1 5650 & 5700 Yonge Street, Toronto Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report June 19, 2013
2 Page 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 2 2 PURPOSE 3 3 ORGANIZATION PROFILE 3 4 GHG INVENTORY BOUNDARIES Organizational Boundaries Operational Boundaries Direct GHG Emissions Energy Indirect GHG Emissions Other Indirect GHG Emissions GHG Removals and Biomass Combustion Base year GHG Inventory 7 5 INVENTORY QUANTIFICATION Natural Gas Diesel Electricity 9 6 GHG INVENTORY RESULTS Emissions Emissions Reductions Inventory Uncertainty 13 7 QUALITY MANAGEMENT Information Management Document Retention and Record Keeping 15 8 GHG INVENTORY VERIFICATION 16 APPENDICES Appendix A Greenhouse Gas Inventory Appendix B Activity Data and Emission Factors Appendix C Standard Reporting Declaration
3 Page 2 1 SUMMARY Manulife Financial (Manulife) is registering 5650 & 5700 Yonge Street, Toronto (North American Centre) in the Canada Green Building Council (CaGBC) LEED Canada for Existing Building: Operations and Maintenance Program (LEED-EB) and is targeting the rating system s Energy and Atmosphere Credit 6: Emissions Reduction Reporting (EAc6) 1. To qualify for EAc6, Manulife is reporting the building s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in a public GHG registry. North American Centre is owned and managed by Manulife, which has retained Halsall Associates (Halsall) to manage North American Centre s LEED submission. Loop Initiatives (Loop) is the agent to Manulife and is responsible for the completion of North American Centre s GHG inventory and reporting in accordance with CAN/CSA-ISO Standard Halsall has provided Loop with property specific information to complete the Emissions Reduction credit submission. 3P Analysis and Consulting has been engaged to provide independent third party verification of the building s GHG inventory. This report details North American Centre s GHG inventory. A GHG inventory lists the sources 3 of GHG emissions and the quantity of emissions released from each source during the reporting year 4. North American Centre emitted 5,425 tonnes of CO2e for the May 1, 2012 to April 30, 2013 reporting year. Direct GHG (scope 1) emissions account for 29% of the reported emissions from building energy use. Energy indirect GHG (scope 2) emissions account for 71% of the reported emissions. No indirect GHG emissions (scope 3) were reported. Please refer to section 6 and Appendix A for North American Centre s detailed GHG inventory. The GHG inventory has been developed in accordance with CAN/CSA-ISO Standard Greenhouse Gases - Part 1: Specification with Guidance at the Organization Level for Quantification and Reporting of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Removals. In addition, the team has consulted the World Resource Institute (WRI) / World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) Standard: Greenhouse Gas Protocol: A Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard 5 and CAN/CSA-ISO Standard Greenhouse Gases - Part 3: Specification with Guidance for the Validation of Greenhouse Gas Assertions as additional resources. 1 LEED Canada for Existing Buildings: Operations and Maintenance 2009 Reference Guide. 2009, Canada Green Building Council. 2 CAN/CSA ISO Part 1: Specification with guidance at the organization level for quantification and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and removals. March 2006, International Standards Organization. 3 Examples of GHG sources include consumption of natural gas for space and water heating and electricity consumption for building system operations, lighting and plug loads. 4 The reporting period is defined as the one year duration for which the quantity of GHG emissions from all sources is calculated. 5 Greenhouse Gas Protocol: A Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard. March World Resources Institute and World Business Council for Sustainable Development.
