Electronic Democracy and Citizen Participation. Technological and functional report on the electronic Citizen Consultation

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1 Electronic Democracy and Citizen Participation Technological and functional report on the electronic Citizen Consultation July, 2004

2 Electronic democracy and citizen participation. Technological and functional report on the electronic Citizen Consultation MadridParticipa Scytl Online World Security S.A. Accenture Sociedad Unipersonal S.L. First published 2004 Copyright July 2004 Scytl Online World Security S.A., Barcelona, Spain, and Accenture Sociedad Unipersonal S.L., Madrid, España The reproduction or adaptation, be it total or partial, of the information contained in this document, into any type of material or in electronic form by any physical or legal person without prior written consent from Scytl Online World Security S.A and Accenture Sociedad Unipersonal S.L. is forbidden. Design by ARTEXT producción gráfica Printed by COIMOFF Printed in Spain - Impreso en España

3 Index Objectives of the experience... 5 Precedents... 6 Characteristics of the event... 7 Motivation... 7 Consultation... 7 Location... 8 Segment of the population... 8 Dates... 9 Participation channels Participation centres Results Communication of the event Communication actions Observers Corporate image Images of the event Web 23 Description of the participation process Interactions with the citizen Processes followed during the consultation Technological infraestructure Poll-site centres and remote voting Voting and registration system Tallying system Security system

4 Electronic Democracy and Citizen Participation Organization of the project Firms that participated in the project Observers Local partners Council participation Conclusions

5 Objectives of the experience On the 28 th, 29 th and 30 th of June 2004 a binding pilot test regarding citizen participation using a multi-channel system employing the most advanced security technology took place in the City of Madrid. This pilot was the most significant and far reaching undertaken until the moment in Spain, and which allowed to the City of Madrid to position themselves at the same level as other European cities in the Electronic Democracy (e- Democracy) arena. The main objective of the test pilot consisted in analysing the possibilities that the use of new technologies offers to improve and modernize participation processes, as well as to increase the interaction of citizens with public entities. Another objective was also to ensure that the technologies used offered the levels of security that an experience of these characteristics required. If the steps undertaken by other European countries are followed, the recommended route for the correct implementation of tools that encourage electronic Democracy consists in undertaking a number of pilots, defined but with a certain scope, that allow the evaluation of both socio-political aspects and technological ones as well as develop permanent participation platforms. In this regard, a test pilot with a public opinion survey has been undertaken. This test had until the moment no precedents in Spain in what refers to the security technology involved, the variety of electronic participation channels offered and the number of voters. A variety of national and international Observers were invited to the pilot experience from different areas: government (local, regional, etc ), academics in the areas of e-democracy and others interested in the development of a participative democracy through electronic means. 5

6 Precedents Since the Internet has become a phenomenon of masses, studies have been undertaken in various countries around the positive effect that the net of networks could have on relations between citizens and the Public Administration, facilitating interaction between the two. In particular, the use of new technologies implies huge promises in what refers to the improvement and modernization of current electoral processes as well as traditional participation, also opening the doors to the development of public opinion portals. In order to introduce the concepts of electronic Democracy, and to initiate the necessary experimentation with diverse technologies of electronic consultations, various European countries have lately organized different pilot tests of electronic voting with which they request that citizens offer their opinion on different topics or that they elect certain representatives. The correct technology implementation strategy in electoral and polling processes implies gradual experimentation. This strategy allows the technology systems and the procedures used to be perfected, by obtaining reliable data from real tests with real citizens. For example, the United Kingdom carried out electronic voting pilots during the local elections in 2002 and 2003, and foresees undertaking more each year until the elections in 2008, when the use of new technologies for casting binding votes in general elections will be fully enabled. On the other hand, in Switzerland, the canton of Geneva undertook in 2002 and the beginning of 2003 remote electronic voting pilots that were binding, and the cantons in Zurich an Neuchâtel have run new tests in The Dutch government will allow its three million residents living outside of Holland to vote electronically during the 2004 general elections. France is also on the list with a test in Issy les Moulineaux and the recent ones held during the 2004 elections. Germany, Ireland, Estonia and Norway have similar initiatives. In all of these the objective is the consolidation of reliable tools which are also flexible, secure and efficient for electronic voting and citizen participation and that among other benefits will reduce the electronic absenteeism and will draw the younger segments of the population closer to politics. In Spain, thanks to the initiatives of various public administrations and firms, a variety of electronic voting pilots have been undertaken until the moment. We could highlight the pilots held during the elections of the Vice Chancellor in the Autonomous University of Barcelona in 2001 and during the cloister elections in the University of Barcelona in 2002, the elections to the Advising Committee to the Guardia Civil in 2002, the trade union elections of the Mossos d Esquadra (autonomous Catalan police) and the elections to the Parlament of Catalonia in 2003, or the surveys undertaken in the areas of Poble Sec in Barcelona and the Sant Bartomeu del Grau and Hoyo de Pinares City Councils. 6

