1 What You Need to Know Before Considering a Reverse Mortgage Fair Housing Legal Support Center & Clinic
2 Reverse Mortgage Pros and Cons Pros A reverse mortgage may allow senior homeowners to age in place and stay in their homes longer. Reverse mortgage proceeds can provide cash: for long-term, out-of-pocket expenses not covered by other insurance to pay off an existing for-purchase mortgage, thus reducing monthly expenses as an alternate supplemental income source in retirement A HECM reverse mortgage is a non-recourse loan, meaning the amount owed cannot exceed the market value of the house at the time the loan becomes due. A reverse mortgage may be appropriate for seniors whose children are in a better economic situation than their parents and have little or no expectation of receiving money from their parents estate. Cons A reverse mortgage has no escrow provisions. Homeowners must budget for the annual property taxes and hazard insurance. A non-hecm reverse mortgage loan may lack insurance to protect the borrower against default by the lender. A reverse mortgage loan is an expensive way to borrow money. Homeowners should make sure they consider all options available to them. The counseling required to receive a HECM reverse mortgage may not, by itself, protect borrowers from making poor choices related to choice of lenders and payment options. Surviving spouses who were not age-qualified at the time a reverse mortgage was taken out and were not borrowers may be in jeopardy of losing their homes if the loan balance cannot be repaid from other assets upon the death of the borrowing spouse. While reverse mortgage loans are neither good nor bad, they are legally intricate and financially complex. Potential borrowers need be sure they understand how a reverse mortgage will affect them, as well as learn about other available alternatives that might fit their specific financial situation. To find a HUD-certified reverse mortgage counselor in your area, call the HUD Counselor Locater at or go to
3 Reverse Mortgage Basics The information in this brochure relates primarily to the FHA-insured Home Equity Conversion Mortgage (HECM), a reverse mortgage loan. What is a HECM reverse mortgage? How are the proceeds of a HECM reverse mortgage paid to the borrower? Are there any qualifications a borrower must meet to obtain a HECM reverse mortgage loan? How does a reverse mortgage loan differ from a for-purchase mortgage loan? In its simplest form a reverse mortgage is a means by which homeowners aged 62 or older can convert some of the equity in their home into cash. The proceeds of a reverse mortgage are a loan that must be repaid when the borrower(s) no longer live in the home. No repayment is due as long as the homeowners continue to live in the home, pay the property taxes when they are due, keep hazard insurance on the home, and maintain the property. The proceeds of a reverse mortgage loan can be taken in one of five basic ways: 1. A lump sum of cash 2. Payments for as long as the borrower lives in the house 3. Payments for a specific term of years 4. A line of credit from which the borrower can take cash as needed 5. A combination of monthly payments and a line of credit Currently, the only requirements for homeowners to qualify for a HECM reverse mortgage are: Borrowers are at least 62 years of age There is sufficient equity in the property to pay off any liens against the property, including any existing for-purchase mortgage loans Borrowers should be aware that there is no escrow account for property taxes and insurance with a reverse mortgage and borrowers must budget carefully to make sure they can pay these expenses when they are due. Borrowers also must receive counseling from a HUD-certified reverse mortgage counselor before they can be approved for a HECM reverse mortgage. The mortgage loan that most people are familiar with is a loan to purchase a home. For purposes of illustration this might be considered a forward mortgage. As the note is paid off, the debt decreases and the homeowner s equity in the property increases until the debt is extinguished and the homeowner owns all the equity. This is a falling debt, rising equity situation. A reverse mortgage works in just the opposite way. Over the life of the loan, the loan debt increases and the homeowner s equity in the property decreases. This is a rising debt, falling equity situation.