4 Page 3 2 PURPOSE Manulife has made a commitment to incorporate sustainability in to the ongoing operation of its building at 5650 & 5700 Yonge Street, Toronto. One important initiative is to participate in LEED-EB, which, among others, includes evaluating building energy, water efficiency and GHG emissions. To achieve LEED-EB credit EAc6, Manulife is reporting North American Centre s verified GHG emissions to the CSA CleanStart TM Registry. 3 ORGANIZATION PROFILE North American Centre, located in Toronto, Ontario, is comprised of two office towers (5650 & 5700 Yonge Street) located on a single site and physically connected by a sub-grade retail concourse that includes a variety of shops, small restaurants and a fitness centre. The below grade parking garage has five levels and is shared by both towers and the concourse Yonge Street has 23 storeys and was built with the concourse in Yonge Street has 21 storeys and was built in The building is owned and operated by Manulife. As reported by Halsall, North American Centre has an occupancy rate of 94% and a gross floor area (GFA) of 1,410,000 sq.ft. This includes: 1,256,000 sq.ft. of occupied office space (89% of GFA) 80,000 sq.ft. of vacant office space (6% of GFA) 35,000 sq.ft. of retail concourse (2% of GFA) 30,000 sq.ft. of fitness centre (2% of GFA) 6,000 sq.ft. of data centre (<1% of GFA) 3,000 sq.ft. of medical space (<1% of GFA) North American Centre also has 785,000 sq.ft. of underground parking (not included in GFA). 6 Other building characteristics that influence the energy use and GHG emissions are: Building Automaton System (BAS) and Controls o Each tower has a BAS operated through a Johnsons Controls METASYS system, retrofitted in 2005, which controls the central plant system, air handling units (AHUs), and pumps o Pneumatic control of terminal Variable Air Volume (VAV) boxes and heating units Heating Systems o Each tower has a central heating plant located in its mechanical penthouse with four natural gas hot water boilers that supply hot water to terminal units o The concourse is heated 60% by 5650 Yonge and 40% by 5700 Yonge o Mechanical rooms, loading docks, service rooms and corridors are heated by terminal heating units controlled by local thermostats Cooling Systems o Each tower has a central cooling plant located in its mechanical penthouse with chillers, a heat exchanger and cooling towers; all chillers use R-123 refrigerant o Pumps distribute chilled water to each tower s terminal units o The concourse is cooled 60% by 5650 Yonge and 40% by 5700 Yonge 6 Gross floor area is calculated using the Energy Star TM definition, which excludes parking areas.
5 Page 4 Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems o Each tower has a central make-up air unit (MAU) located in its mechanical penthouse that introduces and tempers outdoor air; fan rooms introduce fresh air on tower floors o Local thermostats control terminal VAV boxes Exhaust Systems o Each tower floor has exhaust fans for the core washrooms, electrical/mechanical rooms, life safety smoke exhaust o The parking garage is ventilated by exhaust fans controlled by the BAS via carbon monoxide sensors; fresh air is introduced through central open airways Lighting Systems o All lighting is controlled by a GE system with time of day scheduling and local overrides o The majority of office lighting is provided by fixtures with two 3ft T8 25W lamps o Photocells are used to control the perimeter lights and lobby bridge lights o Parking garage lighting is provided by fixtures with two 4ft T8 25W lamps 7 North American Centre is occupied by approximately 40 tenants with 4,700 staff members. Figure 1 shows the breakdown of leased floor area by industry sector. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Financial Services 62% Government 24% Business Services 10% Retail Fitness Centre Legal Services Other 3% <1% <1% <1% Medical Services <1% Figure 1: Breakdown of North American Centre's Leased Floor Area by Industry Sector 7 While parking area is not included in the gross floor area, energy associated with parking garage lighting and conditioning is included in total building energy use, as per Energy StarTM definitions. This methodology ensures that all site energy is captured and that large parking garages do not overly reduce the energy intensity of the main building.
6 Page 5 4 GHG INVENTORY BOUNDARIES 4.1 Organizational Boundaries For any GHG inventory, an organizational boundary is used to determine how GHG emissions are accounted for and reported. Typically, one of the following approaches is used 8 : Equity share approach: accounts for GHG emissions based on share of equity in the operation Financial control approach: accounts for GHG emissions based on the financial control over the operation Operational control approach: accounts for GHG emissions based on the control of operations CAN/CSA-ISO Standard Section 4.1 states that the organization may use a different consolidation methodology where specific arrangements are defined by a GHG program or legal contract. Since LEED-EB evaluates buildings rather than organizations, to meet EAc6 requirements the physical North American Centre building was used as a physical boundary, rather than using one of the organizational boundaries described above. As such, the emissions from the base building equipment and the tenant equipment (including HVAC energy, tenant plug loads and refrigerant GHG emissions) are included in the GHG inventory without taking into consideration whether Manulife or the tenants have control or ownership. In addition, since LEED-EB credit EAc6 does not take transportation into consideration, emissions from building owned or leased vehicles are excluded from the inventory. 4.2 Operational Boundaries Operational boundaries are defined to prevent double counting of reported emissions. These boundaries can be separated into the following three emission types: Direct GHG emissions (scope 1): emissions released from sources owned or controlled by the building. They may include fuel combustion, refrigerants emissions, and generation of electricity, steam or heat in equipment. Energy Indirect GHG emissions (scope 2): indirect emissions from the generation of purchased energy for the building. They may include the purchase of electricity, steam and/or chilled water). Other Indirect GHG emissions (scope 3): emissions that are released from activities outside the organizational boundaries of the building. They may include business travel, employee commuting, third party manufacture of materials and resources, outsourced services, and transmission and/or distribution losses from the electricity network. 8 Greenhouse Gas Protocol: A Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard. March World Resources Institute and World Business Council for Sustainable Development.
