Environmental management systems Requirements with guidance for use

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1 ISO 2013 All rights reserved ISO/TC 207/SC 1 N 1067 Date: ISO/CD ISO/TC 207/SC 1/WG 5 Secretariat: BSI/DIN Environmental management systems Requirements with guidance for use Systèmes de management environnemental Exigences et lignes directrices pour son utilisation Warning This document is not an ISO International Standard. It is distributed for review and comment. It is subject to change without notice and may not be referred to as an International Standard. Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to provide supporting documentation. Document type: International Standard Document subtype: Document stage: (30) Committee Document language: E D:\Dokumente und Einstellungen\wue\Desktop\ISO CD MASTER v5.docx STD Version 2.5a

2 Copyright notice This ISO document is a working draft or committee draft and is copyright-protected by ISO. While the reproduction of working drafts or committee drafts in any form for use by participants in the ISO standards development process is permitted without prior permission from ISO, neither this document nor any extract from it may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form for any other purpose without prior written permission from ISO. Requests for permission to reproduce this document for the purpose of selling it should be addressed as shown below or to ISO's member body in the country of the requester: [Indicate the full address, telephone number, fax number, telex number, and electronic mail address, as appropriate, of the Copyright Manager of the ISO member body responsible for the secretariat of the TC or SC within the framework of which the working document has been prepared.] Reproduction for sales purposes may be subject to royalty payments or a licensing agreement. Violators may be prosecuted. ii ISO 2013 All rights reserved

3 14 Contents Page Foreword... v Introduction... vi 1 Scope Normative references Terms and definitions Context of the organization Understanding the organization and its context Understanding the needs and expectations of interested parties Determining the scope of the environmental management system Environmental management system Leadership Leadership and commitment Policy Organization roles, responsibilities and authorities Planning Actions to address risks and opportunities General Environmental aspects Legal requirements and voluntary obligations Environmental objectives and planning to achieve them Environmental objectives Environmental improvement programmes Support Resources Competence Awareness Communication General Internal communication External communication and reporting Documented information General Creating and updating Control of documented information Operation Operational planning and control Value chain planning and control Emergency preparedness and response Performance evaluation Monitoring, measurement, analysis and evaluation General Evaluation of compliance Internal audit Management review Improvement Nonconformity and corrective action Continual improvement ISO 2013 All rights reserved iii

4 Annex A (informative) A.1 General A.2 Scope A.3 Terms and definitions A.4 Context of the organization A.4.1 Understanding the context of the organization A.4.2 Understanding the needs and expectations of interested parties A.4.3 Scope of the environmental management system A.4.4 Environmental management system A.5.1 Leadership and commitment A.5.2 Environmental policy A.5.3 Organization roles, responsibilities and authorities A.6 Planning A.6.1 Actions to address risks and opportunities A General A Risks and opportunities associated with environmental aspects A Legal requirements and voluntary obligations A.6.2 Environmental objectives and planning to achieve them A Environmental improvement programmes A.7 Support A.7.1 Resources A.7.2 Competence A.7.3 Awareness A.7.4 Communication A.7.5 Documented information A.8 Operation A.8.1 Operational planning and control A.8.2 Value chain planning and control A.8.3 Emergency preparedness and response A.9 Performance evaluation A.9.1 Monitoring, measurement, analysis and evaluation A General A Evaluation of compliance A.9.2 Audits A.9.3 Management review A.10 Management review A.10.1 Nonconformity and corrective action A.10.2 Continual improvement Annex B (informative) Correspondence between ISO 14001:2004 and ISO 14001:201X Annex C (informative) Correspondence between ISO 14001:201X and PDCA model Bibliography iv ISO 2013 All rights reserved

5 Foreword ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization. International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. ISO was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 207, Environmental management, Subcommittee SC 1, Environmental management systems. This second/third/... edition cancels and replaces the first/second/... edition (), [clause(s) / subclause(s) / table(s) / figure(s) / annex(es)] of which [has / have] been technically revised. ISO 2013 All rights reserved v

