THE IMPACT OF DEMOGRAPHICS AND SENTENCING ON RECIDIVISM:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "THE IMPACT OF DEMOGRAPHICS AND SENTENCING ON RECIDIVISM:"

Transcription

1 THE IMPACT OF DEMOGRAPHICS AND SENTENCING ON RECIDIVISM: NON-COMPLEX DIVISION, SUMMER 2011 Rachel Gage, William Hairston, Callie Kelley, and Daniella Stuart Andrew Young School of Policy Studies Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology April 2014

2 Acknowledgements We would like to thank the Fulton County District Attorney Paul Howard, project advisor Dr. Cynthia Searcy, and statistician Dr. Brent Teasdale for their contributions to this project. Dr. Cynthia Searcy provided support throughout the entire process. Her useful critiques and valuable insight helped to mold and refine our work. We also would like to thank the Fulton County DA and his staff for the provision of data and use of their office spaces. Lastly, we wish to extend our thanks to Dr. Brent Teasdale for his help with our data and statistical analyses. We offer our deepest gratitude to them. 2

3 Table of Contents Introduction... 4 Purpose of Project... 6 Research Methods and Data... 6 Literature Review... 6 Data Collection... 7 Statistical Analyses... 9 Findings Literature Review Descriptive Statistics Binary Logistic Regression Survival Analysis, Cox Regression Discussion Limitations References Tables 1. Characteristics of Offenders... Error! Bookmark not defined. 2. Distribution of Prior Felony Arrests Case Type and Sentencing Data Characteristics of Recidivism Data Predictors of Probation Predictors of Incarceration Predictors of Recidivism Predictors of Escalation Figures 1. Distribution of Prior Arrests Characteristics of Disposition Data Time to Re-Arrest by Age Time to Re-Arrest by Sex Time to Re-Arrest by Range of Prior Arrests

4 Introduction Overcrowding has become a notable concern throughout the criminal justice system as incarceration rates in the United Sates are roughly four times higher than the rest of the world (Hartney, 2006). Various strategies such as specialty courts, rehabilitative programs in prisons, and numerous changes in policing tactics have been implemented in an attempt to combat this issue. Overcrowding, however, has not been an easy undertaking due to the fact that the criminal justice system is a complex hydraulic system. Pressure in one area eventually leads to displacement in other areas causing significant strain (Feeley, 1979). The increase in arrests by law enforcement officers loads the court system with more cases, which in turn leads to more incarcerated offenders. As a result of displacement and overcrowding, courts have been forced to enact more effective ways to manage higher caseloads and reduce the number of offenders sentenced to incarceration, all while being mindful of the likelihood of recidivism. Courts are under increasing pressure to appropriately sentence defendants while also taking into account the number of offenders already in custody (Tyler, Casper, & Fisher, 1989; Steffensmeier, Ulmer, & Kramer, 1998). Additional pressure for courts stems from the various ideologies of punishment, from incapacitation to rehabilitation. Much like the rest of the nation, the Fulton County District Attorney s Office is concerned with overcrowding and has been strategic in managing a high caseload. This office developed the Non-Complex Division in 2006 in efforts to process low-level felony offenders more effectively. Non-Complex cases are defined as felony offenses with the exclusion of treason, murder, rape, aggravated sodomy, armed robbery, aircraft and motor vehicle hijacking, child molestation, aggravated sexual battery, manufacturing and trafficking controlled drugs, kidnapping, arson, aggravated assault, aggravated battery, aggravated stalking, all felony sexual 4

5 offenses, and any felony involving the use of a firearm (not possession). 1 The Non-Complex Division of the Fulton County District Attorney s Office processes approximately 70% of the felony cases received by the Fulton County Superior Court. The goal of this division is to fairly, equitably, and expeditiously process non-violent defendants into a case management system that will allow cases to flow from arrest through final disposition in a period not to exceed 9 weeks. This intricate 9 week process consists of hearings, arraignments, and periods of attorney preparation which are all meticulously scheduled on a 9 week calendar. Adherence to this calendar is essential to the efficiency of case processing and deviation from the calendar is extremely rare. While the nine week time frame of case processing addresses efficiency, the office is concerned with what happens after case disposition and sentence. More specifically, the Fulton County District Attorney s Office is directly interested in the rates of recidivism and escalation to more serious crimes for those offenders who have been processed in the Non-Complex Division. The concern is that offenders who are frequently re-arrested will begin escalating to more serious crimes as they repeatedly are processed through the system. In order to adequately assess the functionality of this division, it is necessary to look at those individuals for whom this division is intended to serve as well as the potential outcomes produced by this division. 1 There are four main categories of felony charges: drugs, theft, weapons, and miscellaneous. Under the drug category, there are 18 specific drug charges which constitute a low-level felony drug offense. Of these 18 different charges, the majority are possession charges for some type of substance. The theft category has the highest number of charges, 28, which mainly include computer or financial theft, or theft of property. In the weapons category, there are 17 charges mostly including possession of a weapon and carrying a weapon without a license or in a restricted area. The miscellaneous category has the most varied types of charges. In this category charges can include anything from driving under the influence, to simple battery or assault, obstruction, providing false information to the police, entering an automobile, or damage to property. 5

6 Purpose of Project This Capstone project is an exploration of low-level felony offenders in the Non- Complex Division of the Fulton County District Attorney s Office. Its purpose is to examine whether or not low-level felony offenders in this division are re-arrested and, if upon re-arrest, these offenders escalate to more serious offenses. This office manages a very high caseload and is concerned with gaining more insight into the types of offenders and the sentencing outcomes produced by their division. This project has four main goals: 1) to describe the types of cases disposed in summer 2011 and the characteristics of the felons charged with these crimes; 2) to determine the percentage of felons who have re-offended since 2011 and the types of crime they have committed: 3) to provide estimates of the average time to re-arrest after the 2011 disposition; and 4) to determine whether these offenders escalate to more severe felonies after the 2011 disposition. It is with these goals in mind that the Capstone Team hopes to shed light on the intricate processes of the Non-Complex Division in relation to sentencing and recidivism. Research Methods and Data Literature Review The project started with a literature review of deterrence theory and recidivism. To better understand the background of the purpose of the project, the Team read through peer-reviewed literature on the theoretical framework of the deterrence principle. Additionally, the Team reviewed literature on the link between deterrence and recidivism. The literature review provides basis for the study, as well as informs the variables chosen for analysis. A full synopsis of the literature reviewed will be provided in the Findings section. 6

7 Data Collection Research for the project began in January 2014 and continued until March Data were obtained from the Fulton County District Attorney s Office. The Capstone Team worked on site at the Fulton County Courthouse for the entire data collection process. The Team met with the supervisor of the project, Marla Robinson, on several occasions for assistance in obtaining the appropriate case files and criminal history information for each defendant. The data collection process occurred in two stages: (1) disposition and sentencing information from data file and case files; and (2) recidivism data from GCIC and NCIC provided by the Fulton County District Attorney s Office. Disposition data were provided for all cases disposed by the Non-Complex Division in the months of June through August 2011 (n=805). The disposition data were provided in an Excel spreadsheet, and the Capstone Team cleaned and de-identified the data by assigning a study identification number to all defendants. Case types designated by the District Attorney s Office were coded to reflect a numerical value for each type of case. The initial case types included aggravated assault, battery, bribery, burglary, criminal damage to property, drug crimes, entering automobile/auto theft, escape, false statements, fleeing and attempting to elude, forgery, gun/weapons, habitual violator, obstruction of law enforcement officer, and possession of tools. The disposition type determined by the Fulton County District Attorney s Office were recorded and included: dead docket, jury trial, negotiated plea, non-negotiated plea, nolle prosequi, and pled to a reduced charge. Sentencing data for these cases were also provided in the disposition data. The sentencing data include a variable for each type: First Offender Act, Alford Plea, probation, incarceration, community service, fines, restitution, counseling type (domestic violence, substance abuse, anger management, mental health, and veterans), education/ged, alcohol and 7

8 drug screens, employment, Metro Day Report, drug court, and boot camp. Additionally, the months sentenced for probation and incarceration were recorded, as well as the months to serve in prison, number of hours of community service, and dollar amount of fines. Charges for each disposition were summed to reflect the total amount of charges for each case. The case files for 406 cases were provided, decreasing the initial sample of 805 to 406 due to time constraints with obtaining the case files. From the case files provided for each of the summer dispositions, the Capstone Team recorded arrest date, sex, race, date of birth, and total number of prior arrests and felonies. The data were coded as missing if any of these variables were not present in the file. Duplicate cases, defined as a defendant having two or more cases occurring during these months, were deleted. Only the case with an arrest date closest to the disposition date was used in the analysis. Recidivism data were obtained from the Georgia Crime Information Center (heretofore referred to as GCIC) criminal histories of each defendant provided by the District Attorney s Office. If a defendant had criminal history in a state other than Georgia, this data was provided by the National Crime Information Center (NCIC) database and was included in the recidivism data. Recidivism was defined in this study as all arrests occurring after the disposition date provided by the District Attorney s Office. From the GCIC data, the following variables were recorded: date of arrest, total number of charges (collapsed and summed into one value), case type, severity of charge (misdemeanor or felony) and escalation. Due to additional case types appearing in the recidivism data, the Team created additional categories and combined prior categories that resulted in the following case types: aggravated assault, battery, bribery, burglary, criminal damage to property, driving offenses (suspended/revoked license, driving under the influence), drug crimes (possession, trafficking, sale, distribution), entering automobile/auto 8