7 Page Direct GHG Emissions Direct GHG emissions released from sources at the building level include emissions from the combustion of natural gas and diesel and the release of refrigerant gases. Natural gas is supplied by Enbridge Gas Distribution (Enbridge). Consumption is measured from two main meters, one servicing each tower. As reported in Halsall s energy breakdown calculations, all natural gas use is for heating. As reported by Halsall, five chillers containing refrigerant R-123 are on site. All chillers were converted from R-11 to R-123 in As R-123 is not identified as a greenhouse gas in CAN/CSA- ISO Standard or the WRI/WBCSD Greenhouse Gas Protocol Corporate Standard, it has not been included in this GHG inventory. Manulife also provided chiller maintenance logs stating there was no refrigerant top up on these units in Manulife confirmed that there were no PFC s or SF6 s in the building. There are three diesel generators on site. At 5650 Yonge, there is one generator with a 750 gallon holding tank and a second generator with two 1000 gallon holding tanks. At 5700 Yonge, the third generator has a 750 gallon holding tank. Diesel generator top up reports were provided by Manulife for May 2011 to Oct Manulife confirmed their usage schedule for the diesel generator has been similar for the past two years. As a result, diesel consumption for the remainder of the reporting period (Nov 2012 to April 2013) has been estimated based on historical consumption from Nov 2011 to Apr As transportation emissions are excluded in LEED-EB credit EAc6, direct emissions from Manulife owned or leased vehicles are not included in the GHG inventory. 4.4 Energy Indirect GHG Emissions The GHG inventory includes North American Centre s indirect GHG emissions inventory from electricity. Imported chilled water and steam are not used in the building. Electricity at North American Centre is purchased from Toronto Hydro-Electric System Ltd (Toronto Hydro). Consumption is measured from one main meter servicing both towers. As reported by Halsall s energy breakdown calculations, the building s energy breakdown is shown in Figure 2 below.
8 Page 7 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% Heating (Natural Gas) Office Equipment Cooling Lighting Fans Data Centre Pumps Elevators Electric Hot Water 1% 2% 7% 8% 11% 16% 16% 17% 22% 4.5 Other Indirect GHG Emissions Figure 2: Energy Breakdown Other indirect GHG emissions are not included as part of the GHG inventory. 4.6 GHG Removals and Biomass Combustion GHG removals or combustion of biomass are not present at North American Centre. 4.7 Base year GHG Inventory Emissions are calculated for the reporting period May 1, 2012 to April 30, 2013 to meet LEED-EB s 12 month performance period requirement. Since this is the first year that the North American Centre GHG emissions are calculated, this GHG inventory describes the building s base year 9 emissions. Future annual inventories should be compared to this year to track the results of emissions reduction efforts. 9 The base year is the first reporting period for which a GHG inventory is completed.