7 Characteristics of the event Motivation The Madrid City Council planned to initiate a participative process consisting of a public opinion survey, with the added new aspect that new technologies would be used during the consultation process, by means of a pilot experience that would provide real data to evaluate the suitability of these types of processes and the use of the technology. The socio-political details of the consultation and the interpretations can be found in the independent report undertaken by Doctors Jordi Barrat and Josep Maria Reniu. Consultation Citizens were consulted on a series of multiple-choice questions related to possible actions and improvements in equipment that the City Council could promote in their areas. Only one response could be selected per question (a requirement set by the Council). The questions posed were the following: 1. Which public infrastructures do you believe could be improved within the Central District? A. Education centres B. Centres for the elderly C. Artistic-cultural centres D. Shopping Centres E. Green areas F. Libraries G. Children s parks H. Child care centres I. I do not wish to give my opinion on this question / No opinion 2. What is, in your opinion, the most important priority in order to improve the quality of life in the Central District? A. Improve traffic B. Improve security C. Improve cleanliness D. Improve housing E. Improve the availability of public infrastructure F. Integration of the immigrant community G. I do not wish to give my opinion on this question / No opinion 7

8 Electronic Democracy and Citizen Participation 3. Which activities would most contribute to stimulating and revitalizing the Central District? A. Street theatres B. Thematic street markets C. Travelling Expositions D. Improving traditional commerce E. Converting streets to pedestrian areas F. I do not wish to give my opinion on this question / No opinion Location The public opinion survey was undertaken in the Central District of Madrid, with a number of potential voters ascending to 136,227 residents according the registry, a figure calculated upon excluding those under the age of 16. Universidad Justicia Palacio Sol MAP OF THE CENTRAL DISTRICT Cortes POPULATION: 146,443 (Inhabitants) DENSITY OF THE POPULATION: 280 (Inhabitants / Hectares) NUMBER OF HOMES: 61,807 Embajadores Segment of the population The survey was open to all those people 16 years old registered in the Central District, independently of their nationality. The minimum normal age of 18 for participation in elections was reduced given the fact that it was a pilot participation process and in order to involve younger people with public institutions as well as public life. Within the Central District the distribution of the age pyramid is not very homogenous, the younger segments of the population being the largest. With regard to socio-cultural level, we find ourselves with a distribution which is around 53% within the intermediate and higher levels where the potential for participation is theoretically higher, however contrary to this there also exists a very high percentage of people with no qualification and migrant population, groups potentially included in the so-called digital divide, where access to and use of new technologies is less widespread and there are greater difficulties to introduce these into society. 8

9 Technological and functional report AGE PYRAMID IN THE CENTRAL DISTRICT 100 and more 95 to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to 14 5 to 9 0 to 4 Men Woman SOCIO-CULTURAL LEVEL Working population distribution CENTER Absolute value Percentage Business executives and Public Administration 3, % Technicians, scientific professionals and intellectuals 9, % Support technicians and professionals 8, % Employees in administration 4, % Jobs in restoration, personal and protection, trade services 7, % Qualified jobs in agriculture and fishing % Qualified industry, building, mining jobs 3, % Operators of facilities, machinery, fitters 1, % Non-skilled workers 5, % Army professionals % Total 43, 880 Dates The consultation took place on the 28 th, 29 th and 30 th of June 2004, with the following agenda. 9

10 Electronic Democracy and Citizen Participation AGENDA ON THE VOTING DAYS 28th of June 19:00 h Creation of the Consultation Board (similar to an electoral board). 21:00 h Opening of the consultation for all citizens within the district. 29th of June Full day to exercise right to participate. The polling-site centers are open from 9:00 a.m. till 20:00 p.m., with the exception of a market which closes at midday. 30th of June Day to participate. The polling-site centers are open from 9:00 a.m. till 17:00 p.m., with the exception of a market which closes at midday. 17:00 h Consultation process is closed. 17:45 h Opening of ballot boxes and tallying. 17:55 h Official presentation of results. Participation channels The consultation was undertaken on a citizen participation platform that integrates various participation channels both remote and poll-site based: REMOTE ACCESS Mobile phones PC POLL-SITE VOTING Tablets PCs Personal computers INTERNET Voting servers Polling station In particular, the different channels set up for participation in the consultation were: Remote electronic participation using a personal computer with connection to Internet. Remote electronic participation using mobile telephones. Poll-site electronic participation using Tablet PCs and personal computers located in several centres set up especially for the event using touch screens and other elements to facilitate the use of these systems. Below we will show the instructions given to each citizen that outline the process to be followed in order to participate in the channels set-up (instructions in Spanish). 10

