1 EPIPHYTES Fernanda Reinert and Talita Fontoura Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Departamento de Botânica. Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Bahia, Brazil. Keywords: canopy, lichens, ferns, bromeliads, orchids, CAM, holo-epiphytes, hemiepiphytes, poikilohydrous, homoiohydrous, phorophyte, Atlantic Forest, habitat fragmentation, Paleotropical forests, Neotropical forests. Contents 1. Introduction 2. Geographic, regional, and point scales 3. Photosynthesis 4. Water relations 5. Mineral Nutrition 6. Lichens 7. Ferns 8. Orchids 9. Bromeliads 10. Habitat modification: the forest loss 11. Conclusion Acknowledgements Glossary Bibliography Biographical Sketches Summary Epiphytes are organisms that grow upon a living plant for support and are not parasites; they are usually independent of the host plant for water and nutrition. Epiphytism is present among many groups, such as fungi, algae and plants, and in associations such as the lichens. They comprise about 10% of vascular plants and are particularly abundant and diverse in the wet tropics. Epiphytes are part of the canopy community and can be of major importance for nutrient cycling of forests and are important for creating niche habitats for several animal species. Different morphological and physiological adaptations were necessary to conquer the epiphytic habit, many related to water economy. Epiphytes can be classified according to their dependence on the supportive tree; growth habit; water economy mechanisms, amongst others; and usually, the wetter the forest, the larger the number of epiphytes. Altitude also influences their abundance and richness. Other factors are also very important in explaining their diversity and the size of the supporting tree and the texture of the bark have a role to play. Epiphytes, among other canopy life forms are especially vulnerable to extinction because endemism is relatively frequent and the rate of deforestation scarily high. This chapter is dedicated to the biology of epiphytes; we introduce their diversity and discuss aspects
2 of their nutrition, photosynthesis and water relationships. The following groups received special attention: lichens, ferns, and two seed families, Orchidaceae and Bromeliaceae. 1. Introduction The term epiphyte, from the Greek epi (upon) and phyton (plant), was first introduced by Mirbel in his book Èlements de physiologie végétale et de botanique (1815) and refers to an organism that grows upon a living plant for support. Epiphytes are not parasites, i.e. they are usually independent of the host plant for nutrition, although they may sometimes damage the host plant, often by shading. Also, they are not restricted to grow on a host plant, for instance, epiphytes can be found growing on wires (Figure 1). There are holo-epiphytes, which complete their life cycle without contact with the ground and the hemi-epiphytes, which, at some stage of their development, root in ground soil. Orchids are probably the most famous representative of holo-epiphytes and the stranglers Ficus are well known hemi-epiphytes. Field surveys may adopt wider classifications including accidental, facultative, hemi-epiphytes, true epiphytes, and parasites in the category epiphytes or narrower classifications including only facultative and true epiphytes in the list of the epiphytic species occurring in a given region. Figure 1. Epiphytes, Tillandsia stricta and T. tricholepis (Bromeliaceae), growing on wires in the city of Rio de Janeiro Epiphytism is considered a paraphyletic trait present among all large groups, such as bacteria, fungi, plants, and in associations such as the lichens. Epiphytes are extremely common among aquatic species growing on algae or on aquatic flowering plants.
3 Vascular and non-vascular epiphytes biomass production in many rain forest canopies is significant, especially in cloud forests. Among vascular plants, epiphytes comprise about 10% distributed among 84 families with over 25,000 species and they are particularly abundant in the wet tropics. Epiphytes may occur from the basis of tree trunks up to the tree crowns on trees as high as 50m or even taller. These plants were observed and studied by naturalists since the 19th century, beginning with SCHIMPER in Central America, then in the 1940 s with priest RAMBO in the sub-tropical forest from south Brazil and in the 1960 s with HOSOKAWA in the forests of Micronesia. Nevertheless, regular studies of epiphytes in the tree crowns were improved recently by climbing techniques called single rope techniques consisting on rock climbing techniques adapted to peculiarities of climbing trees. Because epiphytes are mostly found in the tree crowns, these plants are part of the canopy community where the full diversity of organisms remains to be mapped. Even though studies on the epiphytic community have begun two