9 Page 8 5 INVENTORY QUANTIFICATION The GHG inventory calculation requires two general types of data. As per CAN/CSA-ISO Standard Section 4.3.6, we obtained the appropriate activity data and emission factor to apply to the following equation: activity data x emission factor = GHG emissions Activity data was collected from site electricity and natural gas bills. Emission factors from Canada s latest National Inventory Report ( ) 10 were used. This methodology was chosen as it is impractical to directly measure GHG emissions in a situation like this. 5.1 Natural Gas Activity Data Activity data for natural gas is based on Enbridge monthly natural gas bills. Natural gas consumption is metered and reported by the natural gas in cubic metres (m 3 ) Emission Factor 5.2 Diesel Loop used the National Inventory Report ( ) 8 natural gas emission factors to calculate North American Centre s GHG emissions. Ontario-specific CO2 emission factors from Part 2, Annex 8, Table A8-1 were used. Since CH4 and N2O emissions are dependent on a specific sector rather than regional fuel properties, national commercial CH4 and N2O data from Part 2, Annex 8, Table A8-2 were used. The natural gas emission factor units are in metric kilograms of emission per m Activity Data Activity data for diesel is based on top up reports from an outside service provider (Sipco), provided by Manulife from May 2011 to Oct The diesel tanks were typically topped up every quarter. Manulife confirmed that their usage schedule for the diesel generators was similar for the past two years. As a result, missing diesel consumption for Nov 2012 to April 2013 has been estimated based on the historical consumption between Nov 2011 and Apr The quantity of diesel is reported in litres (L) Emission Factor Loop used the National Inventory Report ( ) 8 diesel emission factors. The calculations used CO2, CH4 and N2O emission factors from the National Inventory Report s Part 2, Annex 8, Table A8-4. The diesel emission factor is measured in metric tonnes emission per L. 10 National Inventory Report ( ) Greenhouse Gas Sources and Sinks in Canada. April 2013, Environment Canada GHG division.
10 Page Electricity Activity Data Activity data for electricity is based on Toronto Hydro monthly electricity bills. Electricity is provided through one main meter to North American Centre. Electricity consumption is metered and reported on by the electricity utility in unadjusted kwh as required by Energy Star and this inventory Emission Factor Loop used the National Inventory Report ( ) 8 electricity emission factors. As Manulife is reporting on a building in Ontario, the calculations used provincial CO2, CH4 and N2O emission factors from the National Inventory Report s Part 3, Annex 13, Table A13-7. The finalised 2010 emission factors found in the 2013-published inventory are used emission factors are not used since they are preliminary. The electricity emission factor is measured in metric grams emission per kwh. Published electricity grid emission factors do not account for Transmission and Distribution (T & D) losses. As per the Greenhouse Gas Protocol, companies that purchase electricity from a T & D grid but do not own any part of the system should not include T & D losses in a scope 2 inventory. For this reason, T & D losses have not been included in the calculations for North American Centre. Refer to Appendix B for summary of data collection sources and emission factor sources.
11 Page 10 6 GHG INVENTORY RESULTS 6.1 Emissions Total emissions at North American Centre during the May 1, 2012 to April 30, 2013 reporting year are 5,425 tonnes of CO2e. Emissions come from direct and indirect sources. Building electricity, natural gas and diesel consumption account for 100% of North American Centre s emissions (3,874 tco2e, 1,531 tco2e and 20 tco2e, respectively). CO2 emissions account for 99% of the total GHG emissions (5,381 tco2e). CH4 and N2O emissions are small (7 tco2e and 37 tco2e, respectively), accounting for less than 1% of total GHG emissions. However, they are included in the greenhouse gas inventory to meet CAN/CSA-ISO requirements. The breakdown of emissions by source and type of GHG is shown in Figure 3, presented in tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents (tco2e). See Table A1.2 in Appendix A for more details. Emissions (tco 2 e) ,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 Electricity (71%) Natural Gas (28%) Diesel (<1%) CO2 N2O CH4 CO 2 N 2 O CH 4 Figure 3: North American Centre Greenhouse Gases by Emission Source North American Centre s emissions relate to the approximately 37,500,000 ekwh consumed over the course of the reporting year. The trending by month is shown in Figure CAN/CSA ISO Part 1: Specification with guidance at the organization level for quantification and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and removals. March 2006, International Standards Organization.
12 Page 11 4,500,000 Equivalent kilowatt hour (ekwh) 4,000,000 3,500,000 3,000,000 2,500,000 2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000, ,000 Diesel Natural Gas Electricity 0 Figure 4: North American Centre Energy Consumption by Month and Source With a carbon intensity of 3.9 kg CO2e/sq.ft., North American Centre s carbon performance is similar to the average Toronto office building in Halsall and Loop s building performance database. The carbon intensity of comparable Toronto buildings ranges between 2.1 kg CO2e/sq.ft. and 7.5 kg CO2e/sq.ft., averaging at 3.9 kg CO2e/sq.ft. (Figure 5). 8 Highest intensity kgco 2 e/sq.ft. 7 GHG Intensity (kgco 2 e/sq.ft.) Average intensity kgco 2 e/sq.ft. Lowest intensity kgco 2 e/sq.ft. North American Centre 1 0 Figure 5: GHG Intensity for Comparable Toronto Office Buildings Halsall Associates/Loop Initiatives Energy and Carbon database ( ). Intensity is calculated using the Energy Star TM definition of total site energy use and gross floor area. Data is not weather normalized.
