Agribusiness Risk Management System: Strategy and Stages of Development Building Agribusiness Risk Management System: Strategy and Stages of Development Roman Shynkarenko Agricultural Insurance and Risk Management Consultant Most Ukrainian experts in agricultural risks insurance

More information

Top 10 Problems with the Food and Drug Administration s Proposed Food Safety Regulations for Farmers and Local Food Businesses

Top 10 Problems with the Food and Drug Administration s Proposed Food Safety Regulations for Farmers and Local Food Businesses Top 10 Problems with the Food and Drug Administration s Proposed Food Safety Regulations for Farmers and Local Food Businesses 1. They re too expensive. The rules could cost farmers over half of their

More information

Appendix D Examples of Community Food Projects by Type of Project

Appendix D Examples of Community Food Projects by Type of Project Appendix D Examples of Community Food Projects by Type of Project Food Assessments The Fresno Fresh Access Project was funded at $200,000 for 2 years. The grantee organization was the Fresno Metropolitan

More information

Resources for Wisconsin Farmers

Resources for Wisconsin Farmers Resources for Wisconsin Farmers The following web-based resource links can get you started in identifying sources of information for your farm. This is a short list focused on Wisconsin sustainable agriculture.

More information

Food Security in a Volatile World

Food Security in a Volatile World Issues in Brief Food Security in a Volatile World Developments in agriculture over the last fifty years have increased yields sufficiently to provide on average more than enough food for every person on

More information

Photo & Image Sources

Photo & Image Sources Photo & Image Sources Module 1 GIS Overview GIS Layers image: MapCruzin.com http://www.mapcruzin.com/what-is-gis.htm 2D Map image: ESRI http://www.esri.com/news/arcnews/winter0607articles/winter0607gifs/p15p1.jpg

More information

11th International Conference on Urban Drainage, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, 2008 communities where livelihoods are more vulnerable with virtually all the members of the community suffering because of food

More information

Figure 1: Gini coefficient

Figure 1: Gini coefficient 0.50 Figure 1: Gini coefficient Gini coefficient 0.45 0.40 0.35 0.30 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Source: Kopczuk, Saez, Song QJE'10: Wage earnings inequality Year All Workers Men Women Top 10% Pre-

More information

What is a Community Development Entity?

What is a Community Development Entity? Overview What are New Markets Tax Credits? > First federal tax credit program to stimulate commercial investment in low-income communities > The program is administered by the US Treasury Department through

More information

Food Hubs In Georgia A Baseline Survey 2012

Food Hubs In Georgia A Baseline Survey 2012 Food Hubs In Georgia A Baseline Survey 2012 Authors: Marc Beechuk University of Georgia Environmental Planning & Design Julia Gaskin University of Georgia College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences

More information

International competitiveness of small scale dairy farms in India/Pakistan

International competitiveness of small scale dairy farms in India/Pakistan International competitiveness of small scale dairy farms in India/Pakistan Khalid Mahmood, A. Saha 1, O. Gracia 1, T. Hemme 1 Abstract The paper answers the key questions about the economic situation of

More information

r:u ~ a custom farming contract (9 none of the above @ all the above types of credit are types of credit commercial banks provide c!

r:u ~ a custom farming contract (9 none of the above @ all the above types of credit are types of credit commercial banks provide c! --" Economics 330 Fall 2004 Exam 3 Name r:u Part I: Multiple Choice. Circle the best answer. (3 points each) 1. Advantages of land ownership would include: a. frees up working capital, operation size is

More information

The Triple Bottom Line Revisited

The Triple Bottom Line Revisited The Triple Bottom Line Revisited Rita Singh Director of Policy www.cynnalcymru.com www.sustainwales.com Follow us on Twitter Dilynwch ni ar Twitter @CynnalCymru @RitaSingh 02920 19 20 21 The Triple Bottom

More information

Peasant Welfare in England 1290-1348

Peasant Welfare in England 1290-1348 Peasant Welfare in England 1290-1348 Determine Welfare Means different things in different historical periods Basic to all time periods Access to Land Income Shelter/Rents Clothing Food Taxes Why Care

More information

SOLAR FOR AGRICULTURE MADE SIMPLE

SOLAR FOR AGRICULTURE MADE SIMPLE Yo u r C e n t r a l V a l l e y S o l a r E x p e r t s SOLAR FOR AGRICULTURE MADE SIMPLE SOLAR FOR AG It s what I know I can milk every day. I don t have to feed it, and I know it s going to keep making

More information