hundred years ago, the bulk of studies on epiphytes started on the 1980 s as a result of scientific studies developed in the forest canopy favoring the discussion of canopy access, ecological role, ecophysiology and conservation of epiphytes. Thus, in some tropical areas, the organic matter released by epiphytes is the most important flux of nutrients reaching the forest floor. Besides participating on the nutrient cycling of forests, these plants may increase the structural complexity of forests because of the frequently dependent fauna associated to these plants. For instance, DUELLMAN & PIANKA (1990) suggested that the diversity of frogs is larger in the Neotropics, partially because of the presence of bromeliads, which have a large number of epiphytic species. These plants would be responsible to the availability of abundant and diverse microhabitats for these vertebrates. Epiphytes usually obtain water and nutrients from fog, dew, rainwater and through fall. Water availability for epiphytic plants is irregular and plants tend to endure drought stress between precipitation events, even in everwet regions. Dry periods are particularly crucial for juvenile plants and are a primary cause of death among them. Different morphological and physiological adaptations were necessary to conquer the epiphytic habit. For instance, some species of orchids have bulbs, some species of pteridophytes loose their leaves in unfavorable periods of dryness, and many bromeliad species have superimposed leaves in a rosulate shape which withhold water and debris. Some orchids have a strong leaf reduction keeping their roots as the only organ to maintain the photosynthesis. Some other species are temporarily epiphytes because their development is composed by an initial phase on the tree top, an intermediate phase as hemi-epiphyte with roots growing down to the forest floor, and a final phase as a mature tree. This is the case of some Ficus which usually kill their host tree, reason why they are called strangler trees. The variety of morphological and physiological adaptations and relationship with their supportive trees enabled different classification systems, resumed by BENZING (1990):
4 I RELATIONSHIP TO THE SUPPORTIVE TREE A. Autotrophs (plants supported mechanically by woody vegetation; no nutrient extracted from vasculature of phorophytes) 1. Accidental (predominantly terrestrial plants that accidentally germinate in the tree trunk crevices, e.g. Kalanchoe spp.) 2. Facultative (species that may grow either on the tree top or on the forest floor, e.g. species of sub-family Bromelioideae of Bromeliaceae; Figure 2) Figure 2. Facultative epiphytes: A- Nidularium bicolor (Bromeliaceae) on tree trunk; B- the same species as terrestrial a few meters away from the epiphytic individuals.
5 3. Hemiepiphytic Primary (germination occurs in the tree top but the development of roots and stems occur down to the forest floor) a. Strangling (the stem becomes lignified around the supportive tree becoming a erect trunk. In this situation, the hemiepiphyte crown may overtop the supportive tree; Figure 3) b. Nonstrangling (e.g., Clusia species) Secondary (germination occurs on the forest floor but the development of roots and stems occurs upward the supportive tree) 4. Truly epiphytes (the holo-epiphytes of Schimper; Figure 4) B. Heterotrophs (plants subsisting on xylem contents of their supportive trees) 1. Parasites (also called mistletoes, e.g. species of Viscaceae and Loganiaceae families) Figure 3. Primary hemiepiphyte: A Ficus sp. tree (Moraceae). Note that the hemiepiphyte trunk enfolded the phorophyte and letft a few gaps from where one can see the dead tree.
6 Figure 4. True epiphytes: Orchidaceae on the tree branch of Lecythis pysonis (Lecythidaceae). Figure 5. Herbaceous rosulated bromeliad: this leaf arrangement is characteristic of many Bromeliaceae species as this Guzmania sp.. Note water and debris impounded b the leaves. II. GROWTH HABIT A. Trees B. Shrubs C. Suffrutescent to herbaceous forms
7 1. Tuberous a. Storage: woody and herbaceous b. Myrmecophytic (plants associated to ants): mostly herbaceous 2. Broadly creeping: woody or herbaceous 3. Narrowly creeping: mostly herbaceous 4. Rosulate (Figure 5): herbaceous 5. Root/leaf tangle: herbaceous 6. Trash-basket: herbaceous III. WATER BALANCE MECHANISMS A. Poikilohydrous (many bryophytes, some pteridophytes and a few angiosperms) B. Homoiohydrous 1. Hygrophytes 2. Mesophytes 3. Xerophytes a. Grought-endurers b. Drought-avoiders 4. Impounders IV. LIGHT REQUIREMENTS A. Exposure types (largely exposed to sites in full or nearly full sun; Figure 6) B. Sun types (tolerant to medium shade) C. Shade-tolerant types (tolerant to deep shade) Figure 6. The bromeliad spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides) on the external branches of trees, growing as exposed epiphytes.