13 Page Emissions Reductions North American Centre is focusing on energy saving measures to achieve GHG emissions reductions. As reported by Halsall Associates, completed energy saving measures in the May 1, 2012 to April 30, 2013 reporting period include: Installing motion sensors in the parking garage (2012) Installing variable speed drives on all cooling tower fans (2012) These energy saving measures likely contributed to 128 tonnes of CO2e (2%) savings due to reduced electricity consumption compared to the previous 12 months. However, natural gas consumption increased significantly (26%) during the cold winter of the May 1, 2012 to April 30, 2013 reporting year compared to the previous 2011 to 2012 winter, which was Canada s third warmest winter in 65 years of records 13. GHG emissions due to natural gas consumption increased by 402 tonnes CO2e (7%). Total GHG emissions in the reporting year increased by 274 tonnes CO2e (5%) compared to the previous 12 months. The following table outlines future energy saving measures that North American Centre is considering to undertake to reduce GHG emissions; the associated annual emissions reductions are estimated. 13 Environment Canada (2012). Canada's Top Ten Weather Stories for Available online:
14 Page 13 Table 1: Estimated Emissions Reductions for Future Energy Saving Measures 14 Energy Saving Measure Potential Electricity Savings Potential Natural Gas Savings Estimated Emissions Reductions (kwh/yr) (m 3 /yr) (tco2e /yr) 5650 and 5700 Yonge: Retro-Commissioning 1,300,000 29, and 5700: Specify Efficient Condensing Boilers at Time of - 88, Replacement 5650 and 5700 Yonge: Add Variable Speed Drives to select Supply Fans and Return Fans, and Pumps 769, and 5700 Yonge: Implement Daytime Cleaning 660, and 5700: Relamp Office Lighting 590, Yonge: Eliminate Re-Cooling at SF-29, SF-30 and SF-33 by Controlling Heating Coil Pumps 75,000 18, Remove Wall-Mounted Parking Garage Lights 270, Yonge: Specify High-Efficiency Chiller at Time of Replacement 100, Yonge: Prevent Simultaneous Heating and Cooling at SF30-4, Yonge: Tighten Smoke Damper Seals at Compartment Units 10,000 2,100 5 Upgrade Exterior Wall-Pack Lights to LED 5, Yonge: Adjust Photocell Controlling the Bridge Lighting 2,400 - <1 Total 3,782, , Inventory Uncertainty 15 Table 2 presents our opinion of the level of uncertainty related to this GHG inventory. Our opinion of uncertainty is based on Table 3: Certainty Ranking for Common Emission Sources, found in Measurement and Estimation Uncertainty of GHG Emissions by the Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative. Table 2: Uncertainty Ranking Major Emission Category Natural Gas Diesel Electricity Certainty Ranking High The meter is calibrated and verified by Enbridge Gas Distribution. Natural gas emission factors are less dependent on location and are almost always standard and accurate. Uncertainty may be derived from fluctuations in measurement equipment. Fair- Diesel top up bills were provided by Manulife for May 2011 to Oct Manulife confirmed that similar usage patterns occurred during the reporting year. Missing diesel consumption for Nov 2012 to Apr 2013 is estimated from Nov 2011 to Apr 2012 values. Fair The emission factor is based on an annual provincial grid average, containing multiple fuel sources such as coal, natural gas, hydro and nuclear. 14 Estimates for electricity and natural gas savings come from the ASHRAE Level II Energy Audit Report, March 2013, Halsall Associates. 15 Measurement and Estimation Uncertainty of GHG Emissions. 2003, The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative.