9 theft, escape, obstruction, fleeing and attempting to elude, forgery/theft/fraud/shoplifting, guns/weapons, technical violations (parole/probation violations, habitual violator, failure to appear), sex crimes (prostitution, rape), disorderly conduct, criminal trespass, robbery, murder/involuntary manslaughter, other (bribery, criminal solicitation, conspiracy to commit a felony, terroristic threats, arson, abandonment of child, possession of tools). Escalation was operationalized as a re-arrest for a violent offense. The violent offenses included: aggravated assault, burglary, guns/weapons, sex crimes, robbery, murder/involuntary manslaughter, and entering automobile/auto theft. Statistical Analyses The first step in analysis was to provide descriptive statistics for the sample, case, and recidivism data. For the sample, the following descriptive analyses were included: percentage of sample for sex, race, and age range, percentage of sample for each case type, average number of prior arrests for sample, and average number of prior charges for sample. Case information included average sentence for the three main case types (drugs, fraud, and auto theft) and percentage of each sentence type. For the recidivism piece, the following descriptives were used: percentage of sample who recidivated, average number of re-arrests for those who recidivated, average number of re-arrests for the three main case types, average time to re-arrest for the three main case types, and percentage of those who escalated. The second step was to use Binary Logistic Regression to determine whether several variables predicted sentence type (probation or incarceration) and recidivism. Logistic Regression measures the relationship between two variables by calculating a probability model. The covariates used as predictors for sentence type included: race, sex, age range, range of number of total prior arrests, case type, and disposition type (negotiated and non-negotiated 9

10 plea). The covariates used to predict recidivism included: race, sex, age range, range of prior arrests, and case type. The third and final step in analysis was to use Survival Analysis, or Cox Regression, to determine whether certain variables predicted time to re-arrest. The covariates included: age range, race, sex, range of prior arrests, case type, and sentence type. Plots of survival time were included to provide a visual depiction of time-until-failure curves, which represent the time to rearrest. Findings Literature Review Deterrence has a history of support as an appropriate method of reducing recidivism rates. Proponents of deterrence point to three underlying principles as the key to preventing recidivism: certainty, severity, and celerity. These principles construe that an individual will forfeit committing further acts of crime if the punishment is unwavering and inescapable (certainty), the punishment more closely follows the original act of crime (celerity), and the punishment is equally as harsh as the crime enacted (severity) (Beccaria, 1963). After years of theoretical development and empirical testing, deterrence theory has evolved with critics and supporters alike having reconstructed the theory from a broad explanation of crime to more specific rationalizations. For example, Nagin (1998) suggests that the effective use of sanction policies to deter crime can only work if they are administered as originally intended. Unfortunately, this is typically not the case. Nagin (1998) provides an overview of evidence from various studies to piece together the effects of deterrence on recidivism. These studies have found that: (1) mandatory incarceration of drug offenders and increased length of incarceration have had little to no effect on drug trade; (2) laws mandating incarceration of individuals who could instead be diverted have no determinable effect on 10

11 deterrence; and (3) level of police resources is loosely connected to the apprehension threat which indicates a deterrent-like association (Nagin, 1998). For deterrence to be effective, the credibility of sanctions imposed must be maintained. The relationship between deterrence and recidivism is heavily dependent on whether a credible threat is perceived by the potential offender. The lack of a credible threat weakens the effect of deterrence on recidivism (Nagin, 1998; Wright, Caspi, Moffitt, & Paternoster, 2004). Literature on deterrence theory has developed a noticeable gap: the perspective of the would-be-offender. While the purpose of police action and court sanctions are to deter crime, the would-be-offender must first perceive these actions and sanctions as a threat in order to be deterred. Crank and Brezina (2013) focuses on the offender s point of view in regards to deterrence and recidivism. The authors posit that criminal subculture beliefs affect how offenders view prison. Their findings suggest a negative and significant relationship between criminal subculture and the offender s perception of prison time. Therefore, offenders with strong beliefs in criminal subculture do not perceive prison time as being difficult and therefore may not receive a deterrence effect. Factors such as age and previous prison terms served all seem to significantly influence their perception. The authors find no significant effect for race or sex (Crank & Brezina, 2013). As evidenced by Crank and Brezina (2013), previous studies have illustrated that various factors may influence recidivism rates. These factors may possess varying degrees of influence, making recidivists appear unpredictable (Pallone & Hennessey, 1977). In Georgia alone, 27% of all offenders were reconvicted in 2010 (GA DOC, 2013) while in the year 2000 approximately 36% of offenders returned to prison within 3 years (La Vigne & Mamalian, 2004). Of the numerous influences, sex, age, race, drug abuse, and prior offenses project the most impact. 11

12 Most studies include age as a predictor for recidivism. Kurlychek, Bushway, and Brame (2012) conclude that desistance of criminal offense is a gradual process. This means that as offenders age, they are less likely to commit future crime, commonly referred to as the aging out process. Massoglia and Uggen (2010) further state that the transition to adulthood is defined by certain role behaviors that must first be accepted by the offender. This factor might explain why first time adult-onset offenders exhibit statistically significant differences of reoffending rates in relation to juvenile persistent offenders (Harris, 2011). Research has shown that offenders commonly commit an increasing number of crimes as they advance through adolescence, reach the peak of their offending during adulthood, and steadily decrease as they reach later adulthood (Benda, Harm, & Toombs, 2005; Hirschi & Gottfredson, 1983). Similarly, DeJong (1997) notes that younger arrestees recidivate sooner than older arrestees. Race is also an important factor in determining risk of recidivism. Research shows that black men typically experience higher rates of recidivism when compared to white men, and that they recidivate in a shorter time frame (Jung, Spjeldnes, & Yamatani, 2010). DeJong (1997) finds that although black and Hispanics offenders experience higher rates of recidivating, white offenders recidivated faster. The studies reviewed support the inclusion of race as an important predictor of recidivism. The association between drugs and crime is strong and consistent in the literature. At any given time, as many as 80% of inmates and other individuals under correctional supervision are determined as being involved with drugs (Boldt, 2010). Boldt (2010) further maintains that offenders used drugs or alcohol prior to committing the offense; drugs were the primary motivation of the crime; they were charged with committing an alcohol or other drug-related crime; or they were regular substance abusers. Substance abuse problems affect three-fourths of 12

13 incarcerated offenders and more than half report that drugs influence criminal behavior (Dowden & Brown, 2002). Many studies have reported drug use to be a well-known, strong predictor of recidivism. In their survival analysis of predictors for recidivism, Schmidt and Witte (1989) find that a variable for drug use was significant and contributed to a short time until re-arrest. Gendreau, Little, and Goggin (1996) conducted a study using predictors of recidivism of adult offenders, concluding that substance use was a significant and strong predictor. They utilized substance use as a dynamic risk factor, also finding that the age of the offender at the time of arrest and the number of prior offenses are significant predictors of recidivism. Although there is an established link between drug use and violence, drug users may also be responsible for committing other forms of crime. Crimes such as forgery, shoplifting, and other non-violent crimes are monetarily motivated, most often to get more drugs. Boldt (2010) posits that more than 80% of drug abusing offenders continue their drug use within 12 months of release and this number increases to 90% when given 36 months. This suggests the drug use-offending cycle continues to revolve, most likely indicating why drug use is such a strong predictor of recidivism. Prior offenses and escalation influence recidivism as well. Overt and covert delinquent acts as a child lend to higher crime rates, higher rates of aggression, and escalation of offense type (Nijhof, de Kemp, Engels, & Wientjes, 2008). DeJong (1997) reinforces this idea, citing that individuals with more prior arrests show greater potential to be experience rearrest and typically experience rearrest faster. During these periods, an offender s crime may escalate. Escalation is a marked pattern from less serious offenses to more serious offenses over successive arrests (Blumstein, Cohen, Das, & Moitra, 1988). The term escalation does not 13

14 necessarily apply to those offenders who have serious offenses regardless of previous activity. Some studies find that crime seriousness did not escalate over time. Offenders instead end up aging out and de-escalate over time. Evidence suggests that it is not an issue of longer time but the number of convictions which may happen in a short span of time. People having more than five convictions tend to be convicted of more serious crimes than those with less than five (Liu, Francis, & Soothill, 2011). Britt (1996) reports comparable results with aggravated assault offenders showing the highest escalation within the first two arrests, while robbery offenders escalated across all arrests. This study is of particular interest because it holds similar offense categories as the current study. These findings could suggest that it is not simply that offenders are re-arrested, but rather the number of re-arrests that is important. The longer an individual stays within the system, the higher the chances of escalation. Although weak, it provides basic support for escalation in severity throughout criminal careers (Britt, 1996). In addition to individual level factors in predicting recidivism, the literature also includes institutional influences. There are a few studies that indicate how inappropriate sentencing law and practices play a part in recidivism. Padfield and Maruna (2006) observe that the actual time an offender serves in prison varies widely regardless of their initial sentence. This is the variance concerning front door (initial sentencing), back door (release), and revolving door (supervision upon release and recall when offenders violate conditions) practices in corrections. The revolving door is especially noticeable within the system. Offenders are not always re-arrested for new criminal offenses; instead, they are re-arrested for failing to adhere to some term or condition of their release (Padfield & Maruna, 2006). Reincarceration for these types of violations then needlessly contributes to overcrowding. Horwitz (2009) proposes that abuse of probation as a sentence for low-level felonies is the key focal concern in dealing with recidivism. 14