6 Introduction Organizations of all kinds have implemented environmental management systems to ensure compliance and to achieve and demonstrate sound environmental performance by controlling the impacts of their activities, products and services on the environment. They do so in the context of increasingly stringent legislation, growing pressures on the environment from pollution, over-consumption of resources, degradation of ecosystems and biodiversity, and an increasing world population, compounded by greater expectations from society for sustainable development, transparency and accountability. International Standards covering environmental management are intended to provide organizations with knowledge, tools and techniques to build success over the long term and create new opportunities for development and growth by (i) leveraging the organization s ability to reduce its direct operational footprints; (ii) influence the way its products and services are designed, manufactured, distributed, consumed and disposed by using a life- cycle perspective to ensure that environmental burdens aren t inadvertently shifted elsewhere in the cycle; and (iii) communicating environmental information to relevant interested parties. These tools can be aligned with an organization s priorities, strategy and decision-making by integrating them with other business requirements and embedding environmental governance into its overall management system, thereby achieving both environmental and economic goals. This International Standard specifies requirements for an environmental management system that can enable an organization to achieve environmental performance improvement by (i) developing and implementing a policy, (ii) establishing environmental objectives and systematic processes which consider the context of the organization and take into account applicable legal requirements and voluntary obligations, and information about its significant environmental aspects, (iii) establishing operational controls, and (iv) evaluating performance and taking actions, as necessary, to improve and demonstrate conformity to the requirements of this International Standard. The overall aim of this International Standard is to support and enhance environmental protection efforts in balance with socio-economic needs. The success of the system depends on commitment from all levels and functions of the organization, and especially from top management. Environmental management encompasses a full range of issues, including those with strategic and competitive implications. An organization can gain added value by using the system elements to achieve financial and operational benefits that accrue from implementing environmentally advantageous alternatives that strengthen the organization s market position. Demonstration of successful implementation of this International Standard can be used to assure relevant interested parties, including customers, suppliers, and regulators, that an appropriate environmental management system is in place. The basis for the approach underlying an environmental management system is founded on the concept of Plan, Do, Check and Act (PDCA) and is shown in Figure 1. vi ISO 2013 All rights reserved

7 Figure 1 Environmental management system model for this International Standard PDCA and HLS The concept of PDCA is a four stage change management model used by organizations to achieve continual improvement and incremental problem solving which can be briefly described as follows. Plan: establish the objectives and processes necessary to deliver results in accordance with the organization s environmental policy. Do: implement the processes. Check: monitor and measure processes against environmental policy, objectives, legal requirements and voluntary obligations, and report the results. Act: take actions to continually improve performance of the environmental management system. While PDCA has always been the foundation of an environmental management system as prescribed in this International Standard, it is recognized that organizations need to ensure management control over other areas of responsibility as well, such as quality, safety, and risk. To facilitate efficiency in managing multiple interests, ISO has developed a standardized high-level structure, identical text, and common terms and core definitions for management system standards (High Level Structure - HLS) 1. Figure 1 identifies an added focus on leadership and links the clauses in the High Level Structure to PDCA. This third edition of the International Standard is focused on meeting environmental challenges over the next two decades for both new and existing users, while also taking due consideration of the ISO standardized 1 ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1, Consolidated ISO Supplement, Procedures specific to ISO, third edition, 2012, Annex SL, appendix 2, 3 & 4. ISO 2013 All rights reserved vii

