1 Edwin Lindsay Principal Consultant, Tel: + 44 (0)
2 Corrective and Preventative Action (CAPA) is a system of quality procedures required to eliminate the causes of an existing nonconformity and to prevent recurrence of nonconforming product, processes, and other quality problems.
3 Why Do We Need A CAPA System? Minimise the Risk to components and services. Requirement of quality management system Requirement of EU directive Which the MHRA use to ensure compliance Continuous Improvement Tool
4 Why? Mistakes ARE made by all staff Very simple mistakes can have serious consequences Serious mistakes can harm an organisations reputation In an organisation with many steps in the process, mistakes can occur at any and multiple stages
5 Most Common Deadly Sins Recent events have highlighted the following elements Failure to follow procedures Failure to complete documentation Errors in completion of documentation Failure to take effective corrective action Procedural shortfalls Inadequate training
6 Most Common Deadly Sins Recent events have highlighted the following elements (Cont.) Failure to identify remedial action to contain problem Failure to identify root cause Failure to ensure closure of CAPA within an appropriate timescale
7 Aims of CAPA system Identify potential risk/problems/incidents before they happen Document errors to allow investigation Identify and record all incidents that occur Determine the root cause of the incident Implement action to prevent and/or correct the incident Identify recurring incidents Identify gaps and weaknesses in existing processes and procedures
8 Aims of CAPA system Identify training needs Prevent issue of non-compliant component's Prevent harm to patient or staff Identify failures in Quality Management System. Improve as an Organisation Not to assign blame or assess liability Ensure Effective Preventative Action can be identified to reduce future risks.
9 CAPA System Overview Discover (Identify the Problem) Remedial Action/Immediate Correction Quality Review In Depth Investigate/Determine Cause Correct (Corrective/ Preventative Action) Follow Up (Effectiveness Evaluation) Closure (Track and Trend)
11 Step 1: Discovery Events may be discovered during: Record Review Staff Observation QA Audits External Audits
12 Step 1: Discovery Events may be discovered during: Performing a Task Notification by a hospital, blood transfusion service Note: Document any usual incidents that occurs (fridge door found open) Document any mistake identified (e.g. incorrect blood components sent out) Admit any mistakes (e.g. Forgot to calibrate scales)
13 Audits (Internal and External) Personnel Material and Product/ Components CAPA Process Records, Forms Documents, & Change Controls Testing Controls Equipment & Facility Controls
14 When Should CAPA Report be Raised? Immediately after the incident/issue/problem has occurred memories are fresh evidence is in place immediate corrective actions can be initiated to protect others
15 Who Should Raise an CAPA Report?
16 Document the Problem A description of the problem is written that is concise - but complete. The description must contain enough information so that the specific problem can be easily understood
17 Evidence List the specific information, documents, or data available that demonstrates that the problem does exist. This information will be very important during the investigation into the problem.
18 Examples of Incidents Wrong product code Incorrect expiration date Recalled unit not placed in quarantine Critical or Major audit findings Initials/dates omitted from record Documentation on alarm charts not clear Training documented on wrong form
19 Step 2: Remedial Action/Immediate Correction Action... That is taken to quickly resolve or correct a discovered or potential incident/ problem. Minimises risk or achieve s short tem benefit Ensure what action taken is recorded Corrects the problem Stops the problem until the investigation/root cause analysis is carried out Gains control of the situation, products/components and/or donor information Remedial Action
20 Examples of Remedial Actions Products/Components Recalled and/or Quarantined QA Notified Equipment removed from service Products/Components discarded Donor Deferred
21 When you re in deep SHI T, DONT keep quiet and t ry t o look like you know what you re doing
22 Step 3: Initial Quality Review - Classification of Incident Recurrence Rare Unlikely Possible Likely Almost Certain Insignificant Severity Minor Moderate Major Catastrophic
23 Step 4: Investigation To understand how or why the incident occurred To understand the circumstances at the time of the incident To determine if other products/ components were involved To help determine the root cause and effective corrective action
24 Assign Responsibility and Resources It is important to assign someone the responsibility for each aspect of the investigation. Any additional resources (financial, equipment, etc) should be identified and documented. 24
25 Determine Root Causes! Evaluate: Environment Work conditions, work flow, facility problems Equipment and Materials Are there any problems related to equipment, reagents etc Are instructions for use clear Resources Adequate supervision Staff Trained Methods Do the steps performed match the SOP/form Has the process recently changed
26 Root Cause Analysis Use the data to complete a Root Cause Analysis This involves finding the actual cause of the problem rather than simply dealing with the symptoms. Finding the primary cause is essential for determining appropriate corrective and/or preventive actions. Conclusions should be based upon evidence.