15 Nearly 80% of adult misdemeanor convictions result in sentences of probation, preventing it from being effective as a sentence (Horwitz, 2009). These findings are in line with the current study s concerns that overcrowding is preventing sentences from serving their original intended purpose and that probation is becoming the new deterrent. Descriptive Statistics The descriptive statistics in Table 1 report age ranges for the sample with the largest proportion of offenders being between 33 and 40 years old (27%). The mean age for the sample is 37.3 years. The majority of offenders are non-white (89%) and male (89%). Almost half (46%) of the sample had 6 to 20 prior arrests, with 27% having 0 to 5, and 7% with 41 to 74 prior arrests. The range of prior arrests for the sample was 0 to 74, with an average number of 15.2 prior arrests. Forty-six percent of the sample had 0 to 4 prior felonies, and 45% had between 5 and 15 felonies. Only 3% of the sample had over 25 prior felonies. The average number of prior felonies was 6.8 felonies. Figure 1 depicts the distribution of prior arrests of offenders, and Figure 2 depicts the distribution of prior felony arrests. 15

16 Table 1. Characteristics of Offenders Characteristics Percentage Age % % % % % Mean Age 37.3 years Race White 10.9% Non-White 89.1% Sex Female 11.3% Male 88.7% Prior Arrests % % % % Prior Felonies % % % % n=406 Source: Fulton County District Attorney s Office, Disposition Data, June-August

17 Figure 1. Distribution of Prior Arrests n=406 Source: Fulton County District Attorney s Office, Disposition Data, June-August 2011 Figure 2. Distribution of Prior Felony Arrests n=406 Source: Fulton County District Attorney s Office, Disposition Data, June-August

18 Table 2 reports descriptive statistics for the disposition data. The three main case types for the summer 2011 disposition cases were drug crimes (47%), auto theft (23%), and fraud/forgery/shoplifting (15%). The average number of charges for each case was 2.7 charges. The majority of the sample (90%) was sentenced to probation, 35% were sentenced to incarceration, and 13% were required to submit to random alcohol and drug screens. Less than 10% of the sample was sentenced to fines, restitution, counseling, and educational obtainment. Less than 1% were sentenced to drug court, boot camp, or were required to obtain employment. Table 2. Characteristics of Disposition Data Characteristic Percentage Case Type 46.6% Drugs Entering Auto/Auto Theft 23.4% Fraud/Forgery/Shoplifting 14.8% Mean Number of Charges per Case 2.7 Sentence 1 Probation 89.9% Incarceration 34.7% Community Service 34.2% Fines 4.7% Restitution 8.5% Counseling 8.8% Education 3.9% Employment 0.8% Alcohol/Drug Screens 13.1% Drug Court 0.8% Boot Camp 0.8% n=406 Notes: 1 All sentences that apply Sources: Fulton County District Attorney s Office, Disposition and Sentencing Data, June- August

19 Table 3 shows the percentages for both probation and incarceration by the three main case types. Of the drug cases 2, 93% were sentenced to probation and 26% were sentenced to incarceration. Similarly, 86% of the fraud cases were sentenced to probation and 40% received incarceration sentences. For the auto theft cases, 87% received probation and 57% were incarcerated 3. Table 3. Case Type and Sentencing Data Case Type and Sentence Percentage Drugs Probation 93.0% Incarceration 26.4% Fraud Probation 86.0% Incarceration 39.6% Auto Theft Probation 87.0% Incarceration 57.1% n=406 Source: Fulton County District Attorney s Office, Sentencing Data, June-August 2011 Table 4 reports the descriptive statistics for the recidivism data. Almost 80% of the sample was re-arrested between the summer 2011 disposition date and March 1, The average number of re-arrests for those that recidivated was 2.5, with the median of the sample arrested 2 times. For the drug cases, the mean number of re-arrests was 2.4, 2.9 for the fraud cases, and 2.8 for the auto theft cases. The average time to re-arrest for the drug cases was days, with the median at days. For the fraud cases, the mean time to re-arrest was days, with the median at days; for the auto theft cases, the average time to re-arrest was days, with the median also at days. Average time to re-arrest is longer than the 2 The data did not distinguish between types of drugs. 3 The percentages exceed 100% because defendants could receive multiple sentences for the same case. 19

20 median because 20 percent of cases are right-censored, meaning they were never re-arrested and have at least 913 days from their disposition to the end of observing re-arrest (March 1, 2014). Of those that recidivated, 21% escalated, or were re-arrested for at least one violent crime. Table 4. Characteristics of Recidivism Data Re-Arrest Percentage No Yes 22.2% 77.8% Characteristics Mean Median Number Re-Arrests Case Type and Number of Re-Arrests Drugs Fraud Auto Theft Days to Re-Arrest Drugs Fraud Auto Theft Escalation No 79.1% Yes 20.9% n=316 Source: Fulton County District Attorney s Office, Recidivism Data, June-August 2011 through March 2014 Binary Logistic Regression Binary Logistic Regression was used to predict the effect of race, sex, age, prior arrests, case type, and plea on the sentence of probation. Logistic Regression measures the relationship between two variables by calculating a probability model. In Binary Logistic Regression, the dependent variable can have only two possible types, in this case probation or not, incarceration or not, and re-arrest or not. Binary Logistic Regression in this analysis predicted the relationship between several variables (race, sex, age, prior arrests, case type, and plea) on the likelihood of probation, incarceration, and re-arrest (yes or no). 20

21 For the Binary Logistic Regression model for probation, the only covariate that was significant at the.05 level in this analysis was the disposition type, as shown in Table 5. If the defendant received a negotiated or non-negotiated plea 4, then the defendant was 4.5 times more likely to receive probation than a defendant who did not receive either of these pleas. Separate regressions used a dichotomous indicator for each disposition type, but the test did not result in significance. In other words, it appears a negotiated or non-negotiated plea does not predict the sentence of probation, but receiving either of these does. Neither race, sex, age of the defendant, the number of prior arrests, nor case type predicts the receipt of probation. Table 5. Predictors of Probation Covariates B Exp(B) Race Sex Age Ranges # Prior Arrests 0-5 # Case Type Drugs Fraud Auto Theft Disposition Type 5 Negotiated or Non- Negotiated 1.508** n=267 Notes: # reference group; *** (p<0.001); ** (p<0.01); * (p<0.05) Sources: Fulton County District Attorney s Office, Disposition and Sentencing Data, June- August A negotiated plea is a plea that is negotiated between the prosecutor and judge. A non-negotiated plea is plea decided by the judge only. 5 The two plea types were condensed to reflect a single variable for plea. 21

22 The same independent variables were used to predict incarceration (See Table 6). Compared to defendants with 0 to 5 prior arrests, defendants with 41 to 74 prior arrests were more likely to be incarcerated for the 2011 disposition. Again, the negotiated and non-negotiated pleas were significant in predicting incarceration. A defendant who received either of these pleas was 2.9 times more likely to be sentenced to incarceration than those who did not plea. Table 6. Predictors of Incarceration Covariates B Exp(B) Race Sex Age Ranges # Prior Arrests 0-5 # * 4.67 Case Type Drugs Fraud Auto Theft Disposition Type Negotiated or Non ** Negotiated n=267 Notes: # reference group; *** (p<0.001); ** (p<0.01); * (p<0.05) Sources: Fulton County District Attorney s Office, Disposition and Sentencing Data, June- August 2011 Next, a Binary Logistic Regression model used covariates to predict recidivism (See Table 7). Race significantly predicts recidivism, with whites 20% more likely to recidivate than non-whites. Compared to the younger defendants in the sample, each age range from 25 to

23 is significantly less likely to recidivate at the.01 level. This can be interpreted to mean younger offenders are significantly more likely to recidivate when compared to older offenders. Compared to defendants with 0 to 5 prior arrests, defendants with prior arrests ranging from 6 to 40 are significantly more likely to recidivate. For example, defendants with prior arrests ranging from 21 to 40 are 14 times more likely to recidivate than defendants with 0 to 5 prior arrests. Table 7. Predictors of Recidivism Covariates B Exp(B) Race *.201 Sex Age Ranges # ** ** ** ***.055 Prior Arrests 0-5 # *** *** ** Case Type Drugs Fraud Auto Theft n=316 Notes: # reference group; *** (p<0.001); ** (p<0.01); * (p<0.05) Sources: Fulton County District Attorney s Office, Disposition and Recidivism Data, June- August 2011 through March 2014 The final Binary Logistic Regression model was used to determine whether certain variables predict escalation. Race, sex, age at disposition, number of prior arrests, case type, probation, and incarceration were held constant. As Table 8 reports, age at disposition and incarceration significantly predict escalation. Younger offenders are significantly more likely to 23

24 escalate to more serious crimes. Additionally, defendants who receive incarceration as a sentence are also significantly likely to escalate to violent crimes. Table 8. Predictors of Escalation Covariates B Exp(B) Race Sex Age at Disposition Prior Arrests -.076** Probation Incarceration *** n=316 Notes: *** (p<0.001); ** (p<0.01); * (p<0.05) Sources: Fulton County District Attorney s Office, Disposition, Sentencing, and Recidivism Data, June-August 2011 through March 2014 Survival Analysis, Cox Regression Survival Analysis predicts the time it takes for an event to occur (Fox, 2002). The event examined in this project is re-arrest or recidivism. Several multivariate analyses explored the time to re-arrest using race, sex, age range, prior arrest range, case type (drugs, fraud, auto theft), and plea as predictors. Figures 3 through 5 illustrate the survival curves by these characteristics. Figure 3 illustrates time to re-arrest by age, while holding constant race, sex, range of prior arrests, case type, and plea. For example, 400 days after disposition, only 20% of those aged 17 to 24 had not been re-arrested, compared to over 60% of offenders aged 41 to 49 who had not been re-arrested. The survival curve for those aged 49 and over shows by the end of the study time, 60% of this group had not been re-arrested compared to less than 5% of the youngest age group. 24