8 structure to benefit the user community implementing multiple ISO management system standards. Annex A provides informative explanations to prevent misinterpretation of the requirements. For existing users, Annex B identifies broad technical correspondences between ISO 14001:2004 and this International Standard and vice versa. Annex C provides further insight on how the standardized structure and PDCA interacts for the benefit of existing and new users of ISO References to guidance on supporting environmental management tools and techniques contained in other ISO/TC 207 International Standards are provided in the Bibliography for information only. Implementation guidance on this International Standard is included in ISO This International Standard is intended to apply to all types and sizes of organization and to accommodate diverse geographical, cultural and social conditions. It does not establish absolute requirements for environmental performance beyond the required commitments, in the environmental policy, to comply with applicable legal requirements and voluntary obligations, to prevent pollution and support environmental protection, and to continual improvement. It encourages organizations to incorporate voluntary obligations, including making specific commitments related to sustainable resource use, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and protection of biodiversity and ecosystems, or consider other principles such as environmental responsibility, precautionary approach and polluter pays, as applicable, into their management system framework. However, adoption of this International Standard will not in itself guarantee optimal environmental outcomes. In order to achieve its environmental commitments, the environmental management system encourages organizations to consider implementation of the best available techniques, where appropriate and where economically viable, taking into account the cost-effectiveness of such techniques. Thus, two organizations carrying out similar operations can establish different commitments for themselves and have different environmental performance, but both can conform to the requirements of this International Standard. Like other International Standards, it is not intended to be used to create non-tariff trade barriers or to increase or change an organization's legal obligations. It should also be noted that the application of various elements of a management system might differ depending on the organization s purpose and the relevant interested parties involved, so that the level of its detail and complexity, the extent of documentation and the resources devoted to it will depend on a number of factors, such as the scope of the system, the size of an organization and the nature of its activities, products and services including their significant environmental aspects and potential impacts. This may be the case in particular for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Environmental management systems Requirements with guidance for use Scope This International Standard specifies the requirements for an organization to establish, implement and maintain an environmental management system. It provides a framework through which an organization can deliver environmental performance improvement set by top management in line with its environmental policy commitments. When environmental management system requirements are applied, an organization can achieve the following intended outcomes: a) understand its external and internal context, including the needs and expectations of relevant interested parties; b) establish an environmental policy and environmental objectives; c) reduce adverse impacts and take advantage of opportunities associated with its significant environmental aspects; external environmental conditions that affect its ability to achieve its objectives; viii ISO 2013 All rights reserved

9 d) be capable of demonstrating its commitment by managing its compliance with applicable legal requirements and voluntary obligations and knowing its compliance status; e) communicate with relevant interested parties; and f) continually improve its environmental management system to enhance its environmental performance, and be capable of demonstrating the environmental performance outcomes that it achieves. An environmental management system applies to the environmental aspects that the organization determines it can either control or can influence across its value chain. This International Standard does not itself state specific environmental performance criteria. An organization can demonstrate conformity with this International Standard by 1) making a self-determination and self-declaration, or 2) seeking confirmation of its conformance by parties having an interest in the organization, such as customers, or 3) seeking confirmation of its self-declaration by a party external to the organization, or 4) seeking certification/registration of its environmental management system by an external organization. The requirements in this International Standard are intended to be integrated into the organization s management system and its business processes. The extent of application depends on factors such as the context within which the organization operates, its environmental policy commitments and the nature of its activities, products and services. 2 Normative references There are no normative references. 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply organization person or group of people that has its own functions with responsibilities, authorities and relationships to achieve its objectives (3.15) Note 1 to entry: The concept of organization includes, but is not limited to sole-trader, company, corporation, firm, enterprise, authority, partnership, charity or institution, or part or combination thereof, whether incorporated or not, public or private Note 2 to entry: organization. For organizations with more than one operating unit, a single operating unit may be defined as an interested party (preferred term) stakeholder (admitted term) person or organization (3.01) that can affect, be affected by, or perceive themselves to be affected by a decision or activity Note 1 to entry: Interested parties can include person(s) and groups expressing their concern with the environmental performance of an organization. 2 ISO 2013 All rights reserved