15 Page 14 7 QUALITY MANAGEMENT 7.1 Information Management In an effort to maintain a credible GHG inventory, roles and responsibilities were assigned to ensure consistency, accuracy, completeness, transparency and conformance with CAN/CSA-ISO Standard Name Role Company Owen George Operations Manager Manulife Financial Responsibilities: To provide Halsall/Loop with required energy data (natural gas, diesel and electricity bills) To provide Halsall with refrigerant data information To approve and sign the CSA CleanStart TM Registry application form Name Role Company Adrien Deveau Project Principal Halsall Associates 16 Regan Smith Project Manager Halsall Associates Matthew Hirsch Project Associate (Energy) Halsall Associates Caleb Parker Project Associate Halsall Associates Responsibilities: To provide Loop with required energy data (via utility bills) To provide Loop with refrigerant data information Name Role Company Doug Webber Project Director Loop Initiatives Ian McVey Project Manager Loop Initiatives Morghain Gibbons Project Analyst Loop Initiatives Responsibilities: To request and analyze received activity data for acceptable accuracy, to collect appropriate emission factors and perform GHG calculations To produce a report consistent with both the CSA CleanStart TM Registry requirements and CAN/CSA-ISO Standard Name Role Company Evan Jones Independent Verifier 3P Analysis and Consulting Responsibilities: To verify that the Loop report meets CSA CleanStart TM Registry requirements and CAN/CSA-ISO Standard To issue a verification statement 16 Halsall Associates is the LEED-EB Consultant for North American Centre
16 Page Document Retention and Record Keeping The following activities, conducted by the property management company, maintain a credible GHG inventory and reporting: Manulife should continue to record North American Centre s natural gas, electricity, diesel and refrigerant costs and consumption Manulife should keep this GHG inventory report for its records as it contains boundary definitions, emission factors, base year activity data, refrigerant history, and GHG emission quantities. This information is required should Manulife choose to again register North American Centre with the CSA CleanStart TM Registry or externally report on its emissions
17 Page 16 8 GHG INVENTORY VERIFICATION Evan Jones from 3P Analysis and Consulting was engaged to provide independent third party verification as per CAN/CSA-ISO Standard The verification is completed at a reasonable level of assurance. Loop prepared for North American Centre s verification by: Engaging a third party verifier to provide a reasonable level of assurance Agreeing to verification objectives, scope, materiality and criteria with the verifier Reviewing each section using the CSA Registry checklist Using an internal review process for quality control for the inventory and the document Clarifying anomalous data with Halsall Associates Third party verification is required by LEED-EB. This provides an impartial and objective review of the reported GHG emissions. Reporting content summary for declarations to the CSA standard is presented in Appendix C. We hope this report will assist Manulife to successfully manage and further reduce North American Centre s GHG emissions. If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact us at (416) and (416) Yours truly, LOOP INITIATIVES Ian McVey, MES, BComm Doug Webber Project Manager Project Director
18 Appendix A Greenhouse Gas Inventory Page A1 APPENDIX A GREENHOUSE GAS INVENTORY A.1 Emissions Table A1.1: Summary by Source Greenhouse Gas Inventory Base Year (May 1, 2012 to April 30, 2013) Source and Fuel Quantity of Activity Activity Unit Emissions (t CO2e) DIRECT GHG EMISSIONS Natural Gas May-12 1,884 m 3 4 Jun m 3 1 Jul m 3 0 Aug m 3 0 Sep-12 8,051 m 3 15 Oct-12 70,899 m Nov ,853 m Dec ,898 m Jan ,155 m Feb ,782 m Mar ,732 m Apr-13 41,976 m 3 79 Total Natural Gas 809,961 m 3 1,531 Diesel May-12 0 L 0 Jun-12 0 L 0 Jul-12 0 L 0 Aug-12 1,167 L 3 Sep-12 0 L 0 Oct-12 2,292 L 6 Nov-12 0 L 0 Dec-12 0 L 0 Jan-13 0 L 0 Feb-13 3,768 L 11 Mar-13 0 L 0 Apr-13 0 L 0 Total Diesel 7,228 L 20