25 Figure 3. Time to Re-Arrest by Age n=267 Sources: Fulton County District Attorney s Office, Disposition, Sentencing, and Recidivism Data, June-August 2011 through March 2014 Figure 4 shows the survival curves for males and females is not much different, illustrated by the small space in between the two lines. As depicted in the graph, the survival curves for males and females start to diverge around 200 days after disposition, and remain at a constant trend thereafter. This suggests that 200 days after disposition, males are re-arrested at a slightly faster rate than females. 25

26 Figure 4. Time to Re-Arrest by Sex n=267 Sources: Fulton County District Attorney s Office, Disposition, Sentencing, and Recidivism Data, June-August 2011 through March 2014 Figure 5 shows that 400 days after disposition, only 20% of offenders with 41 to 74 prior arrests had not been re-arrested, compared to 80% of offenders with only 0 to 5 prior arrests. Offenders with more than 20 prior arrests had a much different survival curve than those with fewer prior arrests. 26

27 Figure 5. Time to Re-Arrest by Range Prior Arrests n=267 Sources: Fulton County District Attorney s Office, Disposition, Sentencing, and Recidivism Data, June-August 2011 through March 2014 Discussion A significant amount of research has addressed issues with prison overcrowding and the need to reduce recidivism (Farrington & Nuttall, 1980; Steffensmeier et al., 1998). This study aimed to estimate effects of demographic, sentencing, and disposition factors on recidivism for cases disposed in summer 2011 by the Non-Complex Division in Fulton County. To gain an understanding of the sample characteristics, a series of frequencies and descriptive statistics were presented. Then, Binary Logistic Regression was used to determine whether certain factors significantly predict recidivism and specific sentence outcomes. Finally, Survival Analyses graphically displayed the time to re-arrest for certain predictor variables. The findings from this 27

28 study mostly agree with results from the literature on deterrence and recidivism. The comparisons and contrasts follow. One of the main concerns of the Non-Complex Division is the deterrence of offenders from committing further criminal acts. Deterrence is typically studied by assessing past criminal behavior by the offender, intervention received from the criminal justice system, and whether the offender continues criminal participation post-intervention. This study analyzed defendants criminal histories, compared their sentence outcomes to the disposition data, and further analyzed re-arrest outcomes. In general, this study s findings suggest deterrence is not being achieved using the current means, or for the population studied. The literature on deterrence provides some explanation for this observation. Nagin (1998) argues that sentences must project a credible threat in order to be effective, or that the punishment must be severe enough to prevent rational potential offenders from committing criminal acts. This study s findings show 90% of the total sample received probation, and 78% of the sample recidivated. The connection of these percentages is whether offenders are deterred by probation. Additionally, offenders must perceive the threat of probation to be credible and severe enough to prevent future criminal behavior. The offenders in the sample may not perceive probation as a severe punishment and therefore may be more likely to recidivate. Although probation is not serving as an effective deterrent, there is variation in time to re-arrest. These offenders are committing low-level offenses and only 20% of our sample escalated to higher-level crimes. This suggests that simply extending time to re-arrest may be appropriate when dealing with low level offenses. The current study s findings also suggest that younger offenders may be at a greater risk to recidivate. Findings by Kurlychek et al. (2012) provide evidence that age is a significant 28

29 predictor of recidivism, similar to the current study s results. As the regression models show, each age range from 25 years old to 49 and older, compared to those aged 17 to 24, is significantly less likely to recidivate. Moreover, younger offenders recidivated in a significantly shorter time period than older offenders. These findings could be due to this group receiving shorter probation sentences. This group has had less time to commit crimes (by age) and their shorter criminal histories may have resulted in shorter probation sentences. Future research should address this issue. Drug offenses made up 47% of the sample s total cases and 93% of these cases received a sentence of probation. Boldt (2010) finds that as many as 80% of inmates are involved with drugs while under correctional supervision. There is also evidence that 70% of offenders have experienced substance abuse problems (Boldt, 2010). The current study s findings show that drug offenders were re-arrested an average of 2.4 times. Literature suggests in the drug-crime model, the cycle will continue to revolve unless the first variable, drug use, is treated. Less than 1% of this study s sample received drug court and only 13% received mandatory drug and alcohol screens as a condition of probation. Future research should address whether drug court is more effective at treating this population. Although deterrence is not being achieved, simply lengthening time to re-arrest may be effective. It may be unreasonable to suggest that the Non-Complex division can totally prevent recidivism. Society may be better served by continuing to use probation to extend the length of time between re-arrest and addressing the small percentage that escalate with higher-level crimes with a different method. Future research should again test this relationship and attempt to find evidence for better sentencing methods. 29

30 Limitations Our study has several limitations. First, we coded cases by using the most serious offense and offenders often committed several crimes. Second, our findings are only generalizable to Fulton County and cases that were disposed of during summer Data during this time may not be similar to data during other time periods. Our data may have been subject to variables that are not present in other time periods or seasons of the year. Offenders that were processed in the Non-Complex Division during summer 2011 may be systematically different from offenders in other counties or offenders who offend during other times of the year. Third, time between arrests was measured from disposition to re-arrest data, and sentences were not taken into account in our measure of recidivism. That is to say, a defendant who received probation has the same time to risk as a defendant who was incarcerated as long as both had the same disposition date. This may mean that some defendants had a longer time to re-arrest due to them being incarcerated and it being impossible for them to be re-arrested during that period. Fourth, recidivism was operationalized by recoding all re-arrests after the disposition date; therefore, our data does not reflect whether the defendant was found guilty or whether the charges were dropped for any of the re-offenses used to measure recidivism. Fifth, our study is not a true experiment and does not show causation. It only attempts to illustrate descriptive data and find any correlations between already existing data. Sixth, we only received half of the cases that were disposed during this time period and it is not known what affected or determined which cases we received. The cases we received may be different due to the systematic way in which they were chosen. We did not have control over which case files were provided or which GCIC files were given. Future research should focus on addressing these limitations in order to provide stronger evidence. 30

31 References Beccaria, C. (1963). On Crimes and Punishments. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Benda, B. B., Harm, N. J., & Toombs, N. J. (2005). Survival analysis of recidivism of male and female boot camp graduates using life-course theory. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 40(3), Blumstein, A., Cohen, J., Das, S., & Moitra, S. D. (1988). Specialization and seriousness during adult criminal careers. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 4(4), Boldt, R.C. (2010). The tomahawk and the healing balm : Drug treatment courts in theory and practice. University of Maryland Law Journal of Race, Religion, Gender, & Class, 10, Britt, C. L. (1996). The measurement of specialization and escalation in the criminal career: An alternative modeling strategy. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 12(2), Crank, B.R.C., & Brezina, T. (2013). Prison will either make ya or break ya : Punishment, deterrence, and the criminal lifestyle. Deviant Behavior, 34, DeJong, C. (1997). Deterrence: Integrating theoretical and empirical models of recidivism. Criminology, 35(4), Dowden, C. & Brown, S. L. (2002). The role of substance use factors in predicting recidivism: A meta-analysis. Psychology, Crime & Law, 8(2), Farrington, D. P., & Nuttall, C. P. (1980). Prison size, overcrowding, prison violence, and recidivism. Journal of Criminal Justice, 8(4),

32 Feeley, M. M. (1979). Perspectives on plea bargaining. Law and Society, 13, Fox, J. (2002). Cox proportional-hazards regression for survival data. Appendix to An R and S- PLUS Companion to Applied Regression, 1-7. Gendreau, P., Little, T., & Goggin, C. (1996). A meta-analysis of the predictors of adult offender recidivism: What works! Criminology, 34(4), Harris, P.M. (2011). The first-time adult-onset offender: Findings from a community corrections cohort. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 55(6), Hartney, C. (2006). US rates of incarceration: A global perspective. Oakland, CA: National Council on Crime and Delinquency. Hirschi, T., & Gottfredson, M. (1983). Age and the explanation of crime. The American Journal of Sociology, 89(3), Horwitz, A. (2009). The costs of abusing probationary sentences: Overincarceration and the erosion of due process. Brooklyn Law Review, 75, Jung, H., Spjeldnes, S., & Yamatani, H. (2010). Recidivism and survival time: Racial disparity among jail ex-inmates. Social Work Research, 34(3), Kurlychek, M.C., Bushway, S.D., & Brame, R. (2012). Long-term crime desistance and recidivism patterns- Evidence from the Essex County convicted felon study. American Society of Criminology, 50(1), La Vigne, N. G., & Mamalian, C. A. (2004). Prisoner reentry in Georgia. Washington, DC.: Urban Institute, Justice Policy Center. 32

