1 Compiled from ESRI s Web site: 1. What Is a GIS? A geographic information system (GIS) is a computer-based tool for mapping and analysing things that exist and events that happen on earth. GIS technology integrates common database operations such as query and statistical analysis with the unique visualisation and geographic analysis benefits offered by maps. These abilities distinguish GIS from other information systems and make it valuable to a wide range of public and private enterprises for explaining events, predicting outcomes, and planning strategies. The major challenges we face in the world today--overpopulation, pollution, deforestation, natural disasters--have a critical geographic dimension. Whether siting a new business, finding the best soil for growing bananas, or figuring out the best route for an emergency vehicle, local problems also have a geographical component GIS will give you the power to create maps, integrate information, visualise scenarios, solve complicated problems, present powerful ideas, and develop effective solutions like never before. GIS is a tool used by individuals and organisations, schools, governments, and businesses seeking innovative ways to solve their problems. Mapmaking and geographic analysis are not new, but a GIS performs these tasks better and faster than do the old manual methods. And, before GIS technology, only a few people had the skills necessary to use geographic information to help with decision making and problem solving. Today, GIS is a multibillion-dollar industry employing hundreds of thousands of people world-wide. GIS is taught in schools, colleges, and universities throughout the world. Professionals in every field are increasingly aware of the advantages of thinking and working geographically.
2 2. Components of a GIS A working GIS integrates five key components: hardware, software, data, people, and methods. Hardware Hardware is the computer on which a GIS operates. Today, GIS software runs on a wide range of hardware types, from centralised computer servers to desktop computers used in stand-alone or networked configurations. Software GIS software provides the functions and tools needed to store, analyse, and display geographic information. Key software components are - Tools for the input and manipulation of geographic information - A database management system (DBMS) - Tools that support geographic query, analysis, and visualisation - A graphical user interface (GUI) for easy access to tools Data Possibly the most important component of a GIS is the data. Geographic data and related tabular data can be collected in-house or purchased from a commercial data provider. A GIS will integrate spatial data with other data resources and can even use a DBMS, used by most organisations to organise and maintain their data, to manage spatial data. People GIS technology is of limited value without the people who manage the system and develop plans for applying it to real-world problems. GIS users range from technical specialists who design and maintain the system to those who use it to help them perform their everyday work.
3 Methods A successful GIS operates according to a well-designed plan and business rules, which are the models and operating practices unique to each organisation. 3. How GIS Works A GIS stores information about the world as a collection of thematic layers that can be linked together by geography. This simple but extremely powerful and versatile concept has proven invaluable for solving many real-world problems from tracking delivery vehicles, to recording details of planning applications, to modelling global atmospheric circulation. Geographic References Geographic information contains either an explicit geographic reference, such as a latitude and longitude or national grid co-ordinate, or an implicit reference such as an address, postal code, census tract name, forest stand identifier, or road name. An automated process called geocoding is used to create explicit geographic references (multiple locations) from implicit references (descriptions such as addresses). These geographic references allow you to locate features, such as a business or forest stand, and events, such as an earthquake, on the earth's surface for analysis. Vector and Raster Models Geographic information systems work with two fundamentally different types of geographic models--the "vector" model and the "raster" model. In the vector model, information about points, lines, and polygons is encoded and stored as a collection of x,y co-ordinates. The location of a point feature, such as a bore hole, can be described by a single x,y co-ordinate. Linear features, such as roads and rivers, can be stored as a
4 collection of point co-ordinates. Polygonal features, such as sales territories and river catchments, can be stored as a closed loop of co-ordinates. The vector model is extremely useful for describing discrete features, but less useful for describing continuously varying features such as soil type or accessibility costs for hospitals. The raster model has evolved to model such continuous features. A raster image comprises a collection of grid cells rather like a scanned map or picture. Both the vector and raster models for storing geographic data have unique advantages and disadvantages. Modern GISs are able to handle both models. 4. GIS Tasks General purpose geographic information systems essentially perform six processes or tasks: - Input - Manipulation - Management - Query and Analysis - Visualisation Input Before geographic data can be used in a GIS, the data must be converted into a suitable digital format. The process of converting data from paper maps into computer files is called digitising. Modern GIS technology can automate this process fully for large projects using scanning technology; smaller jobs may require some manual digitising (using a digitising table).