10 Note 2 to entry: Interested parties can include customers, community, suppliers, regulators, nongovernment organizations, investors, employees requirement need or expectation that is stated, generally implied or obligatory Note 1 to entry: Generally implied means that it is custom or common practice for the organization and interested parties that the need or expectation under consideration is implied. 262 Note 2 to entry: A specified requirement is one that is stated, for example in documented information Note 3 to entry: Applicable legal requirements are obligatory; other interested party requirements become a voluntary obligation when the organization decides that it will subscribe to them environment surroundings in which an organization (3.01) operates 268 Note 1 to entry: Surroundings in this context extend from within an organization to the global system Note 2 to entry: Surroundings can include air, water, land, natural resources, biodiversity and ecosystems, humans, and their interrelation environmental aspect element of an organization's (3.01) activities or products or services that can interact with the environment (3.04) 3.06 significant environmental aspect environmental aspect (3.05) that has or can have a significant environmental impact Note 1 to entry: Significant environmental aspects can be considered environmental risks that an organization (3.01) needs to assess, manage and control environmental impact change to the environment (3.04), whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partially resulting from an organization's (3.01) environmental aspects (3.05) 3.08 environmental condition long-term environmental change(s) that can affect the organization's (3.01) activities, products and services requiring adaptation 3.09 management system set of interrelated or interacting elements of an organization (3.01) to establish policies (3.13) and objectives (3.15) and processes (3.19) to achieve those objectives Note 1 to entry: Note 2 to entry: operation, etc. A management system can address a single discipline or several disciplines. The system elements include the organization s structure, roles and responsibilities, planning, Note 3 to entry: The scope of a management system may include the whole of the organization, specific and identified functions of the organization, specific and identified sections of the organization, or one or more functions across a group of organizations. ISO 2013 All rights reserved 3

11 environmental management system EMS part of an organization's (3.01) management system (3.09) used to develop and implement its environmental policy (3.14) and manage its environmental aspects (3.05) 3.11 top management person or group of people who directs and controls an organization (3.01) at the highest level Note 1 to entry: organization. Top management has the power to delegate authority and provide resources within the Note 2 to entry: If the scope of the management system (3.09) covers only part of an organization then top management refers to those who direct and control that part of the organization effectiveness extent to which planned activities are realized and planned results achieved 3.13 policy intentions and direction of an organization (3.01) as formally expressed by its top management (3.11) 3.14 environmental policy policy (3.13) related to the organization's (3.01) environmental objectives and commitments 3.15 objective result to be achieved 322 Note 1 to entry: An objective can be strategic, tactical, or operational Note 2 to entry: Objectives can relate to different disciplines (such as financial, health and safety, and environmental goals) and can apply at different levels (such as strategic, organization-wide, project, product and process (3.19)). Note 3 to entry: An objective can be expressed in other ways, e.g. as an intended outcome, a purpose, an operational criterion, as an environmental objective or by the use of other words with similar meaning (e.g. aim, goal, or target). Note 4 to entry: In the context of environmental management systems environmental objectives are set by the organization, consistent with the environmental policy, to achieve specific results risk effect of uncertainty 334 Note 1 to entry: An effect is a deviation from the expected positive or negative Note 2 to entry: Uncertainty is the state, even partial, of deficiency of information related to, understanding or knowledge of, an event, its consequence, or likelihood. Note 3 to entry: Risk is often characterized by reference to potential events (ISO Guide 73, ) and consequences (ISO Guide 73, ), or a combination of these. Note 4 to entry: Risk is often expressed in terms of a combination of the consequences of an event (including changes in circumstances) and the associated likelihood (ISO Guide 73, ) of occurrence. 4 ISO 2013 All rights reserved

12 competence ability to apply knowledge and skills to achieve intended results 3.18 documented information information required to be controlled and maintained by an organization (3.01) and the medium on which it is contained Note 1 to entry: Note 2 to entry: Documented information can be in any format and media and from any source. Documented information can refer to 350 the management system (3.09), including related processes (3.19); information created in order for the organization to operate (documentation); evidence of results achieved (records) process set of interrelated or interacting activities which transforms inputs into outputs Note 1 to entry: 3.20 performance measurable result Note 1 to entry: Processes can be documented or not. Performance can relate either to quantitative or qualitative findings Note 2 to entry: Performance can relate to the management of activities, processes (3.19), products (including services), systems or organizations (3.01). 3.21A environmental performance measurable results of an organization's (3.01) management of its environmental aspects (3.05) Note 1 to entry: In the context of environmental management systems (3.10), results can be measured against the organization's environmental policy (3.14), environmental objectives (3.15) and other environmental performance requirements. [Source: ISO 14001:2004, 3.10] 3.21B environmental performance performance (3.20) related to environmental aspects (3.05) [Source: ISO 14045:2012, 3.5] 3.22 indicator measureable representation of the condition or status of operations, management or conditions 3.23 key performance indicator KPI indicator of performance (3.20) deemed by an organization (3.01) to be significant and giving prominence and attention to certain aspects ISO 2013 All rights reserved 5