33 Liu, J., Francis, B., & Soothill, K. (2011). A longitudinal study of escalation in crime seriousness. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 27(2), Massoglia, M., & Uggen, C. (2010). Settling down and aging out: Toward an interactionist theory of desistance and the transition to adulthood. American Journal of Sociology, 116(2), Nagin, D.S. (1998). Criminal deterrence research at the outset of the twenty-first century. Crime and Justice, 23, Nijhof, K.S., de Kemp, R.A.T., & Engels, R.C.M.E. (2008). Short-term criminal pathways: Type and seriousness of offense and recidivism. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 169(4), Padfield, N., & Maruna, S. (2006). The revolving door at the prison gate: Exploring the dramatic increase in recalls to prison. Criminology & Criminal Justice, 6(3), Pallone, N.J., & Hennessey, J.J. (1977). Some correlates of recidivism among misdemeanants and minor felons: A 12-month follow up. The Journal of Social Psychology, 101, Schmidt, P., & White, A. D. (1989). Predicting criminal recidivism using split population survival time models. Journal of Econometrics, 40, Steffensmeier, D., Ulmer, J., & Kramer, J. (1998). The interaction of race, gender, and age in criminal sentencing: The punishment cost of being young, black, and male. Criminology, 36(4), Tyler, T. R., Casper, J. D., & Fisher, B. (1989). Maintaining allegiance toward political 33

34 authorities: The role of prior attitudes and the use of fair procedures. American Journal of Political Science, Wright, B.R.E., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T.E., & Paternoster, R. (2004). Does the perceived risk of punishment deter criminally prone individuals? Rational choice, self-control, and crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 41(2),

The Start of a Criminal Career: Does the Type of Debut Offence Predict Future Offending? Research Report 77. Natalie Owen & Christine Cooper

The Start of a Criminal Career: Does the Type of Debut Offence Predict Future Offending? Research Report 77. Natalie Owen & Christine Cooper The Start of a Criminal Career: Does the Type of Debut Offence Predict Future Offending? Research Report 77 Natalie Owen & Christine Cooper November 2013 Contents Executive Summary... 3 Introduction...

More information

2009 Florida Prison Recidivism Study Releases From 2001 to 2008

2009 Florida Prison Recidivism Study Releases From 2001 to 2008 2009 Florida Prison Recidivism Study Releases From 2001 to 2008 May 2010 Florida Department of Corrections Walter A. McNeil, Secretary Bureau of Research and Data Analysis dcresearch@mail.dc.state.fl.us

More information

Adult Criminal Justice Case Processing in Washington, DC

Adult Criminal Justice Case Processing in Washington, DC Adult Criminal Justice Case Processing in Washington, DC P. Mitchell Downey John Roman, Ph.D. Akiva Liberman, Ph.D. February 2012 1 Criminal Justice Case Processing in Washington, DC P. Mitchell Downey

More information

Most states juvenile justice systems have

Most states juvenile justice systems have BRIEF I Setting the Stage: Juvenile Justice History, Statistics, and Practices in the United States and North Carolina Ann Brewster Most states juvenile justice systems have two main goals: increased public

More information

Multisystemic Therapy With Juvenile Sexual Offenders: Clinical and Cost Effectiveness

Multisystemic Therapy With Juvenile Sexual Offenders: Clinical and Cost Effectiveness Multisystemic Therapy With Juvenile Sexual Offenders: Clinical and Cost Effectiveness Charles M. Borduin Missouri Delinquency Project Department of Psychological Sciences University of Missouri-Columbia

More information

Overall, 67.8% of the 404,638 state

Overall, 67.8% of the 404,638 state U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report April 2014 ncj 244205 Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 30 States in 2005: Patterns from 2005 to 2010

More information

CRIMINAL CODE REVISION BILL H.B. 1006, 2013

CRIMINAL CODE REVISION BILL H.B. 1006, 2013 CRIMINAL CODE REVISION BILL H.B. 1006, 2013 Background: Criminal Code Evaluation Commission (CCEC) established by HEA 1001, 2009 Purpose: evaluating the criminal laws of Indiana Final Report: November

More information

2010 CRIMINAL CODE SENTENCING PROVISIONS. Effective July 29, 2010

2010 CRIMINAL CODE SENTENCING PROVISIONS. Effective July 29, 2010 010 CRIMINAL CODE SENTENCING PROVISIONS Effective July 9, 010-0- GENERAL CRIMES SENTENCING RANGES Class NON-DANGEROUS OFFENSES ( 13-70) First Offense ( 13-70(D)) MIT* MIN P MAX AGG* 3 4 5 10 1.5 3.5 3.5

More information

SEATTLE MUNICIPAL COMMUNITY COURT

SEATTLE MUNICIPAL COMMUNITY COURT SEATTLE MUNICIPAL COMMUNITY COURT Outcome Evaluation Final Report October 2009 By: M. Elaine Nugent Borakove TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction...1 Evaluation Design...2 Principal Findings...3 Defendant Characteristics...4

More information

DELAWARE COUNTY TREATMENT COURT APPLICATION

DELAWARE COUNTY TREATMENT COURT APPLICATION DELAWARE COUNTY TREATMENT COURT APPLICATION Please read each question carefully before answering. Failure to complete this form accurately will delay the processing of your application. False or misleading

More information

Domestic Violence Offenders in Missouri

Domestic Violence Offenders in Missouri MISSOURI STATE HIGHWAY PATROL Domestic Violence Offenders in Missouri A Study on Recidivism Eric Chambers & Mark Krispin March 2011 Contents I. BACKGROUND... 5 II. METHODOLOGY... 5 III. ANALYSIS OF ARRESTS

More information

Peering Into the Black Box: The Criminal Justice System s Response to Gun- Related Felonies in St. Louis. Richard Rosenfeld Joshua Williams

Peering Into the Black Box: The Criminal Justice System s Response to Gun- Related Felonies in St. Louis. Richard Rosenfeld Joshua Williams Peering Into the Black Box: The Criminal Justice System s Response to Gun- Related Felonies in St. Louis Richard Rosenfeld Joshua Williams University of Missouri St. Louis St. Louis Public Safety Partnership

More information

Reentry on Steroids! NADCP 2013

Reentry on Steroids! NADCP 2013 Reentry on Steroids! NADCP 2013 Panel Introductions Judge Keith Starrett Moderator Judge Robert Francis Panelist Judge Stephen Manley Panelist Charles Robinson - Panelist Dallas SAFPF 4-C Reentry Court

More information

Adult Plea Negotiation Guidelines

Adult Plea Negotiation Guidelines From the office of the Rice County Attorney: Adult Plea Negotiation Guidelines Revision June, 2004 1. These guidelines apply to any adult felony defendant case prosecuted by this office, which is not disposed

More information

Statistics on Women in the Justice System. January, 2014

Statistics on Women in the Justice System. January, 2014 Statistics on Women in the Justice System January, 2014 All material is available though the web site of the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS): http://www.bjs.gov/ unless otherwise cited. Note that correctional

More information

HARRIS COUNTY, TEXAS DIFFERENTIATED FELONY CASE MANAGEMENT

HARRIS COUNTY, TEXAS DIFFERENTIATED FELONY CASE MANAGEMENT HARRIS COUNTY, TEXAS DIFFERENTIATED FELONY CASE MANAGEMENT PREAMBLE The following Differentiated Felony Case Management (DFCM) system is the result of a collaborative effort by the following entities:

More information

Mercyhurst College Civic Institute. An Overview of the Erie County Criminal Justice System

Mercyhurst College Civic Institute. An Overview of the Erie County Criminal Justice System Mercyhurst College Civic Institute An Overview of the Criminal Justice System January 2005 Erika Brown, Research Analyst Art Amann, Director Table of Contents Table of Contents...1 Introduction...2 Methodology...2

More information

Responsible for prosecuting all criminal and traffic cases within Mecklenburg County

Responsible for prosecuting all criminal and traffic cases within Mecklenburg County Memo from District Attorney Andrew Murray on Impacts Related to Reductions or Elimination of City funded services to the District Attorney s Office and Court System At the May 13, 2015 Budget Adjustments

More information

I. ELIGIBILITY FOR BOTH PRE-CHARGE AND POST-CHARGE DIVERSION: 1. Admit guilt and acknowledge responsibility for their action.

I. ELIGIBILITY FOR BOTH PRE-CHARGE AND POST-CHARGE DIVERSION: 1. Admit guilt and acknowledge responsibility for their action. ANOKA COUNTY ADULT CRIMINAL DIVERSION PLAN Effective July 1, 1994 - Revised 8/1/02, 9/5/07, 9/11/08 (Revisions apply only to crimes occurring on or after 9/1/08). The following plan has been developed

More information

Introduction. 1 P age

Introduction. 1 P age Introduction The New York City criminal justice system is made up of many different agencies and organizations. These include the independent judiciary, the five elected District Attorneys and the Special

More information

Overview of Federal Criminal Cases

Overview of Federal Criminal Cases Overview of Federal Criminal Cases Fiscal Year 2012 Glenn R. Schmitt Jennifer Dukes Office of Research and Data The United States Sentencing Commission 1 received information on 84,360 federal criminal

More information

IMMIGRATION CONSEQUENCES OF SELECTED FLORIDA OFFENSES: A QUICK REFERENCE CHART 1

IMMIGRATION CONSEQUENCES OF SELECTED FLORIDA OFFENSES: A QUICK REFERENCE CHART 1 IMMIGRATION CONSEQUENCES OF SELECTED FLORIDA OFFENSES: A QUICK REFERENCE CHART 1 Disclaimer: Immigration consequences of crimes are a complex, unpredictable, and constantly changing area of law in which

More information

RE-INCARCERATION OF PRISONERS IN ARIZONA: A FOCUS ON DRUG OFFENDERS

RE-INCARCERATION OF PRISONERS IN ARIZONA: A FOCUS ON DRUG OFFENDERS RE-INCARCERATION OF PRISONERS IN ARIZONA: A FOCUS ON DRUG OFFENDERS The re-incarceration of prisoners in Arizona: a Focus on Drug Offenders Submitted to Arizona Criminal Justice Commission By: Dr. Nancy

More information

System Overview ~~~~~ Presented by: Darcie McElwee

System Overview ~~~~~ Presented by: Darcie McElwee System Overview ~~~~~ Presented by: Darcie McElwee SYSTEM OVERVIEW OBJECTIVES Upon conclusion of this module the participant will be able to: Describe the overall structure, case flow process, and roles

More information

Chapter 938 of the Wisconsin statutes is entitled the Juvenile Justice Code.