5 Today many types of geographic data already exist in GIS-compatible formats. These data can be obtained from data suppliers and loaded directly into a GIS. Manipulation It is likely that data types required for a particular GIS project will need to be transformed or manipulated in some way to make them compatible with your system. For example, geographic information is available at different scales (detailed street centreline files; less detailed census boundaries; and postal codes at a regional level). Before this information can be integrated, it must be transformed to the same scale (degree of detail or accuracy). This could be a temporary transformation for display purposes or a permanent one required for analysis. GIS technology offers many tools for manipulating spatial data and for weeding out unnecessary data. Management For small GIS projects it may be sufficient to store geographic information as simple files. However, when data volumes become large and the number of data users becomes more than a few, it is often best to use a database management system (DBMS) to help store, organise, and manage data. A DBMS is nothing more than computer software for managing a database. There are many different designs of DBMSs, but in GIS the relational design has been the most useful. In the relational design, data are stored conceptually as a collection of tables. Common fields in different tables are used to link them together. This surprisingly simple design has been so widely used primarily because of its flexibility and very wide deployment in applications both within and without GIS. Query and Analysis Once you have a functioning GIS containing your geographic information, you can begin to ask simple questions such as - Who owns the land parcel on the corner?
6 - How far is it between two places? - Where is land zoned for industrial use? And analytical questions such as - Where are all the sites suitable for building new houses? - What is the dominant soil type for oak forest? - If I build a new highway here, how will traffic be affected? GIS provides both simple point-and-click query capabilities and sophisticated analysis tools to provide timely information to managers and analysts alike. GIS technology really comes into its own when used to analyse geographic data to look for patterns and trends and to undertake "what if" scenarios. Modern GISs have many powerful analytical tools, but two are especially important. Proximity Analysis - How many houses lie within 100 m of this water main? - What is the total number of customers within 10 km of this store? - What proportion of the alfalfa crop is within 500 m of the well? To answer such questions, GIS technology uses a process called buffering to determine the proximity relationship between features. Overlay Analysis The integration of different data layers involves a process called overlay. At its simplest, this could be a visual operation, but analytical operations require one or more data layers to be joined physically. This overlay, or spatial join, can integrate data on soils, slope, and vegetation, or land ownership with tax assessment.
7 Visualisation For many types of geographic operation the end result is best visualised as a map or graph. Maps are very efficient at storing and communicating geographic information. While cartographers have created maps for millennia, GIS provides new and exciting tools to extend the art and science of cartography. Map displays can be integrated with reports, three-dimensional views, photographic images, and other output such as multimedia. 5. Data for GIS What Map Data Do I Need? If you are unfamiliar with map data, think first about how you want to use map data. Many project needs are met with the following common map data types. Then explore these links to learn more about map data! Base Maps--Include streets and highways; boundaries for census, postal, and political areas; rivers and lakes; parks and landmarks; place names; and USGS raster maps. Business Maps and Data--Include data related to census/demography, consumer products, financial services, health care, real estate, telecommunications, emergency preparedness, crime, advertising, business establishments, and transportation.