19 Appendix A Greenhouse Gas Inventory Page A2 Source and Fuel Quantity of Activity Activity Unit Emissions (tco2e) ENERGY INDIRECT EMISSIONS Electricity - Mixed Fossil Fuels May-12 2,556,978 kwh 340 Jun-12 2,614,680 kwh 348 Jul-12 2,827,277 kwh 376 Aug-12 2,738,707 kwh 365 Sep-12 2,405,203 kwh 320 Oct-12 2,356,258 kwh 314 Nov-12 2,251,451 kwh 300 Dec-12 2,247,890 kwh 299 Jan-13 2,368,830 kwh 315 Feb-13 2,134,330 kwh 284 Mar-13 2,316,230 kwh 308 Apr-13 2,276,587 kwh 303 Total Electricity 29,094,421 kwh 3,874 TOTAL BUILDING EMISSIONS 5,425 CARBON INTENSITY 3.85 kg CO2e / sq. ft tco2e / occupant Source and Fuel DIRECT GHG EMISSIONS Natural Gas Table A1.2: Summary by Emission Type Greenhouse Gas Inventory Base Year (May 1, 2012 to April 30, 2013) Quantity of Activity Activity Unit CO2 Emissions CH4 Emissions N2O Emissions Breakdown Conversion 809,961 m 3 1,522 tco2 0 tch4 0 tn2o CO2e emissions 1,531 tco2e 1,522 tco2e 1 tco2e 9 tco2e Diesel Breakdown Conversion 7,228 L 19 tco2 0 tch4 0 tn2o CO2e emissions 20 tco2e 19 tco2e 0 tco2e 1 tco2e ENERGY INDIRECT EMISSIONS Electricity - Mixed Fossil Fuels Breakdown Conversion 29,094,421 kwh 3,840 tco2 0 tch4 0 tn2o CO2e emissions 3,874 tco2e 3,840 tco2e 6 tco2e 27 tco2e TOTAL Breakdown Conversion by GHG 5,381 tco2 0 tch4 0 tn2o TOTAL CO2e emissions 5,425 tco2e 5,381 tco2e 7 tco2e 37 tco2e
20 Appendix B Activity Data and Emission Factors Page B1 APPENDIX B ACTIVITY DATA AND EMISSION FACTORS B.1 ACTIVITY DATA Activity data was collected by Loop Initiatives using the methodology summarized in Table B1. Table B1: Activity Data Activity Data Natural Gas Diesel Electricity Collection Methodology Halsall submitted North American Centre s Enbridge monthly natural gas bills to Loop Initiatives on behalf of Manulife. Halsall submitted May 2011 to Oct 2012 diesel usage receipts to Loop Initiatives on behalf of Manulife along with confirmation that usage habits had not changed since then. Diesel usage from Nov 2011 to Apr 2013 was estimated using prior year data. Halsall submitted North American Centre s Toronto Hydro monthly electricity bill to Loop Initiatives on behalf of Manulife. B.2 EMISSION FACTORS Table B2 summarizes the emission factors and sources used in the calculations completed for the North American Centre s GHG inventory. Table B2: Emission Factors Emission Source Emission Factor Source of Emissions Factor Natural gas (Carbon Dioxide) (Ontario) kg/m 3 Canada s National Inventory Report, 2013, Part 2, Annex 8, Table A8-1 (most recent data: 2011) Natural gas (Methane) (National) kg/m 3 Canada s National Inventory Report, 2013, Part 2, Annex 8, Table A8-2 (most recent data: 2011) Natural gas (Nitrous Oxide) (National) kg/m 3 Canada s National Inventory Report, 2013, Part 2, Annex 8, Table A8-2 (most recent data: 2011) Electricity (Carbon Dioxide) (Ontario): g CO2/kWh Canada s National Inventory Report, 2013, Part 3, Annex 13, Table A13-7 (most recent year: 2010) Electricity (Methane) (Ontario): g CH4/kWh Canada s National Inventory Report, 2013, Part 3, Annex 13, Table A13-7 (most recent year: 2010) Electricity (Nitrous Oxide) (Ontario): g N2O/kWh Canada s National Inventory Report, 2013, Part 3, Annex 13, Table A13-7 (most recent year: 2010) Diesel (Carbon Dioxide) 2663 g C02/L Canada s National Inventory Report, 2013, Part 2, Annex 8, Table A8-4 Diesel (Methane) g CH4/L Canada s National Inventory Report, 2013, Part 2, Annex 8, Table A8-4 Diesel (Nitrous Oxide) 0.4 g N2O/L Canada s National Inventory Report, 2013, Part 2, Annex 8, Table A8-4) Carbon Dioxide Conversion (100-yr) Methane Conversion (100-yr) Nitrous Oxide Conversion (100-yr) 1 CAN/CSA ISO Part 1: Specification with guidance at the organization level for quantification 21 and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and removals. Annex C. March 2006, International 310 Standards Organization.