Chapter 938 of the Wisconsin statutes is entitled the Juvenile Justice Code. Juvenile Justice in Wisconsin by Christina Carmichael Fiscal Analyst Wisconsin Chapter 938 of the Wisconsin statutes is entitled the Juvenile Justice Code. Statute 938.1 of the chapter states that it is

More information

Colorado Legislative Council Staff

Colorado Legislative Council Staff Colorado Legislative Council Staff Room 029 State Capitol, Denver, CO 80203-1784 (303) 866-3521 FAX: 866-3855 TDD: 866-3472 MEMORANDUM October 9, 2012 TO: Interested Persons FROM: Hillary Smith, Research

More information

CRIMINAL STATISTICS REPORTING REQUIREMENTS

CRIMINAL STATISTICS REPORTING REQUIREMENTS CRIMINAL STATISTICS REPORTING REQUIREMENTS April 2014 California Department of Justice Kamala D. Harris, Attorney General California Justice Information Services Division Bureau of Criminal Information

More information

OFFENCE CLASS I-V, SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION & DNA PROFILE CODES. 750.83 100 Assault with intent to murder.

OFFENCE CLASS I-V, SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION & DNA PROFILE CODES. 750.83 100 Assault with intent to murder. JJ3 300 1 of 10 EXHIBIT I: CLASS I OFFENSE Class I Offense - Any one of the following crimes committed by a youth who is 14 through 16 years of age and adjudicated or convicted by circuit court or the

More information

Drug Court as Diversion for Youthful Offenders

Drug Court as Diversion for Youthful Offenders Drug Court as Diversion for Youthful Offenders Juvenile Drug Courts in Hawaii: A Policy Brief Introduction The problem of drug abuse among the general population in the United States began to escalate

More information

National Recreation and Park Association Recommended Guidelines for Credentialing Volunteers

National Recreation and Park Association Recommended Guidelines for Credentialing Volunteers National Recreation and Park Association Recommended Guidelines for Credentialing Volunteers Background Screening Practices The National Recreation and Park Association has reviewed the resources of the

More information

RUTLAND COUNTY TREATMENT COURT

RUTLAND COUNTY TREATMENT COURT Data Driven Decisions RUTLAND COUNTY TREATMENT COURT CONTROL GROUP EVALUATION FINAL REPORT Submitted to: Karen Gennette State Treatment Court Coordinator Vermont Court Administrator s Office Submitted

More information

CRIMINAL JUSTICE TRENDS

CRIMINAL JUSTICE TRENDS Palm Beach County Criminal Justice Commission Research and Planning Unit Annual Planning Meeting March 25, 2013 CRIMINAL JUSTICE TRENDS G:\DATA\Research & Planning\APM\APM 2013 Data assembled and maintained

More information

THE CIVIL RIGHTS RESTORATION PROCESS

THE CIVIL RIGHTS RESTORATION PROCESS THE CIVIL RIGHTS RESTORATION PROCESS INTRODUCTION If you have been convicted of a felony, you have lost your civil rights, which includes the right to vote, serve on a jury, hold public office, and obtain

More information

OFFICE OF THE DISTRICT ATTORNEY

OFFICE OF THE DISTRICT ATTORNEY OFFICE OF THE DISTRICT ATTORNEY TWENTIETH JUDICIAL DISTRICT Stanley L. Garnett, District Attorney Boulder Office: Justice Center, 1777 6th St., Boulder, Colorado 80302 303.441.3700 fax: 303.441.4703 Longmont

More information

African American Males in the Criminal Justice System

African American Males in the Criminal Justice System African American Males in the Criminal Justice System Purpose and Background The purpose of this report is to examine the experience of African American males in the criminal justice system. The focus

More information

Proposition 5. Nonviolent Offenders. Sentencing, Parole and Rehabilitation. Statute.

Proposition 5. Nonviolent Offenders. Sentencing, Parole and Rehabilitation. Statute. Proposition 5 Nonviolent Offenders. Sentencing, Parole and Rehabilitation. Statute. SUMMARY This measure (1) expands drug treatment diversion programs for criminal offenders, (2) modifies parole supervision

More information

A Guide to Understanding the Juvenile Justice System

A Guide to Understanding the Juvenile Justice System A Guide to Understanding the Juvenile Justice System County of San Diego Probation Department Building a Safer Community since 1907 The Arrest When a law enforcement officer arrests a person under the

More information

A&B UPON A POLICE OFFICER OR OTHER LAW OFFICER A&B WITH A DANGEROUS WEAPON

A&B UPON A POLICE OFFICER OR OTHER LAW OFFICER A&B WITH A DANGEROUS WEAPON Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services Oklahoma Forensic Center (OFC) Persons Court-Ordered As Treat to Competent List of Pending Charges (Summarized From Available Court Records) PRISONER

More information

DeKalb County Drug Court: C.L.E.A.N. Program (Choosing Life and Ending Abuse Now)

DeKalb County Drug Court: C.L.E.A.N. Program (Choosing Life and Ending Abuse Now) DeKalb County Drug Court: C.L.E.A.N. Program (Choosing Life and Ending Abuse Now) MISSION STATEMENT The mission of the DeKalb County Drug Court:.C.L.E.A.N. Program (Choosing Life and Ending Abuse Now)

More information

Contra Costa County: A Model for Managing Local Corrections

Contra Costa County: A Model for Managing Local Corrections JFA Institute Conducting Justice and Corrections Research for Effective Policy Making Contra Costa County: A Model for Managing Local Corrections Prepared by James Austin, Ph.D. Robin Allen Roger Ocker

More information

2 Be it enacted by the People of the State of Illinois, 4 Section 1. Short title. This Act may be cited as the

2 Be it enacted by the People of the State of Illinois, 4 Section 1. Short title. This Act may be cited as the SB138 Engrossed LRB9203748RCcd 1 AN ACT concerning drug treatment. 2 Be it enacted by the People of the State of Illinois, 3 represented in the General Assembly: 4 Section 1. Short title. This Act may

More information

Special Report. Bureau of Justice Statistics

Special Report. Bureau of Justice Statistics U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report February 2008, NCJ 214993 State Court Processing of Violence Cases By Erica L. Smith Matthew R. Durose

More information

Victims of Crime Act

Victims of Crime Act Victims of Crime Act PURPOSE Recognizing the state's concern for victims of crime, it is the purpose of the Victims of Crime Act [31-26-1 NMSA 1978] to assure that: A. the full impact of a crime is brought

More information

CRIMINAL JUSTICE GLOSSARY

CRIMINAL JUSTICE GLOSSARY CRIMINAL JUSTICE GLOSSARY ACQUITTAL: a judgment of a court, based either on the verdict of a jury or a judicial officer, that the defendant is not guilty of the offense(s) for which he or she was tried.

More information

OFFICE OF THE STATE ATTORNEY NINTH JUDICIAL CIRCUIT OF FLORIDA PRE-TRIAL DIVERSION

OFFICE OF THE STATE ATTORNEY NINTH JUDICIAL CIRCUIT OF FLORIDA PRE-TRIAL DIVERSION OFFICE OF THE STATE ATTORNEY NINTH JUDICIAL CIRCUIT OF FLORIDA PRE-TRIAL DIVERSION REVISED: JUNE 2009 Approved by State Attorney June 4, 2009 In the Ninth Judicial Circuit, Pre-Trial Diversion (PTD) is

More information

COMPARISON OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE STATISTICS

COMPARISON OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE STATISTICS TRAVIS COUNTY COMPARISON OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE STATISTICS OF THE SIX LARGEST URBAN COUNTIES IN TEXAS CRIMINAL JUSTICE PLANNING P.O. BOX 1748, AUSTIN, TX 78767 PHONE: (512) 854-4415 FAX: (512) 854-4417 Comparison

More information

ANNUAL REPORT ALLEGAN COUNTY PROSECUTING ATTORNEY

ANNUAL REPORT ALLEGAN COUNTY PROSECUTING ATTORNEY ALLEGAN COUNTY PROSECUTING ATTORNEY FREDERICK ANDERSON Allegan County Building 113 Chestnut Street Allegan, Michigan 49010 Telephone: (269) 673-0280 Fax: (269) 673-0599 E-mail: prosecutor@allegancounty.org

More information

OVERVIEW OF THE MULTNOMAH COUNTY DISTRICT ATTORNEY'S OFFICE

OVERVIEW OF THE MULTNOMAH COUNTY DISTRICT ATTORNEY'S OFFICE OVERVIEW OF THE MULTNOMAH COUNTY DISTRICT ATTORNEY'S OFFICE INTRODUCTION This outline was prepared for Deputy District Attorney Applicants. It provides an overview of the internal workings of the Multnomah

More information

NJ JUVENILE DEFENSE A. OVERVIEW OF THE JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM. 1. What does the New Jersey s juvenile justice system entail?