13 Note 1 to entry: Key performance indicators may be selected for Operational Performance Indicators (OPIs), Management Performance Indicators (MPIs) and Environmental Performance Indicators (EPIs) [Source: ISO/FDIS 14031:2013, 3.17] 3.24 outsource (verb) make an arrangement where an external organization (3.01) performs part of an organization s function or process (3.19) Note 1 to entry: An external organization is outside the scope of the management system (3.09), although the outsourced function or process is within the scope monitoring determining the status of a system, a process (3.19) or an activity 394 Note 1 to entry: To determine the status there may be a need to check, supervise or critically observe measurement process (3.19) to determine a value 3.27 audit systematic, independent and documented process (3.19) for obtaining audit evidence and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which the audit criteria are fulfilled Note 1 to entry: An audit can be an internal audit (first party) or an external audit (second party or third party), and it can be a combined audit (combining two or more disciplines). Note 2 to entry: Audit evidence and audit criteria are defined in ISO Note 3 to entry: Internal audits, sometimes called first party audits, are conducted by the organization itself, or on its behalf, for management review and other internal purposes (e.g. to confirm the effectiveness of the management system or to obtain information for the improvement of the management system). Internal audits can form the basis for an organization s self-declaration of conformity. In many cases, particularly in small organizations, independence can be demonstrated by the freedom from responsibility for the activity being audited or freedom from bias and conflict of interest conformity fulfilment of a requirement (3.03) Note 1 to entry: Requirement relates to applicable legal requirements and voluntary obligations to which the organization subscribes, including requirements in this International Standard. Compliance is often used to describe fulfilment of a legal requirement nonconformity non-fulfilment of a requirement (3.03) Note 1 to entry: Requirement relates to applicable legal requirements and voluntary obligations to which the organization subscribes, including requirements in this International Standard. Noncompliance is often used to describe nonfulfilment of a legal requirement correction action to eliminate a detected nonconformity (3.29) 6 ISO 2013 All rights reserved

14 corrective action action to eliminate the cause of a nonconformity (3.29) and to prevent recurrence 3.32 continual improvement recurring activity to enhance performance (3.20) Note 1 to entry: Enhancing performance relates to the use of the environmental management system in order to achieve improvement in overall environmental performance (3.21A or 3.21B) consistent with the organization's (3.01) environmental policy (3.14). 435 Note 2 to entry: The activity need not take place in all areas simultaneously prevention of pollution use of processes (3.19), practices, techniques, materials, products, services or energy to avoid, reduce or control (separately or in combination) the creation, emission or discharge of any type of pollutant or waste, in order to reduce adverse environmental impacts (3.07) Note 1 to entry: Prevention of pollution can include source reduction or elimination, process, product or service changes, efficient use of resources, material and energy substitution, reuse, recovery, recycling, reclamation and treatment. 3.34A value chain entire sequence of activities or parties that provide or receive value in the form of products or services Note 1 to entry: Note 2 to entry: Parties that provide value include suppliers, outsourced workers, contractors and others. Parties that receive value include customers, consumers, clients, members and other users [Source: ISO :2010, 2.25] 3.34B supply chain sequence of activities or parties that provides products or services to the organization (3.01) Note 1 to entry: In some instances, the term supply chain is understood to be the same as value chain (3.34A). However, for the purpose of this International Standard supply chain is used as defined above. [Source: ISO 26000:2010, 2.22] 3.34C life cycle consecutive and interlinked stages of a product system, from raw material acquisition or generation from natural resources to final disposal [Source: ISO 14044:2006, 3.1] 4 Context of the organization 4.1 Understanding the organization and its context The organization shall determine external and internal issues that are relevant to its purpose and that affect its ability to achieve the intended outcome(s) of its environmental management system, including external environmental conditions capable of affecting the organization's activities, products and services. ISO 2013 All rights reserved 7