27 Examples of Areas to Investigate Interview staff, drivers, hospital staff Review policies and procedures Review records: training, quality, testing Check equipment records or files Check computer records Determine if other products/ components, equipment, records and/or donors involved.
28 Root Cause Analysis Suitable analytical methodology used to facilitate determination of root cause(s) Timeline of events Brainstorming Fishbone (cause and effect) Five Why s Contributory/Human factors
29 Root Cause Analysis Root Cause Analysis is a methodology that allows you to ask the questions what, how, why in a structured way. Aim is to learn and must be addressed to prevent an incident re-occurring
30 Simple Root Cause Analysis 5w s Who, what, when, where, why? 1C Consequences
31 5W Describe the event Who: Was involved? Note: Staff involvement does not necessarily mean staff responsibility
32 5W Describe the event What : The truth warts and all What was discovered Describe the problem or the event. Include form numbers, donation numbers equipment ID etc How the event was discovered i.e. During an Audit, During a process, procedure, observation..be specific Those involved must feel safe and must feel its worthwhile
33 5W Describe the event When: Did the event occur Specific time of day and shift when the event occurred How Frequently did the event occur QA can assist in determining frequency
34 5W Describe the event Where and Why: Did the event happen? Identify the department where the event occurred Indentify the process involved
35 Root Cause Analysis 5 Why s Advantages Disadvantages Simple to perform No statistical analysis Useful when problems involve people (Human Factors) There may be more than one answer to the question Some of the answers obtained may be incorrect.
36 1C: Describe the Event Consequences: Of findings Did the incident result in loss of products/components Did the incident result in the release of inappropriate products/components Did any donor problems result, such as notification, deferral, or re-entry
37 Reporting the Investigation
38 The Titanic
39 Was it j ust t he iceber g?
40 Titanic Conditions Inadequate number of lifeboats
41 Titanic Conditions No training for officers on handling large single rudder ships
42 Labelling Problems
43 Step 5: Corrective Action Corrective Preventive Eliminate problem identified Takes care of immediate problem Reactive Avoids quality problems through planned activities Take care of the recurrence of the problem To prevent potential incidents/problems Proactive
45 No Corrective Action Required Investigate with immediate correction only Typically no root cause Avoids performing unnecessary documentation, root cause analysis, corrective action, effectiveness evaluation
46 Step 6: Follow Up (Effectiveness Evaluation) Checks or follow-up plans to verify that corrective actions were effective Consider: Follow up step How will you measure it How will you know if the action was implemented How will you know if it was successful in preventing recurrence
47 Follow Up One of the most fundamental steps is completing an evaluation of the actions that were taken. This evaluation must not only verify the successful completion of the identified tasks, but also assess the appropriateness and effectiveness of the actions taken.
48 Key Questions Have all of the objectives been met? (Did the actions correct or prevent the problem with assurances that the same situation will not happen again?) Have all recommended changes been completed and verified? Has training and appropriate communications been implemented to assure that all relevant employees understand the situation and the changes that have been made? Has an investigation demonstrated that that the actions taken have not had any additional adverse effect on the product or service?
49 Validation of Results A validation/verification of the action is done. This must document that: The root cause of the problem has been solved, Any resulting secondary situations have been corrected, Proper controls have been established to prevent a future occurrence, The actions taken had no other adverse effects. Adequate monitoring of the situation is in place.