11 Technological and functional report 11

12 12 Electronic Democracy and Citizen Participation

13 Technological and functional report Participation centres The use of new technologies in Public Administrations introduces a symbol of modernization in these. The new channels of interaction with citizens that come about as a result of their usage, allow more direct relations to be established and to become compliments to the traditional ones. Although it is true, that society is becoming increasingly more familiar with new technologies, still remains a large segment of the population which has no access to these, be it due to a lack of knowledge or in other cases a lack of resources or interest (digital divide). There are also people who still prefer a more direct and personalized contact, and who do not see in these new forms of access an alternative way to contact Public Administration. It is for these reasons that traditional channels are not and should not be replaced, at least nowadays. In order to ensure that access to these new technologies did not prove to be of any impediment for any sector of those people registered in the Central District, different poll-sites centres were set up with personnel and the necessary infrastructure to enable the right to vote in the consultation to be exercised. These centres have been strategically selected, given that they all represent meeting points for very heterogeneous groups within the population of the District. These centres were: Mesonero Romanos Centre (Plaza Mayor, nº 27) Situated at the heart of Madrid, the Mesonero Romanos Centre that bears the name of a Spanish literary figure from the 19 th Century (1803). It is located in the old Bakery House. Currently this centre is dedicated to the study of current topics but fundamentally to the diffusion of the Madrid culture. Apart from the diffusion of culture which takes place by way of expositions the centre also organizes a whole series of activities such as seminars, conferences and other cultural acts. Citizen participation HQ (Bailén, nº 22) It constitutes the new office of the government area within the Madrid City Council for Citizen Participation. Benito Martín Lozano Municipal Eldery Centre (San Joaquín, nº 10) This centre located near the famous street Fuencarral (University District) constitutes a meeting point for all Spanish people or foreigners over 60, retired or pensioners due to their age or disability registered in the central district. San Antón Market (Augusto Figueroa, nº 24) This centre is located in a market, which today represents the largest shopping centre in the Chueca area. 13

14 Electronic Democracy and Citizen Participation Neighbours Association La Corrala (Cabestreros, nº 9, local) The office set up by the Neighbours Association, constitutes a meeting point for many of the residents in the area of Lavapies, where it a series of activities are undertaken: Legal advice - social assistance - Leisure and Culture - work integration - voluntary work. Casino de la Reina (Casino, nº 5) A community centre where public internet access points are located. In addition, in the same building, there is also a social assistance centre for migrants and day centre for the elderly. Apart from these centres, the CAPI network (network of Centres for Public Internet access) have participated in the initiative given that they are centres where citizens can go to request credentials and use the existing infrastructures to participate in the public opinion consultation. For more information about this network, please check Results The results obtained from the experience were analysed in depth in the socio-political study undertaken as a result of the experience by a team of experts from the University of León (OVE) specialized in topics regarding electronic Democracy. We summarize the most significant facts extracted from this experience. Participation rate There was an overall participation rate of 0.65% with regard to the total population possible of 136,227 people, with 882 votes as the absolute value. Roll Registered citizens Citizens that voted 136,227 1, % 0.99% 0.65% With regard to the breakdown of the participation by voting channels this was the information extracted: VOTES PER CHANNEL Internet - Poll-site centre, 53% Internet remote, 34% Mobile Java, 3% Mobile SMS, 10% 14

15 Technological and functional report Regarding the most voted responses for each question, next you can find the votes breakdown: Votes per question Citizens Roll that voted Absenteeism 136, , % 0.65% 99.35% Question 1. Which public infrastructures do you believe could be improved within the Central District? Votes Percentage A. Educational centres % B. Elderly centres % C. Artistic and culture centres % D. Shopping centres 47 5% E. Green areas % F. Libraries 46 5% G. Children s parks 45 5% H. Child care centres 70 7% I. I do not wish to give opinion / no opinion 7 0% PUBLIC INFRASTRUCTURES Votes A B C D E F G H I Question 2. Which is in your opinion the most important priority in terms of improving the quality of life in the Central District? 15