15 The knowledge gained shall be considered when designing the organization's environmental management system. NOTE The intended outcome(s) are those strategic objectives set by the organization to be achieved through its environmental management system which include meeting its policy commitments. 4.2 Understanding the needs and expectations of interested parties The organization shall determine: the interested parties that are relevant to the environmental management system; and the requirements of these interested parties. The knowledge gained shall be considered when designing the organization's environmental management system. 4.3 Determining the scope of the environmental management system The organization shall determine the boundaries and applicability of the environmental management system to establish its scope. When determining this scope, the organization shall consider: the external and internal issues referred to in 4.1; the requirements referred to in 4.2 including applicable legal requirements and potential voluntary obligations; the organizational unit(s), function(s), and physical boundaries; and its authority and ability to exercise control and influence. The scope shall be available as documented information. NOTE Once the scope is defined, all activities, products and services of the organization within that scope, including outsourced processes that affect its environmental performance, are included in the environmental management system as appropriate. 4.4 Environmental management system The organization shall establish, implement, maintain and continually improve an environmental management system, including the processes needed and their interactions, in accordance with the requirements of this International Standard. The organization shall determine the way it will satisfy the environmental management system requirements, including how they will be integrated into its business processes. 5 Leadership 5.1 Leadership and commitment Top management shall demonstrate leadership and commitment with respect to the environmental management system by: understanding the organization's context and ensuring that knowledge gained shall be considered when establishing the environmental management system; 8 ISO 2013 All rights reserved

16 ensuring that the environmental policy and environmental objectives are established and are compatible with the strategic direction of the organization; giving consideration to environmental performance in strategic planning; ensuring the integration of the environmental management system requirements into the organization s business processes; ensuring that the resources needed for the environmental management system are available; communicating the importance of effective environmental management and of conforming to the environmental management system requirements; ensuring that the environmental management system achieves its intended outcome(s); directing and supporting persons to contribute to the effectiveness of the environmental management system; promoting continual improvement (see 10.2); supporting other relevant management roles to demonstrate their leadership as it applies to their areas of responsibility. NOTE Reference to business in this International Standard should be interpreted broadly to mean those activities that are core to the purposes of the organization s existence. 5.2 Policy Top management shall establish an environmental policy that, within the defined scope of its environmental management system: is appropriate to the purpose and context of the organization; is appropriate to the nature, scale and environmental impacts of its activities, products and services; includes a commitment to the prevention of pollution and to support environmental protection specific to the context of the organization, such as sustainable resource use, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and protection of biodiversity and ecosystems, or other relevant environmental issues; provides a framework for setting environmental objectives; includes a commitment to satisfy applicable requirements, including compliance to legal requirements and voluntary obligations which relate to its environmental aspects; and includes a commitment to continual improvement of the environmental management system to enhance its environmental performance as set by top management. The environmental policy shall: be available as documented information; be communicated within the organization, including persons working on behalf of the organization; be available to interested parties, as appropriate. ISO 2013 All rights reserved 9

17 NOTE 'As appropriate' does not imply that the organization may restrict the distribution of its environmental policy. The organization determines the means by which the policy is available. 5.3 Organization roles, responsibilities and authorities Top management shall ensure that the responsibilities and authorities for relevant roles within the environmental management system are assigned and communicated within the organization. Top management shall assign the responsibility and authority for: ensuring that the environmental management system conforms to the requirements of this International Standard; and reporting on the performance of the environmental management system, including environmental performance, to top management. NOTE The role of reporting on the performance of the environmental management system is often assigned to a Management Representative. 6 Planning 6.1 Actions to address risks and opportunities General When planning for the environmental management system, the organization shall consider the issues referred to in 4.1, and the requirements of relevant interested parties referred to in 4.2 and determine the risks and opportunities that arise from its significant environmental aspects (see 6.1.2), applicable legal requirements, voluntary obligations (see 6.1.3) and other business risk and opportunities interfering with the environmental management system that need to be addressed to: 556 assure the environmental management system can achieve its intended outcome(s); 557 prevent, or reduce, undesired effects; 558 achieve continual improvement The organization shall plan: a) actions to address these risks and opportunities; and b) how to integrate and implement the actions into its environmental management system processes evaluate the effectiveness of these actions. NOTE Those actions include selecting one or more options such as risk avoidance, risk mitigation, risk acceptance or risk taking in order to pursue an opportunity Environmental aspects The organization shall specify the way it will implement and maintain a process: a) to identify the environmental aspects of its activities, products and services within the defined scope of the environmental management system that it can control and those that it can influence considering a life cycle perspective; and 10 ISO 2013 All rights reserved

