Tecnologie Fotovoltaiche a confronto

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1 Tecnologie Fotovoltaiche a confronto Prof. L. Gammaitoni Dipar0mento di Fisica Università di Perugia

2 Tecnologie PV Courtesy of: crystalline silicon (mono & mul;) This will be the PV- backbone technology and leader of the BIPV sector. First Genera0on module efficiency: 13% 20% thin film: a- Si, CdTe, CIGS Viable in BIPV and roll- to- roll process for flexible substrates. Second Genera0on module efficiency: 9% 15% dye cell and organic niche market oriented, but breakthroughs could push field towards mass power Disrup0ve/ New Genera0on module efficiency: 4% 10+% new concepts $0.30/kWh $0.05/kWh

3 Produzione di moduli solari nelle diverse tecnologie CIGS emergente CdTe leader a- Si:H: alcuni impian; E probabile che il Si rimarrà la tecnologia dominante nei prossimi 10/20 anni Sorgente: Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Tes;ng 3 and Research

4 Si solar module Thin film solar module Si wafer cells batch processed and later on individually connected with wires for module making on rigid supporting plate Stack of several layers are uniformly deposited on large area substrate (glass, metal, polymer) and module is developed by monolithic interconnection

5 Turn- key produc0on plant suppliers: Oerlikon solar, Applied Materials, ULVAC, and others Strong benefit from synergy with flat panel display business

6 Mono/Poly-crystalline Silicon or III-V compounds Wafer vs Thin Films Thin Film Solar Cells Amorphous Silicon (a-si) Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide (CIGS) Thickness: > 200 µm Area limited by wafer size Rigid Complex Modul Integration Costosi Thickness: 2-10 µm Large area deposition Flexible Substrates Monolithical Module Integration potenzialmente a basso costo

7 CdTe Thin film Solar Cells Front Contact - Back Contact Metal Buffer Layer p - CdTe n - CdS Glass Irradiation p + - Te-rich Layer absorber window + TCO (FTO) substrate Cheapest of all PV technologies Modules 67 cents/ Wp Lowest payback 0me <2 yrs First Solar is largest thin film PV manufacturing company Suffers from Cd toxicity issues superstrate configuration is used for high efficiency devices Limita0on of Te in the earth crust State of art efficiency 17.3%

8 Commercial Modules First Solar (USA) 10.9% efficiency ca. 75 Wp Module Calixo (Q-cells), AVA Solar, CTF Solar (former ANTEC), Arendi,... Fast growing production capacity: ~20 MW (2004), 170 in 2007, ~1000 MW by First Solar production cost 0.87 $/W reported in 2009 (lowest cost thin film PV) No environmental & health risks from CdTe PV modules (Sites: NREL, BNL, First solar)

9 CIGS Solar Cells CIGS solar cells are best of all Thin Film PV technologies with Efficiencies > 20% on glass and 18.7 % on flexible polymer foils making them ideal for space applica0ons Complex composi0onal adjustments for good electronic quality of the material Scarcity issues with In and Ga materials an0cipated boeleneck for volume produc0on

10 Excitonic Solar Cells: Architecture TCO coated glass Nanocrystalline TiO 2 film Sensitizer dye I - / I 2 based electrolyte Platinised TCO coated glass Light Light I - I - 3 Glass ITO External circuit Electrons Load Organic semiconductor(bhj) Metal contact (Al, Ca, Mg) Nanocomposites of TiO2/Ru-dyes are formed based on Photosysnthesis approach Bulk heterojunctions P3HT:PCBM are formed using donor/acceptorapproach (Tang 1986) These may be regarded as first successful nanostructured device. All processing steps are non- vacuum generally solu0on processed TiO 2 films from doctor blade, screen prin0ng methods. Lowering of cost poten0al further but suffer from stability issues

11 Il dominio del PV Sorgente: Bloomberg New Energy Finance

12 FaT: il dominio del PV Solar is the fastest growing renewable energy technology. Global investment in solar was the order of $86bn in 2010, a 52% increase on In terms of investment, it already dwarfs all other renewable technologies apart from wind, and is indeed likely to overtake wind very shortly. Global PV capacity has been increasing at an average annual growth rate of more than 40% by 2050, PV will provide around 11% of global electricity produc0on corresponding to gigawaes of cumula0ve installed PV capacity and avoid 2.3 gigatonnes (Gt) of CO 2 emissions per year. PV will achieve grid parity i.e. compe00veness with electricity grid retail prices by 2020 Poten0al of reducing costs further.

13 Sfide da affrontare Cos;: Il costo dell eleericità da PV è ancora troppo alto confrontata con le fin0 tradizionali. Pianificazione: - Definire la domanda per singola abitazione, condominio, comunità - - Definire la tagli dell intervento Definire gli asper tecnici della componen0s0ca impiegata Regolamen;: - Maggiore chiarezza sui regolamen0 edilizi e sulla legislazione in materia di incen0vi. Necessità di una poli0ca energe0ca nazionale stabile

14 In sintesi PV è un industria oramai affermata con un tesso di crescita superiore al 40% nell ul0mo decennio. Flessibile nella realizzazione per quanto concerne taglia, localizzazione e volume. La ricerca è tueora arva e punta al raggiungimento della parità di cos0 con la rete. Gli incen0vi del governo sono u0li E necessario promuovere la diffusione della conoscenza tra l utenza domes0ca.

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