8 Environmental Maps and Data--Include data related to the environment, weather, environmental risk, satellite imagery, topography, and natural resources. General Reference Maps--World and country maps and data that can be a foundation for your database. How Do I Get Map Data? Fortunately, volumes of existing geographic data are readily available. Through the ArcData Publishing Program, ESRI has established a partnership with leading commercial data vendors to provide a wealth of information in a plug-n-play format for use with ArcView GIS. ESRI's GIS Store and ArcData Online both offer a convenient way to get the most popular geographic data. And, a variety of useful geographic data come bundled with ArcView GIS to help you get started quickly. These data sets can be used as the foundation for your GIS projects or to supplement your existing data. 6. Related Technologies GISs are closely related to several other types of information systems, but it is the ability to manipulate and analyse geographic data that sets GIS technology apart. Although there are no hard and fast rules about how to classify information systems, the following discussion should help differentiate GIS from desktop mapping, computer-aided design (CAD), remote sensing, DBMS, and global positioning systems (GPS) technologies. Desktop Mapping A desktop mapping system uses the map metaphor to organise data and user interaction. The focus of such systems is the creation of maps: the map is the database. Most desktop mapping systems have more limited data management, spatial analysis, and
9 customisation capabilities. Desktop mapping systems operate on desktop computers such as PCs, Macintoshes, and smaller UNIX workstations. CAD CAD systems evolved to create designs and plans of buildings and infrastructure. This activity required that components of fixed characteristics be assembled to create the whole structure. These systems require few rules to specify how components can be assembled and very limited analytical capabilities. CAD systems have been extended to support maps but typically have limited utility for managing and analysing large geographic databases. Remote Sensing and GPS Remote sensing is the art and science of making measurements of the earth using sensors such as cameras carried on aeroplanes, GPS receivers, or other devices. These sensors collect data in the form of images and provide specialised capabilities for manipulating, analysing, and visualising those images. Lacking strong geographic data management and analytical operations, they cannot be called true GISs. DBMS Database management systems specialize in the storage and management of all types of data including geographic data. DBMSs are optimised to store and retrieve data and many GISs rely on them for this purpose. They do not have the analytic and visualisation tools common to GIS. 7. What Can GIS Do for You? Perform Geographic Queries and Analysis The ability of GISs to search databases and perform geographic queries has saved many companies literally millions of dollars. GISs have helped reduce costs by - Streamlining customer service. - Reducing land acquisition costs through better analysis. - Reducing fleet maintenance costs through better logistics. - Analysing data quickly, as in this example: A realtor could use a GIS to find all houses within a certain area that have tiled roofs and five bedrooms, then list their characteristics.
10 The query could be further refined by adding criteria - the house must cost less than $100 per square foot. You could also list houses within a certain distance of a school. Improve Organisational Integration Many organisations that have implemented a GIS have found that one of its main benefits is improved management of their own organisation and resources. Because GISs have the ability to link data sets together by geography, they facilitate interdepartmental information sharing and communication. By creating a shared database, one department can benefit from the work of another - data can be collected once and used many times.
11 As communication increases among individuals and departments, redundancy is reduced, productivity is enhanced, and overall organisational efficiency is improved. Thus, in a utility company the customer and infrastructure databases can be integrated so that when there is planned maintenance, affected customers can be sent a computer-generated letter. Make Better Decisions The old adage "better information leads to better decisions" is as true for GIS as it is for other information systems. A GIS, however, is not an automated decision making system but a tool to query, analyse, and map data in support of the decision making process. GIS technology has been used to assist in tasks such as presenting information at planning inquiries, helping resolve territorial disputes, and siting pylons in such a way as to minimise visual intrusion. GIS can be used to help reach a decision about the location of a new housing development that has minimal environmental impact, is located in a low-risk area, and is close to a population centre. The information can be presented succinctly and clearly in the form of a map and accompanying report, allowing decision makers to focus on the real issues rather than trying to understand the data. Because GIS products can be produced quickly, multiple scenarios can be evaluated efficiently and effectively. Making Maps Maps have a special place in GIS. The process of making maps with GIS is much more flexible than are traditional manual or automated cartography approaches. It begins with database creation. Existing paper maps can be digitised and computer-compatible information can be translated into the GIS. The GIS-based cartographic database can be both continuous and scale free. Map products can then be created centred on any location, at any scale, and showing selected information symbolised effectively to highlight specific characteristics.
12 The characteristics of atlases and map series can be encoded in computer programs and compared with the database at final production time. Digital products for use in other GISs can also be derived by simply copying data from the database. In a large organisation, topographic databases can be used as reference frameworks by other departments. 8. GIS in Everyday Life Making GIS Data Work for You In today's global community, the more information you have at your fingertips, the easier it is to make an informed decision. In today's high-tech world, information comes in many different ways, from company reports and statistics from down the hall to digital photos and multimedia from across the world. Information can be overwhelming and the need for timely decisions calls not only for innovative ways to access accurate, up-to-the minute information, but also tools to help present the information in useful ways. A geographic information system or GIS allows you to bring all types of data together based on the geographic and locational component of the data. But unlike a static paper map, GIS can display many layers of information that is useful to you. You will be able to integrate, visualise, manage, solve, and present the information in a new way. Relationships between the data will become more apparent and your data will become more valuable.
13 GIS will give you the power to create maps, integrate information, visualise scenarios, solve complicated problems, present powerful ideas, and develop effective solutions like never before. GIS is a tool used by individuals and organisations, schools, governments, and businesses seeking innovative ways to solve their problems. Compiled from ESRI s Web site: Copyright Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc.
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