18 b) to determine those environmental aspects, that have or can have significant impact(s) by applying criteria set by the organization, considering its context. The organization shall take into account planned or new developments and new or modified activities, products and services. The organization shall retain documented information and keep it up to date. The organization shall ensure that the significant environmental aspects are taken into account when establishing, implementing and maintaining its environmental management system Legal requirements and voluntary obligations The organization shall specify the way it will implement and maintain a process: a) to identify and have access to the applicable legal requirements and voluntary obligations related to its environmental aspects; and b) to determine how these requirements apply to the organization. The organization shall ensure that these applicable legal requirements and voluntary obligations are taken into account when establishing, implementing and maintaining its environmental management system. 6.2 Environmental objectives and planning to achieve them Environmental objectives The organization shall establish environmental objectives at relevant functions and levels. The environmental objectives shall: be consistent with the environmental policy; be measurable (if practicable); be developed to take into account the organization s significant environmental aspects, applicable legal requirements and voluntary obligations; be developed considering the organization s internal and external issues; 594 be monitored; be communicated; and be updated as appropriate. The organization shall retain documented information on the environmental objectives Environmental improvement programmes For each objective, the organization shall define one or more indicators against which performance shall be evaluated and demonstrated. When planning how to achieve its environmental objectives, the organization shall develop a programme and determine: what will be done; ISO 2013 All rights reserved 11

19 what resources will be required; who will be responsible; how it will be integrated into the organization s processes; when it will be completed; how the results will be evaluated. 7 Support 7.1 Resources The organization shall determine and provide the resources needed for the establishment, implementation, maintenance and continual improvement of the environmental management system. 7.2 Competence The organization shall: determine the necessary competence of person(s) doing work under its control or on its behalf that affects its environmental performance; and ensure that these persons are competent on the basis of appropriate education, training, skills or experience; where applicable, take actions to acquire the necessary competence, and evaluate the effectiveness of the actions taken; and retain appropriate documented information as evidence of competence. NOTE Applicable actions may include, for example: the provision of training to, the mentoring of, or the reassignment of currently employed persons; or the hiring or contracting of competent persons. 7.3 Awareness The organization shall ensure that persons doing work under the organization s control shall be aware of: 626 the environmental policy; the significant environmental aspects and related actual or potential impacts associated with their work, including applicable legal requirements and voluntary obligations; their contribution to the effectiveness of the environmental management system, including the benefits of improved environmental performance; the implications of not conforming with the environmental management system requirements, including applicable legal requirements and voluntary obligations. 7.4 Communication General The organization shall determine the needs for internal and external communications relevant to the environmental management system including: 12 ISO 2013 All rights reserved

20 637 on what it will communicate, including relevant environmental information; 638 when to communicate; with whom to communicate; how to communicate, including communication methods, tools and approaches. When planning for communication, the organization shall take into account the requirements of relevant interested parties (see 4.2) Internal communication With regard to its environmental aspects and environmental management system, the organization shall: a) communicate among the various levels and functions of the organization; and b) respond to relevant internal communication, including those related to environmental performance improvements. The organization shall retain documented information as evidence of its internal communications External communication and reporting The organization shall report environmental information externally as required by applicable legal requirements and voluntary obligations, and as determined when planning its communication. External communication, including that related to its environmental performance, products and services shall be: truthful and not misleading; complete, accurate, transparent and reliable; based on and consistent with the information generated within the environmental management system and with the internal evaluation of the organization s environmental performance (see 9.1). The organization shall respond to relevant communication on its environmental management system from external interested parties and retain documented information as evidence of its external communications. 7.5 Documented information General The organization s environmental management system shall include: documented information required by this International Standard; documented information determined by the organization as being necessary for the effectiveness of the environmental management system; a description of the main elements of the environmental management system and their interaction, including with other business processes. NOTE The extent of documented information for an environmental management system can differ from one organization to another due to: ISO 2013 All rights reserved 13