NJ JUVENILE DEFENSE A. OVERVIEW OF THE JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM. 1. What does the New Jersey s juvenile justice system entail? NJ JUVENILE DEFENSE A. OVERVIEW OF THE JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM 1. What does the New Jersey s juvenile justice system entail? Juvenile law deals with the crimes that are committed by your beloved teenagers.

More information

Tennessee Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges Quarterly Summary Report Based on Number of Reported Cases January - March 2016

Tennessee Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges Quarterly Summary Report Based on Number of Reported Cases January - March 2016 General characteristics of these cases follow: Referral Reasons Before Amended Charges: Each case may include up to 5 referral reasons therefore the number of total referral reasons, referral sources,

More information

Tennessee Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges Quarterly Summary Report Based on Number of Reported Cases January - March 2016

Tennessee Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges Quarterly Summary Report Based on Number of Reported Cases January - March 2016 General characteristics of these cases follow: Referral Reasons Before Amended Charges: Each case may include up to 5 referral reasons therefore the number of total referral reasons, referral sources,

More information

Consequences of Convictions for Sex Crimes

Consequences of Convictions for Sex Crimes Consequences of Convictions for Sex Crimes Sex Offender Registration Act, Sex Offender Commitment Act, Lifetime Supervision for Sex Offenders SORA 29 Chapter 40 1 Sex Offender Registration Act (SORA):

More information

A Victim s Guide to Understanding the Criminal Justice System

A Victim s Guide to Understanding the Criminal Justice System A Victim s Guide to Understanding the Criminal Justice System The Bartholomew County Prosecutor s Office Victim Assistance Program Prosecutor: William Nash 234 Washington Street Columbus, IN 47201 Telephone:

More information

CRIMINAL RECORD AND ABUSE HISTORY VERIFICATION

CRIMINAL RECORD AND ABUSE HISTORY VERIFICATION WHEN AND HOW TO FILE CRIMINAL RECORD AND ABUSE HISTORY VERIFICATION When did this form go into effect? September 2013 Who must file this form? Anyone who files a "Complaint for Custody" or a "Petition

More information

CRIMINAL JUSTICE TRENDS

CRIMINAL JUSTICE TRENDS CRIMINAL JUSTICE TRENDS Presented at the Criminal Justice Estimating Conference Held February 27, 2015 (Web Site: http://edr.state.fl.us) Table of Contents Criminal Justice Trends i Accuracy of the November

More information

KENTUCKY VICTIMS RIGHTS LAWS1

KENTUCKY VICTIMS RIGHTS LAWS1 CONSTITUTION STATUTES KENTUCKY VICTIMS RIGHTS LAWS1 Kentucky does not have a victims' rights amendment to its constitution. Title XXXVIII, Witnesses, Evidence, Notaries, Commissioners of Foreign Deeds,

More information

Sealing Your Juvenile Records

Sealing Your Juvenile Records Sealing Your Juvenile Records What are my Juvenile Records? The documents and Court Orders in your juvenile court file which relate to your case. Some juvenile records might also be kept by the Probation

More information

I. CRIMINAL BACKGROUND SCREENING GUIDELINES & PROCEDURES. A. Criminal Background Screening Requirements

I. CRIMINAL BACKGROUND SCREENING GUIDELINES & PROCEDURES. A. Criminal Background Screening Requirements I. CRIMINAL BACKGROUND SCREENING GUIDELINES & PROCEDURES A. Criminal Background Screening Requirements 1. General Rule (a) Pursuant to F.S. 1012.32, 1012.315 &/or F.S. 1012.465 an applicant for employment

More information

HELP AVAILABLE TO VICTIMS OF CRIME IN PENNSYLVANIA

HELP AVAILABLE TO VICTIMS OF CRIME IN PENNSYLVANIA HELP AVAILABLE TO VICTIMS OF CRIME IN PENNSYLVANIA Police Department Telephone Number Police Incident Number Contact Person Agency This form was created by the Office of Victims Services in the Pennsylvania

More information

FLORIDA CRIMINAL OFFENSES AMANDA POWERS SELLERS AND JENNA C. FINKELSTEIN

FLORIDA CRIMINAL OFFENSES AMANDA POWERS SELLERS AND JENNA C. FINKELSTEIN If You Have Been Charged with a Crime in Florida, Familiarizing Yourself with Your Charges and the Potential Penalties If You are Convicted is the First Step to Making Yourself More Informed, Empowered

More information

Department of Human Services Division of Youth Services Quarterly Performance Report In Compliance with Act 1222 of 1995 Report Period January March

Department of Human Services Division of Youth Services Quarterly Performance Report In Compliance with Act 1222 of 1995 Report Period January March Department of Human Services Division of Youth Services Quarterly Performance Report In Compliance with Act of 995 Report Period January March Executive Summary January March In the third quarter of FY

More information

PROSECUTION DIVISION THE MISSION

PROSECUTION DIVISION THE MISSION PROSECUTION DIVISION THE MISSION Chief Prosecutor Phillip J. Tydingco The Office of the Attorney General, through its Prosecution Division, plays a vital role in Guam s criminal justice system as part

More information

GETTING TO KNOW THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM

GETTING TO KNOW THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM Patricia A. DeAngelis District Attorney GETTING TO KNOW THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM AN OFFENSE IS COMMITTED There are three types of offenses that can be committed in New York State: VIOLATION MISDEMEANOR

More information

Juvenile Justice. CJ 3650 Professor James J. Drylie Chapter 3

Juvenile Justice. CJ 3650 Professor James J. Drylie Chapter 3 Juvenile Justice CJ 3650 Professor James J. Drylie Chapter 3 Measuring Juvenile Crime Fears related to juvenile crime reached new heights in the past two decades Fear remains high despite falling juvenile

More information

Criminal Record/Abuse History Verification. Form 3

Criminal Record/Abuse History Verification. Form 3 Criminal Record/Abuse History Verification Form 3 CRIMINAL RECORD/ABUSE HISTORY VERIFICATION The following numbers on these instructions correspond with the numbers in the boxes on the Criminal Record/Abuse

More information

ALTERNATIVES TO INCARCERATION IN A NUTSHELL

ALTERNATIVES TO INCARCERATION IN A NUTSHELL ALTERNATIVES TO INCARCERATION IN A NUTSHELL An alternative to incarceration is any kind of punishment other than time in prison or jail that can be given to a person who commits a crime. Frequently, punishments

More information

CRIMINAL JUSTICE TRENDS January 2012

CRIMINAL JUSTICE TRENDS January 2012 Palm Beach County Criminal Justice Commission Research and Planning Unit CRIMINAL JUSTICE TRENDS January 2012 C:\Users\dkukec\Documents\My Documents 1 Crime Trends Reported and Recorded Crime Other Sources

More information

District School Board of Collier County. Criminal Background Screening, Guidelines & Procedures

District School Board of Collier County. Criminal Background Screening, Guidelines & Procedures District School Board of Collier County Criminal Background Screening, Guidelines & Procedures I. INTRODUCTION The purpose of this document is to provide appropriate guidelines and procedures for determining

More information

Select Florida Mandatory Minimum Laws

Select Florida Mandatory Minimum Laws Select Florida Laws IMPORTANT NOTE: This is not necessarily a complete list. Laws frequently change, and these sentences may no longer be accurate or up to date. Talk with a lawyer in your state if you

More information

A PROPOSAL FOR A REENTRY/DRUG COURT DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

A PROPOSAL FOR A REENTRY/DRUG COURT DEMONSTRATION PROJECT A PROPOSAL FOR A REENTRY/DRUG COURT DEMONSTRATION PROJECT Nov. 1, 2009 Judge Jeffrey Tauber (ret.) Consultant Reentry Court Solutions jtauber@reentrycourtsolutions CLOSING THE DRUG COURT GAP The reentry

More information

BRYCE A. FETTER ORLANDO JUVENILE CHARGES ATTORNEY

BRYCE A. FETTER ORLANDO JUVENILE CHARGES ATTORNEY BRYCE A. FETTER ORLANDO JUVENILE CHARGES ATTORNEY People make mistakes, especially young people. Juvenile lawyer Bryce Fetter believes children should get a second chance through rehabilitation rather

More information

Juvenile Offenders Crime Victims Rights Law Enforcement Responsibilities

Juvenile Offenders Crime Victims Rights Law Enforcement Responsibilities Juvenile Offenders Crime Victims Rights Law Enforcement Responsibilities Crime Victims Rights when involving a Juvenile Offender are the same as if the offender were an adult in cases of -- felony grade

More information

CORRECTIONS (730 ILCS 166/) Drug Court Treatment Act.