4 How is the amount of available equity in a HECM reverse mortgage calculated? There are four key components used to determine how much equity a homeowner can convert to cash through a reverse mortgage: 1. The appraised value of the home the higher the value, the greater the loan 2. The age of the borrower(s) in general, older borrowers can borrow more 3. The interest rate of the loan the lower the rate, the greater the loan 4. The manner in which the proceeds are taken The actual calculation is complex and potential borrowers should make sure they have been thoroughly counseled on all the variables and available options. A HECM reverse mortgage is insured by the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) with insurance premiums paid by the borrower. One of a HECM s key features is that the loan balance owed will not exceed the market value of the home when the loan is due. What is the mortgage insurance premium and why is it added to the loan balance? A HECM reverse mortgage is insured by the FHA. This protects the borrower in the event that the lender fails to make scheduled payments to the borrower. The insurance also protects the lender in the event that the market value of the property is insufficient to pay the loan balance when the loan becomes due. The premiums are added to the loan balance and can affect the total amount of equity the borrower can convert into cash. The calculation of the mortgage premium is complex and depends on several variables. Does the reverse mortgage lender become the owner of the home when the loan is made? No. As in a for-purchase mortgage loan, a reverse mortgage borrower retains title to the home. When the loan becomes due (when the youngest borrower no longer lives in the home), the home may have to be sold to pay the debt if there are insufficient estate assets to do so. Since a HECM reverse mortgage is a non-recourse loan, the amount that must be repaid cannot be more than the market value of the home at the time the loan is due.
5 Who is a HECM reverse mortgage best suited for? A HECM reverse mortgage can provide financial relief for senior homeowners who have limited savings or few financial assets other than the equity in their home. The proceeds from a reverse mortgage loan can be used to supplement income, pay medical bills, or make needed repairs to the home. However, if home equity is converted to cash at the minimum qualifying age and for less critical expenditures, homeowners can be left with no financial reserves for their later years. Can a HECM reverse mortgage be foreclosed on? Yes, under some specific circumstances. Normally, the balance of a reverse mortgage loan is due only when the borrower sells the house, no longer lives in the house, or dies. However, if the borrower rents out the property, fails to pay property taxes, does not insure the house, or lets the property fall into disrepair, the lender can foreclose and the loan will become due in full. What are the effects of recent changes to the HECM reverse mortgage program? In September 2013, the FHA reduced the total amount of equity available to be converted through a HECM reverse mortgage. They also reduced the total amount that could be paid out in the first year of the loan. These changes were made to strengthen the FHA insurance program and protect its viability. For consumers, the major effect of these two changes was a dramatic increase in the complexity of a HECM loan. It is now all the more important for potential borrowers to thoroughly understand the many variables associated with these financial products before they consider taking out a HECM reverse mortgage.
6 The John Marshall Law School Fair Housing Legal Support Center & Clinic The John Marshall Law School Fair Housing Legal Support Center was established in The Center educates and trains the public on fair housing law and provides legal assistance to those private and public organizations and persons seeking to eliminate discriminatory housing practices. The Clinic is devoted exclusively to fair housing training and enforcement. Its unique nature allows it to assist persons in receiving and retaining the housing of their choice, thereby building and strengthening neighborhoods and communities. The John Marshall Law School Fair Housing Legal Support Center & Clinic 315 S. Plymouth Court Chicago, Illinois Phone: Fax: Fair Housing Legal Support Center & Clinic 315 S. Plymouth Court, Chicago, Illinois The work that provided the basis for this publication was supported by funding under a grant with the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. The substance and findings of the work are dedicated to the public. The author and publisher are solely responsible for the accuracy of the statements and interpretations contained in this publication. Such interpretations do not necessarily reflect the views of the Government.