21 the size of organization and its type of activities, processes, products and services; the complexity of processes and their interactions; and the competence of persons Creating and updating When creating and updating documented information the organization shall ensure appropriate: identification and description (e.g. a title, date, author, or reference number); format (e.g. language, software version, graphics) and media (e.g. paper, electronic); review and approval for suitability and adequacy Control of documented information Documented information required by the environmental management system and by this International Standard shall be controlled to ensure: it is available and suitable for use, where and when it is needed; it is adequately protected (e.g. from loss of confidentiality, improper use, or loss of integrity). For the control of documented information, the organization shall address the following activities, as applicable distribution, access, retrieval and use; storage and preservation, including preservation of legibility; control of changes (e.g. version control); 688 retention and disposition Documented information of external origin determined by the organization to be necessary for the planning and operation of the environmental management system shall be identified as appropriate, and controlled. NOTE Access implies a decision regarding the permission to review the documented information only, or the permission and authority to view and change the documented information, etc. 8 Operation 8.1 Operational planning and control The organization shall specify the way it will plan, implement and control the processes needed to meet environmental management system requirements, and to implement the actions determined in 6.1, by: establishing criteria for the processes; implementing control of the processes, in accordance with the criteria; keeping documented information to the extent necessary to have confidence that the processes have been carried out as planned by: 14 ISO 2013 All rights reserved

22 documenting the way to control situations where its absence could lead to deviation from the environmental policy, environmental objectives, applicable legal requirements and voluntary obligations: and retaining appropriate documented information as evidence of the results. The organization shall control planned changes and review the consequences of unintended changes, taking action to mitigate any adverse effects, as necessary. 8.2 Value chain planning and control The organization shall ensure that upstream and downstream processes related to significant environmental aspects are controlled or influenced. The type and extent of control or influence to be applied to these processes shall be defined within the environmental management system. The organization shall ensure that, in relation to significant environmental aspects, outsourced processes and the processes related to the purchase of goods and services are controlled by: establishing and implement criteria for evaluating the supply of goods, services and outsourced processes, taking a life cycle perspective; specifying environmental requirements as appropriate for the procurement of goods and services or outsourced processes; communicating requirement(s) to suppliers, including contractors. The organization shall consider the result of the evaluation of significant environmental aspects as input in the process of the design, development or change of its products and services. The organization shall consider the need to provide information about potential significant environmental impacts during the use and end of life treatment of the product or during the delivery of the service. NOTE 1 In the context of the outsourced processes the concept of control doesn t imply any requirements of direct control referred to the activity of outsourced organization. It is the decision of the organization to decide the extent of control to be applied for these processes. NOTE 2 Goods and services includes the life cycle of the activity, product or service, which includes, for example, transport, packaging and end-use/disposal. NOTE 3 The nature of the organization s control over the purchase of goods and services or outsourced processes will depend on its importance, the risk of deviation from the environmental policy and objectives, opportunities available, the organization s control and influence, the interaction with other environmental management system processes, the competence of the supplier to meet the requirements of the organization s environmental management system, and the technical competence of the organization to define appropriate controls or assess the adequacy of the outsource process controls. NOTE 4 Ensuring control over outsourced processes does not absolve the organization of the responsibility of conformity to all customer and legal requirements. 8.3 Emergency preparedness and response The organization shall specify the way it will implement and maintain a process to determine potential emergency situations and accidents that can have an impact(s) on the environment and how it will respond to them. The organization shall: ISO 2013 All rights reserved 15

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