8 V. SUBSTRATE REQUIREMENT A. Relatively independent of root medium (obtain moisture and nutrition primarily from rain, mist and dew) 1. Mist and atmospheric forms (with minimal attachment to bark) 2. Twig/bark inhabitants 3. Species that create substitute soils or attract ant colonies (ant house epiphytes) B. Tending to utilize a specific type of root medium for moisture and nutrition) 1. Humus-adapted a. Generalist types (root in shallow humus mats) b. Deep humus types (penetrate in trees knotholes or rooting wood) c. Ant-nest garden and plant-catchment inhabitants (e.g., Platycerium spp., Utricularia humboltii) Bibliography TO ACCESS ALL THE 31 PAGES OF THIS CHAPTER, Visit: Ahmadjian V. (1995). Lichens are more important than you think. BioScience 45:124. [This one-page paper makes the point of how important lichens are with some important statistics.] Benner J.W. Vitousek P.M. (2007). Development of a diverse epiphyte community in response to phosphorus fertilization. Ecology Letters 10(7): [This is a case study reporting the response of an epiphytic community to several nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorous.] Benzing, D. H. (1990). Vascular epiphytes. General biology and related biota, 354 pp. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge UK. [This is one of the most comprehensive works on epiphytes.] Colwell, R. K. and Lees, D. C. (2000). The mid-domain effect: geometric constraints on the geography of species richness. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15: [This article provides a deep and clear explanation of why different organisms have so many species in the mid elevations. In this case deep does not mean an encrypted text and many readers may follow all concepts behind mid-domain effect.] Duellman, W. E. & Pianka, E. R. (1990). Biogeography of nocturnal insectivores: historical events and ecological filters. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 21: [The authors explore in which extent the historical events and ecological constraints are responsible for lizard and anuran biogeography in Old World and New World tropical forests. The presence of bromeliads is mentioned as one of the main factors to influence the high diversity of anuran in the Neotropics.] Gradstein, S. R.; Nadkarni, N. M.; Krömer, T.; Holz, I.; Nöske, N. (2003). A protocol for rapid and representative sampling of vascular and non-vascular epiphyte diversity of tropical rain forests. Selbyana 24: [This article provides a standardized protocol to enable inventory of epiphytes in different tropical
9 rain forests using the same field methodology. Although it is not intended to provide species lists of different localities, the protocol may be very useful to conservationist purposes which need quick answers based on species number and comparisons of different localities.] Hawksworth D.H. (1988). The variety of fungal-algal symbioses, their evolutionary significance, and the nature of lichens. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 96:3-20. [This is an overview about the evolution and symbiotic nature of lichens.] Hietz P., Briones O. (2001). Photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and within-canopy distribution of epiphytic ferns in a Mexican cloud forest. Plant Biology (Stuttgart) 3: [This is a case study on the different aspects of fern s photosynthesis under natural conditions.] Hietz, P., Wanek, W., Wania, R., Nadkarni, N.M. (2002). Nitrogen-15 natural abundance in a montane cloud forest canopy as an indicator of nitrogen cycling and epiphyte nutrition. Oecologia 131(3): [This is a case study using nitrogen stable isotopes to infer about the nutrition of epiphytes and how they influence nitrogen cycling.] Hofstede, R.G.M, Wolf, J.H.D. (1993). Epiphytic biomass and nutrient status of a Colombian upper montane rain forest. Selbyana 4: [This is a case study which attempts to quantify the entire biomass of epiphytes on a single phorophyte.] Johansson, D. R. (1974). Ecology of vascular epiphytes in West African rain forest. Acta Phytogeographica Suecica 59: [This is a classical article which is the basic literature to all those who intend to know more about epiphytes. Johansson developed his detailed work in Africa using a lot of field experience and simple analysis of natural history of epiphytic plants.] Reich A., Ewel J.J., Nadkarni N.M., Dawson T. Evans R.D. (2003). Nitrogen isotope ratios shift with plant size in tropical bromeliads. Oecologia 137(4): [The authors use nitrogen natural abundance signature in bromeliads to investigate shifts in the nitrogen composition according to size.] Watkins J.E. Jr, Rundel P.W., Cardelús C.L. (2007). The influence of life form on carbon and nitrogen relationships in tropical rainforest ferns. Oecologia 153(2): [This work investigates carbon and nitrogen relations in epiphytes, hemi-epiphytes and soil-rooted ferns.] Wolf, J. H. D and Connings, C. J. F. (2001). Towards the sustainable harvesting of epiphytic bromeliads: a pilot study from the highlands of Chiapas, Mexico. Biological Conservation 101:23-31.[This article deals with population ecology of epiphytic species, nevertheless, its final approach of species management is the starting point to applied ecology where authors suggest effective actions to diminish overexploitation of epiphytic species. Further improvements are probably necessary but this is the first step to real conservationist actions.] Zotz, G. & Winter, K. (1994). Annual carbon balance and nitrogen-use efficiency in tropical C 3 and CAM epiphytes. New Phytol. 126: [A comprehensive study comparing the balance of carbon and nitrogen in epiphytes with C 3 and CAM photosynthesis.] Biographical Sketches Fernanda Reinert received her Bachelor degree in Biology-Ecology at the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) in Her PhD was done at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne in the UK under the supervision of Dr. Howard Griffiths in Since 1998, she has been an associate professor at UFRJ. Her areas of interest are: photosynthesis under stress, the crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), epiphytes, Bromeliaceae, and stable isotopes. She was the director of a post graduation program in Plant Biotechnology from Talita Fontoura received her Bachelor degree in Biology at the Universidade Santa Úrsula (USU) in Her PhD in Ecology was done at the Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP) under the supervision of Dr. Flavio A. M. dos Santos in Since 1996, she has been associate professor at the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC). Her areas of interest are: Bromeliaceae, epiphytes, canopy, Atlantic Rainforest and structure of vegetation.
Revista Brasil. Bot., V.32, n.3, p.521-530, jul.-set. 2009 Habitat utilization and CAM occurrence among epiphytic bromeliads in a dry forest from southeastern Brazil 1 (received: January 17, 2008; accepted:
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