50 Step 7: Closure (QA) When the Follow Up has been finished, the Incident can be reviewed by Quality for Completeness Review should ensure that the incident is not MHRA reportable? Mandatory reporting to MHRA will include blood bank testing errors, storage and distribution errors and Incorrect Blood Components Transfused. Tracking and Trending
51 Tracking and Trending Leads to Preventative Action Areas which can be recorded and analysed: Where Departmental Area What Problem Why Cause
52 Summary of Process Identify the Problem Immediate/remedial action performed to contain problem Initial quality review (to determine severity of the incident) Investigate incident root cause analysis Determine the risk to quality, safety and efficacy of blood components or services provided Conduct Corrective Action/ Preventative Action (CAPA) Review effectiveness of action taken Quality review and closure of incident file Tracking and trending of all incidents recorded
53 Common incidents reported Labelling errors eg label missing, torn or in wrong place ID errors Errors / missing documentation eg documents not filled out correctly, overwriting of mistakes
54 In Conclusion We must stop blaming people and start looking at our systems. We must look at how we do things that cause errors and keep us from discovering them..before they cause further injury Lucian Leape Error in Medicine JAMA 1994 : This must be a never-ending process.
55 In Summary PROBLEM Non Conformance Deviation Customer Complaints Component Recall INVESTIGATION Gain Data ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS (RCA) Identify Problem(s) Find Root Cause CORRECTIVE ACTION PREVENTIVE ACTION (CAPA) Action Eliminate Problems
56 Change Control A formal system to evaluate, document, approve and implement changes that might affect the validated status of facilities, equipment and processes. A change is a permanent planned alteration to any approved process or procedure that may affect the safety, quality and efficacy of blood components.
57 Why is Change Control required? Change Control, as a key element of any Quality Management System, is a regulatory requirement required and is inspected by the MHRA/CPA/HTA Minimises risk to an organisation
58 What Happens if Change isn t Managed and Recent Criticisms
59 What happens if change isn t managed Increased risk to patients/ Crisis management Change takes longer to introduce and not done in a coordinated way Change not implemented fully or correctly Incomplete training Increased stress for staff Non Compliance
60 Criticisms of the Current Process Change controls forms absent, late and/or inadequate Staff unaware of changes Change controls have no specified owner and are often not followed up completely Changes not introduced in a coordinated way Necessary actions are missed and then are rushed through No formal tracking of completion or timelines Equipment specification/validation etc incomplete, absent or late
62 Software upgrades which affect GMP processes/systems Changes affecting GMP systems that require qualification/validation Temporary planned deviations from currently approved procedures Changes to facilities including repairs to GMP areas.
63 Documentation Required Formal Change Request. Assessment of the impact of the change / Risk Analysis Approval to implement change. Details of implementation Change reference number / Date change raised Full details of the proposed change Reasons for the proposed change maintained.
64 Documentation Required Policy in place defining process to be followed when making a change. Proposed Changes reviewed and approved prior to implementation. Formal assessment of the impact of the change, including the effects on validated processes. Record of changes maintained.
65 Should be a controlled document that: Defines the types of changes that need to be managed by Change Control Defines the process to be followed for different types of Changes Identifies personnel that will manage the Change Defines time frames for the Change process to be completed Provides details of the documentation required
66 Change Management Process IDENTIFY THE NEED FOR CHANGE IMPACT ASSESSMENT IMPLEMENT CHANGE APPROVE CHANGE ASSESS CHANGE (FOLLOW UP)
67 Assessment of the Impact of the Change Things to consider:- Gap analysis. Effect on other Departments. Process flow. Personal training. SOPs.
68 Assessment of the Impact of the Change Product (Components) Process Plant People Procedures
69 When is a Change not a Change? Like - for - Like Change This particularly applies to changes (replacements) made in premises, equipment and automated systems. It is important that: Replacement is manufactured to the same specifications as the original (dimension, materials, strength etc) Replacement complies with in-house engineering Replacement is listed as an equivalent part in the original design / user manual Changes made to SOPs (managed through document control procedure) Changes implemented during validation / qualification
70 When is a Change not a Change? Changes with suppliers and/or contractors These can be managed via the Service Level Agreements and confirmed/verified using the audit programme Unplanned Changes Deviations from processes and procedures should be managed through the Quality Incident/Non-conformance system
71 What happens if change isn t managed? Crisis management Change not done in a co-ordinated way Change not implemented fully or correctly Incomplete training Increased stress for staff Increased risk to patients
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