16 Electronic Democracy and Citizen Participation Votes Percentage A. Improve the traffic % B. Improve security % C. Improve cleanliness % D. Improve housing 93 10% E. Improve the conditions of public infrastructure 82 9% F. The integration of migrants 94 10% G. I do not wish to give opinion / no opinion 5 0% QUALITY OF LIFE Votes A B C D E F G Question 3. Which activities would contribute most to stimulating and revitalizing the Central District? Votes Percentage A. Street theatres 37 4% B. Thematic street markets 51 5% C. Travelling expositions 39 4% D. Improving traditional commerce % E. Converting streets to pedestrian areas % F. I do not wish to give opinion / no opinion 21 2% REVITALIZING THE CENTRAL DISTRICT Votes A B C D E F 16

17 Technological and functional report The Central District has a considerably large migrant and elderly population (given that it is one of the most diverse districts in the city of Madrid) and it was selected, with the objective of familiarizing these groups with the use of new technologies and also encouraging citizen participation amongst those segments that are less active and more prone to be part of the so-called digital divide. In order to achieve the maximum rate of participation possible a series of communication campaigns were undertake to communicate, train and motivate diverse groups, associations, etc. As additional information we include the statistics related to the last elections to the Madrid City Council with the absenteeism rates. MADRID CITY COUNCIL ELECTIONS 2003 (% of absenteeism per District) % ROLL Centro 02. Arganzuela 03. Retiro (*) 04. Salamanca (*) 05. Chamartín 06. Tetuán 07. Chamberí 08. Fuencarral-El Pardo 09. Moncloa-Aravaca 10. Latina 11. Carabanchel 12. Usera 13. Puente de Vallecas 14. Moratalaz 15. Ciudad Lineal 16. Hortaleza 17. Villaverde 18. Villa de Vallecas 19. Vicálvaro 20. San Blas 21. Barajas In any case, as a public opinion consultation, Madrid Participa could never be objectively compared to an electoral process, given that although the mechanisms are similar, the objectives of each process are different, and so the motivations of the participants. In the sociological report the statistical information is broken down in more detail and we refer to this in order to analyse in more depth the information contained in the citizen consultation. 17

18 Communication of the event In an event of these characteristics it is necessary to undertake concerted communication efforts in a systematic and organized way, both directed at citizens that participate in the survey and towards the media local, national and foreign. Communication actions With this objective in mind a special communication plan was initially designed. Finally the following actions were undertaken: Presentation of the initiative In the 21 st of May 2004, the project Madrid Participa was presented. The person responsible for this was the Mayor of Madrid, Mr. Alberto Ruíz-Gallardón. This clearly demonstrated the commitment of the Council with regard to this initiative, and the binding nature of the participative process was also announced. The act concluded with the signing of the collaboration agreement between the Council and the two organizing companies (Accenture and Scytl). All the representatives of the companies involved together with the Mayor of Madrid 18

19 Technological and functional report Web of the event In order to communicate the event, an informational web was developed (www.madridparticipa.org) which included all information related to the realization of the consultation and participation in it as proposed by the Council. In this area, all citizens or visitors interested in the public opinion consultation could obtain information, apart from being a site where citizens also accessed to cast their vote during the period of the consultation. As a result of this, the web was active from the beginning of the communication of the event to the media until October The web has been growing in content during the project. In the section below details of the web are outlined. Communication in local, national and international media (television, radio and Internet) undertaken in the period from the 14th of June (after the European elections) until the 30th of June The organizers of the public opinion poll, both the institutions and the partners, have been committed to obtaining the maximum media coverage before, during and after the consultation was undertaken, as a process of these characteristics has no precedents in Spain. Local communication: the following promotional measures were undertaken: The voluntary personnel provided by the Council, undertook various communication activities as well as contacting the citizens able to participate, handing out informational pamphlets regarding the consultation, its objectives and benefits to citizens. Sending each citizen in the Central District a personalized letter with an informational pamphlet. Distribution of pamphlets in Neighbours Associations, libraries and other public places. Putting up posters that promoted the event in different areas: banners, columns, and some shops. Distribution of pamphlets and help guides on the voting process in the Centres set up for the consultation. Publicity ads on the Madrid Metro Channel. Complete colour advertisement on a whole page in the the local newspaper, Gaceta of the Central District. Several news reports on Telemadrid during the days of the consultation, also appearing on news bulletins and a TV programme called Madrid Directo. National and International communication The organization has actively worked on sending out press releases as well as summoning the media both at national and international level in order to cover the public consultation (for example, by undertaking interviews). In this respect, a selection of national media that included the press, radio, television and content providers for specialized media (economy, technology, e-democracy etc.) as well as for general topics was undertaken. These actions have been co-ordinated among different press cabinets from the organizers and partners. 19