Prepared by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners The National Association of Insurance Commissioners is an association of state insurance regulatory officials. This association helps the
A retirement PLANNING GUIDE USING YOUR HOUSE for INCOME IN RETIREMENT It s something Americans increasingly need to consider. And increasingly need to do. A retirement PLANNING GUIDE By Steven Sass, Alicia
KEY GUIDE Financial protection for you and your family Protecting what matters most Life and health insurance protection underpins most good financial planning. These types of insurance can ensure that
Virginia Life Insurance Consumer s Guide Prepared by State Corporation Commission Bureau of Insurance www.scc.virginia.gov/boi This Consumer s Guide should be used for educational purposes only. Nothing
A Consumer Guide to Life insurance INSURANCE ADMINISTRATION Table of Contents Who We Are...1 How We Help Consumers....1 Resources for Consumers...2 Life Insurance Basics...2 The Need for Life Insurance...2
UNITED STATES BANKRUPTCY COURT District of Arizona Choosing Your Chapter or What can bankruptcy do for you? What will it do to you? June 2014 IMPORTANT WARNINGS Neither the Bankruptcy Court nor the Clerk
Table of Contents I. Introduction II. III. IV. Before You Buy Purchasing Time-line Are You Ready to be a Homeowner? Determining What You Can Afford Shopping for a House Role of the Real Estate Broker Role
plain talk about life insurance The right life insurance can have an enormous effect on your life and the lives of those you love. It can mean the difference between leaving your loved ones well positioned
Understanding Default and Foreclosure Foreclosure is the legal process in which a person who has made a mortgage (the mortgagor or borrower) in order to borrow money loses his or her rights to the mortgaged
Life Insurance and Annuity Buyer s Guide Introduction The Kentucky Office of Insurance is pleased to offer this Life Insurance and Annuity Buyer s Guide as an aid to assist you in determining your insurance
National Black Church Initiative foreclosure prevention guide 1-888-995-HOPE (4673) 1 Help for Homeowners Facing Financial Hardships 1-888-995-HOPE (4673) homeloanlearningcenter.com NATIONAL BLACK CHURCH
Uniform Residential Loan Application 1003 Purpose Mortgage Loan Application The loan application is your introduction to the borrower. Analysis of the form helps you to develop an image of the borrower
Kansas Insurance Department Life Insurance and Annuity Basics effective March 1, 2015 Ken Selzer, CPA Commissioner of Insurance March 2015 Life Insurance and Annuity Basics Dear Kansas consumer, Only a
PLAIN TALK about LIFE INSURANCE Having the right life insurance protection can have an enormous effect on your life and the lives of those you love. A proper financial security plan can mean the difference
Shedding light on Life insurance a practical guide to helping you achieve a lifetime of financial security Learn more about: Safeguarding your loved ones Protecting your future Ensuring your dreams live
Homebuyer Workbook The Pennsylvania Housing Finance Agency takes great pride in helping Commonwealth citizens become homeowners. The information we provide in our various publications, through our counseling
INSURANCE FACTS for Pennsylvania Consumers A Consumer s Guide to Life Insurance 1-877-881-6388 Toll-free Automated Consumer Line www.insurance.state.pa.us Pennsylvania Insurance Department Website Buying
Materials presented in this borchure are a collective effort of the staff of the California Department of Insurance. CALIFORNIA CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF INSURANCE Consumer Education and Outreach Bureau
An Overview of Foreclosure While the rising number of foreclosures is an alarming national trend, the real hardship is for any individual or family who knows the threat of foreclosure firsthand. Unfortunately,
CONSIDERING FILING FOR BANKRUPTCY? KNOW THE ALTERNATIVES FIRST A Different Route to Resolve Debt May Be a Better Choice ENGLEWOOD, COLORADO For some Americans facing a seemingly insurmountable level of
Introduction The Kentucky Department of Insurance is pleased to offer this Annuity Buyer s Guide as an aid to assist you in determining your insurance needs and the products that will fill those needs.
YOUR GUIDE TO Understanding Making life less complicated. Most people know that can provide their families with a death benefit if the unexpected should happen. But they may not know that it can also be
Life insurance protects your financial future. It provides the resources your family or business may need to pay immediate and continuing expenses when you die. What You should Know About Buying Life Insurance
An Educational Guide for Individuals Unlocking the value of whole life Whole life insurance as a financial asset Insurance Strategies Contents 3 Whole life insurance: A versatile financial asset 4 Providing
It s flexible Key features of the Flexible Income Annuity Flexible Income Annuity This is an important document and you should read it before deciding whether to buy your pension annuity from us Purpose
12. Insurance 2: Life Insurance Introduction Once you understand the basics of insurance, your understanding of the importance of life insurance increases greatly. Much of what is written on the subject
LIFE INSURANCE BASICS FOR LEGAL AND TAX PROFESSIONALS CPAs Attorneys Enrolled Agents Tax Professionals Professional Education Network TM www.edwardjones.com/teamwork CONTENTS 1 Introduction 2 Basics of
Chap. X Life Insurance in Estate Planning Jacobson & Becker 113 Chapter X Life Insurance in Estate Planning A. Overview and Purpose In this chapter we will examine the role played by insurance in a typical