21 Appendix C Standard Reporting Declaration Page - C1 APPENDIX C STANDARD REPORTING DECLARATION C.1 REPORTING INFORMATION The following table provides a summary of the reporting information required by CAN/CSA-ISO Standard provided in the declaration column is Manulife s assertion for North American Centre s inventory. Note: This GHG inventory report is the first GHG inventory developed for North American Centre on behalf of Manulife. Table C1: Reporting Information No. CSA Reporting Requirement Declaration A Description of the reporting organization. Manulife is the owner and manager of North American Centre, which consists of two towers, 5650 Yonge Street with 23 floors and 5700 Yonge Street with 21 floors, connected by a below grade retail concourse and a large, underground parking garage. Manulife has registered the centre in the Canada Green Building Council s LEED-EB Program and is targeting LEED-EB Energy and Atmosphere credit 6: Emission Reduction Reporting. As part of Manulife s initiative to green this complex, they are reporting the North American Centre greenhouse gas ( GHG ) emissions with the CSA Registry. North American Centre emits GHG s through their use of natural gas, diesel, electricity and refrigerants. The total gross floor area of the complex is 1,410,000 sq. ft. and the occupancy is approximately 4,730 people (tenants). B Person responsible Doug Webber, Project Director and Agent to Owen George, Operations Manager at North American Centre C Reporting period covered May 1, 2012 to April 30, 2013 D Documentation of organizational boundary. Physical facility approach defined by the LEED-EB Canada Energy and Atmosphere credit 6 Emissions Reduction Reporting Program; this is a different consolidation methodology than typically defined, but is E F G H Direct GHG emissions, quantified separately for each GHG, in tonnes of CO2e. A description of how CO2 emissions from the combustion of biomass are treated in the GHG inventory. If quantified, GHG removals, quantified in tonnes of CO2e. Explanation for the exclusion of any GHG sources or sinks from quantifications. still within CSA/ISO guidelines. See Appendix A. Not applicable to this inventory. Not applicable to this inventory. This inventory includes all energy indirect GHG emissions. GHG sinks are not applicable to this inventory.
22 Appendix C Standard Reporting Declaration Page - C2 No. CSA Reporting Requirement Declaration I J K L M N O P Q Energy indirect GHG emissions associated with the generation of imported electricity, heat or steam, quantified separately in tonnes of CO2e. The historical base year selected and the base year GHG inventory. Explanation of any change to the base year or other historical GHG data, and any recalculation of the base year or other historical GHG inventory. Reference to, or description of, quantification methodologies including reasons for their selection. Explanation of any change to quantification methodologies previously used. Reference to, or documentation of, GHG emission or removal factors used. Description of the impact of uncertainties on the accuracy of the GHG emissions and removals data. A statement that the GHG report has been prepared in accordance with ISO Standard A statement describing whether the GHG inventory, report or assertion has been verified, including the type of verification and level of assurance achieved. See Appendix A. Base year: May 1, 2012 to April 30, This base year was chosen due to the performance period requirements of the Canada Green Building Council LEED-program. It is a starting point for future GHG inventories. See Appendix A for the CSA CleanStart Registry s base year GHG emission summary. Not applicable to this inventory. Calculations are based on GHG activity data multiplied by GHG emission factors. Not applicable to this inventory. See Appendix B for details. Uncertainties in calculations include error margins in emissions factors and measured activity data. Emission factors were determined by the most local and credible source available at the time of reporting. Activity data is based on natural gas, diesel, and electricity bills received by Halsall on behalf of Manulife. Based on these sources, the level of uncertainty is assumed to be fair. This report has been prepared in accordance with the following standard: CAN/CSA-ISO Standard Part 1: Specification with Guidance at the Organization Level for Quantification and Reporting of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Removals. Evan Jones at 3P Analysis and Consulting provided third party verification for this GHG inventory report and provided it with a reasonable level of assurance. See the third party verification report for further details.
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