20 Electronic Democracy and Citizen Participation In total over 20 appearances have been made in different media be it the general press, various articles in technology magazines and various appearances in local radios in Madrid. Presentation of the event The afternoon prior to the initiation of the poll-site voting, the official presentation of the event took place. The objective of this presentation was to explain the development of the consultation process, its characteristics and advantages. During this presentation, a representative of the Council and some of its partners and collaborating institutions were given a limited period of time to express their opinion regarding the event. Once the presentation had been completed, the organizers proceeded to set up the voting electoral board right in front of the audience. The members of the board were designated by the Council, who selected representatives from the consistory, neighbours and personalities related to the citizen participation. Following the presentation of the event, all institutions, collaborating partners, observers and other relevant personalities were invited to snacks and drinks. Presentation of the results On the afternoon of the last day of the consultation, just after it had been closed, the results were tallied and presented to the public. The objective of this presentation was to show the process of obtaining the results, the advantages of using an electronic format and the first results with preliminary comments regarding them. Once the data of the consultation had been obtained, Mr. Miguel Ángel Villanueva, executive manager of the Area for Economy and Citizen Participation, showed the results to the public and briefly commented on them. Internal communication All partners that collaborated in the organization of the public consultation used internal communication channels (intranets, meetings, magazines, etc) in order to increase awareness of the event amongst the largest number of people possible, specially the ones related to e-government. Observers In order to formally validate the public consultation, the Madrid City Council considered it very appropriate for prestigious and renowned observers to be present. This is why representatives from various public administrations from Spain and international were invited, together with academics and experts in the area of e- Democracy, with the objective to take part in the various acts associated with Madrid Participa. Finally over 40 observers, both national and international attended the event, and offered very positive opinions regarding the initiative. 20

21 Technological and functional report Corporate image The corporate image of the initiative was developed from a logo designed for the project. In addition, a search was undertaken for a new image, fresh and current that would identify the project as vanguard that combines the concepts of being modern and participative in the final design there are a series of people drawn that form a construction, a metaphor that represents the idea that the participants can influence the decisions which refer to the actions undertaken by the council in their districts: the idea of citizen participation, together with a fresh and dynamic image of society. Images of the event Below we outline some of the images that summarize the project Madrid Participa. Neighbours centre La Corrala 21

22 Electronic Democracy and Citizen Participation Mesonero Romanos Centre Urban exposure 22

23 Technological and functional report Creation of the Consultation Board Web From the Madrid participa website, any citizen or interested visitor could find information, together with the 010 (Public service telephone number from the Council). From this web it was possible to undertake a variety of actions, including requesting credentials using digital certificates from the FNMT (the certificate accepted by the Madrid City Council for online transactions), casting their votes during the period the consultation was open, or visualizing the final results of the process. The basic structure of the web was focused on different types of audiences. An up to date and simple design was chosen to maximise the usability for any user as well as accessibility in such a way that with a simple click it would be possible to register, vote or see the results. The final structure proposed for the web was the following: Home page: this is the initial page which is accessed. This is why it should offer information in a clear and concise fashion, as well as easy navigation and good visibility of the rest of the sections. Information for citizens: In this section all the information needed for the consultation and its procedures is contained with a focus on citizens in Madrid and potential participants. 23

24 Electronic Democracy and Citizen Participation Information for visitors: Each section contains all the information needed regarding the consultation and its procedure with a focus on visitors that are not citizens of Madrid, normally tourists and the press. Information regarding sponsors: includes an initial page with summarised information regarding the participation of the organizers of the consultation (Accenture, Madrid City Council and Scytl), and the sponsors of the event (Telefónica, Oracle, Intel and Hewlett-Packard). News section: this section shows all news published by the organizers of the event, both in text and downloadable file format. Access to the registration, voting and results areas. In addition a series of demos were set up to help users familiarize themselves with the different voting systems. During the months of May and June, the following information around visits was obtained, the official launch of the web being on the 21 st of May, the day after the official presentation of the initiative: Month Unique users Visits Pages viewed May ,554 June 1,523 3,555 44,597 MAY Average JUNE Average 24

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