CORRECTIONS (730 ILCS 166/) Drug Court Treatment Act. CORRECTIONS (730 ILCS 166/) Drug Court Treatment Act. (730 ILCS 166/1) Sec. 1. Short title. This Act may be cited as the Drug Court Treatment Act. (730 ILCS 166/5) Sec. 5. Purposes. The General Assembly

More information

DEPARTMENT OF CORRECTIONS

DEPARTMENT OF CORRECTIONS DEPARTMENT OF CORRECTIONS Public Safety/Executive Agency FY14 Headcount: 11,007 http://www2.illinois.gov/idoc/pages/default.aspx Summary of Agency Operations The Department of Corrections (DOC) operates

More information

Re-validation of the Nonviolent Offender Risk Assessment Instrument: Study Update

Re-validation of the Nonviolent Offender Risk Assessment Instrument: Study Update Re-validation of the Nonviolent Offender Risk Assessment Instrument: Study Update Current Instrument 3 Refined Risk Assessment Instrument: Significant Factors in Assessing Risk Relative Degree of Importance

More information

Implications of Criminal Justice System Adaptation for Prison Population Growth and Corrections Policy

Implications of Criminal Justice System Adaptation for Prison Population Growth and Corrections Policy Implications of Criminal Justice System Adaptation for Prison Population Growth and Corrections Policy As has been well documented, the size of correctional populations in the United States, especially,

More information

Published annually by the California Department of Justice California Justice Information Services Division Bureau of Criminal Information and

Published annually by the California Department of Justice California Justice Information Services Division Bureau of Criminal Information and Published annually by the California Department of Justice California Justice Information Services Division Bureau of Criminal Information and Analysis Criminal Justice Statistics Center 2011 Juvenile

More information

I. DIVIDEND VOLUNTEER CRIMINAL BACKGROUND SCREENING GUIDELINES & PROCEDURES. A. Criminal Background Screening Requirements

I. DIVIDEND VOLUNTEER CRIMINAL BACKGROUND SCREENING GUIDELINES & PROCEDURES. A. Criminal Background Screening Requirements I. DIVIDEND VOLUNTEER CRIMINAL BACKGROUND SCREENING GUIDELINES & PROCEDURES A. Criminal Background Screening Requirements 1. General Information (a) F.S. 1012.01 (5) SCHOOL VOLUNTEER. A K-12 school volunteer

More information

Criminal Law. Month Content Skills August. Define the term jurisprudence. Introduction to law. What is law? Explain several reasons for having laws.

Criminal Law. Month Content Skills August. Define the term jurisprudence. Introduction to law. What is law? Explain several reasons for having laws. Criminal Law Month Content Skills August Introduction to law Define the term jurisprudence. What is law? Explain several reasons for having laws. Discuss the relationship between laws and values. Give

More information

HIRE A SPECIALIST ALWAYS FIGHTING FOR THE ACCUSED

HIRE A SPECIALIST ALWAYS FIGHTING FOR THE ACCUSED HIRE A SPECIALIST I am an experienced Board Certified criminal lawyer in Pasco Florida. Less than one percent of attorneys in Florida are Board Certified. Only Board Certified criminal lawyers are permitted

More information

Table. (Click on the table number to go to corresponding table)

Table. (Click on the table number to go to corresponding table) Table Number Table Name (Click on the table number to go to corresponding table) Narrative 04.01 Actual Index Offenses Known to the Police, by County: 1993 to 2007 04.02 Actual Index Offenses Known to

More information

External Advisory Group Meeting June 2, 2015

External Advisory Group Meeting June 2, 2015 External Advisory Group Meeting June 2, 2015 1. There seems to be an extended wait from disposition to sentence where defendants are in jail awaiting the completion of the pre-sentence report. How many

More information

2014 ANNUAL REPORT DISTRICT ATTORNEY WASHINGTON COUNTY

2014 ANNUAL REPORT DISTRICT ATTORNEY WASHINGTON COUNTY 2014 ANNUAL REPORT DISTRICT ATTORNEY WASHINGTON COUNTY 2014 Annual Report presented in April 2015 FUNCTIONS AND RESPONSIBILITIES The primary function of the Office of the District Attorney is to prosecute

More information

Knowledge Brief Are Minority Youths Treated Differently in Juvenile Probation?

Knowledge Brief Are Minority Youths Treated Differently in Juvenile Probation? Knowledge Brief Are Minority Youths Treated Differently in Juvenile Probation? While many studies have examined disproportionate minority contact at the front end of the juvenile justice system, few have

More information

Thirty-six years of Weapon and Serious Violent Offending in Ohio: How Data Can Inform Policy (Final Report)

Thirty-six years of Weapon and Serious Violent Offending in Ohio: How Data Can Inform Policy (Final Report) Thirty-six years of Weapon and Serious Violent Offending in Ohio: How Data Can Inform Policy (Final Report) Deanna L. Wilkinson, Ph.D., Associate Professor The Ohio State University, Department of Human

More information

Crime Rates and Youth Incarceration in Texas and California Compared: Public Safety or Public Waste?

Crime Rates and Youth Incarceration in Texas and California Compared: Public Safety or Public Waste? CENTER ON JUVENILE AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE JUNE 2007 www.cjcj.org Crime Rates and Youth Incarceration in Texas and California Compared: Public Safety or Public Waste? By Mike Males PhD, Christina Stahlkopf

More information

AN ACT. The goals of the alcohol and drug treatment divisions created under this Chapter include the following:

AN ACT. The goals of the alcohol and drug treatment divisions created under this Chapter include the following: ENROLLED Regular Session, 1997 HOUSE BILL NO. 2412 BY REPRESENTATIVE JACK SMITH AN ACT To enact Chapter 33 of Title 13 of the Louisiana Revised Statutes of 1950, comprised of R.S. 13:5301 through 5304,

More information

FACTORS RELATING TO THE SENTENCING OF SEX OFFENDERS

FACTORS RELATING TO THE SENTENCING OF SEX OFFENDERS FACTORS RELATING TO THE SENTENCING OF SEX OFFENDERS March 1, 2006 Prepared by Office of Economic and Demographic Research 111 W. Madison Street, Suite 574 Tallahassee, Florida 32399-6588 The Office of

More information

SUMMARY OF RULES AND STATUTES REGARDING BAIL FOR INDICTABLE OFFENSES

SUMMARY OF RULES AND STATUTES REGARDING BAIL FOR INDICTABLE OFFENSES SUMMARY OF RULES AND STATUTES REGARDING BAIL FOR INDICTABLE OFFENSES Rule or Statute Rule3:3-1. Determination on whether to issue a Summons or Warrant Description The Rule provides that a summons shall

More information

JUVENILES AND THE LAW

JUVENILES AND THE LAW JUVENILES AND THE LAW When Are You a Juvenile and When Are You an Adult? The answer to this question is complicated because, under Missouri law, when you are considered an adult and when you are considered

More information

Mental Illness and the Criminal Justice System. Ashley Rogers, M.A. LPC

Mental Illness and the Criminal Justice System. Ashley Rogers, M.A. LPC Mental Illness and the Criminal Justice System Ashley Rogers, M.A. LPC 1. Dallas County Diversion Program options, components, and interventions 2. Outline of the Dallas County Court System and required

More information

THINKING ABOUT CRIMINAL JUSTICE REFORM By Daniel T. Satterberg

THINKING ABOUT CRIMINAL JUSTICE REFORM By Daniel T. Satterberg K I N G C O U N T Y P R O S E C U T I N G A T T O R N E Y S O F F I C E JUSTICE DANIEL T. SATTERBERG PROSECUTING ATTORNEY COMPASSION PROFESSIONALISM INTEGRITY THINKING ABOUT CRIMINAL JUSTICE REFORM By

More information

Tarrant County College Police Department

Tarrant County College Police Department Tarrant County College Police Department VICTIM ASSISTANCE An Assistance Program for Victims and Family Survivors of Violent Crimes Tarrant County College The Tarrant County College District Police Department

More information

Cuyahoga County Common Pleas Court Local Rules 33.0 ASSIGNMENT AND COMPENSATION OF COUNSEL TO DEFEND

Cuyahoga County Common Pleas Court Local Rules 33.0 ASSIGNMENT AND COMPENSATION OF COUNSEL TO DEFEND 33.0 ASSIGNMENT AND OF COUNSEL TO DEFEND PART I. (A) No attorney will be assigned to defend any indigent person in a criminal case unless his or her name appears on one of the approved trial counsel lists

More information

17-Year-Old Offenders in the Adult Criminal Justice System

17-Year-Old Offenders in the Adult Criminal Justice System Report 08-3 February 2008 A Review 17-Year-Old Offenders in the Adult Criminal Justice System Department of Corrections 2007-2008 Joint Legislative Audit Committee Members Senate Members: Jim Sullivan,

More information

Lifetime Likelihood of Going to State or Federal Prison

Lifetime Likelihood of Going to State or Federal Prison U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report March 1997, NCJ-160092 Lifetime Likelihood of Going to State or Federal Prison By Thomas P. Bonczar and

More information

Using Proposition 47 to Reduce Convictions and Restore Rights (January 2015)

Using Proposition 47 to Reduce Convictions and Restore Rights (January 2015) Using Proposition 47 to Reduce Convictions and Restore Rights (January 2015) A note on reproduction: You are welcome to copy and distribute this material, but please do not charge for the copies. A note

More information

UNDERSTANDING THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM Anne Benson

UNDERSTANDING THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM Anne Benson UNDERSTANDING THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM Anne Benson What is the Criminal Justice System? The criminal justice system is the system we have in the United States for addressing situations where it is believed

More information

District of Columbia Truth-in-Sentencing Commission 950 Pennsylvania Avenue Northwest, Washington, AC. 20530

District of Columbia Truth-in-Sentencing Commission 950 Pennsylvania Avenue Northwest, Washington, AC. 20530 District of Columbia Truth-in-Sentencing Commission 950 Pennsylvania Avenue Northwest, Washington, AC. 20530 The Honorable Linda Cropp The District of Columbia Council 441 Fourth Street, N.W. Washington,

More information

Las Vegas Township Justice Court Specialty Court Programs. Paula Haynes-Green Program Division Administrator greenp@clarkcountynv.

Las Vegas Township Justice Court Specialty Court Programs. Paula Haynes-Green Program Division Administrator greenp@clarkcountynv. Las Vegas Township Justice Court Specialty Court Programs Paula Haynes-Green Program Division Administrator greenp@clarkcountynv.gov What are Specialty Courts? Problem-Solving Courts Designed to break

More information